5“Climate change is one of the most complex, multifaceted and serious threats the world faces. The response to this threat is fundamentally linked to pressing concerns of sustainable development and global fairness; of economy, poverty reduction and society; and of the world we want to hand down to our children.” - UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon
6Innovate to save the planet Necessity is the mother of invention. An inventor knows no gender.What everyone wants are solutions which are not only good for the planet, but also good for business and good for development. Technological innovation is seen as the best hope of delivering this state.
7Technological solutions are needed for the challenges of both mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation is about slowing down global warming by reducing the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the many mitigation technologies already on – or nearing – the market are renewable energy sources, such as, biofuels, biomass, wind, solar and hydro power; low carbon building materials; and emerging technologies which aim to capture carbon out of the atmosphere and lock it away.Adaptation involves dealing with the existing or anticipated effects of climate change, particularly in the developing, least developed and small island countries, which are most severely affected. In addition to “soft” technologies, such as, crop rotation, hard technologies for adaptation include improved irrigation techniques to cope with drought, and new plant varieties which are resistant to drought or to salt water.
8Gender-sensitive technologies to support climate change adapatation and mitigation
9Outline What is technology? Why do we need technology? How do we develop and transfer technology?What are the issues in technology development and transfer?What is technology development and transfer? What are the legal framework?What Africa has and knowWhat are the challenges for now and beyond?
10What comes to mindwhen you hear the word“technology”?
11Technologyrefers to the process by which humans modify nature, products, process, etc. to meet their needs and wants
16Evaluating the Role of Biofuels in Sustainable Rural Development CSD-17 LEARNING CENTRE COURSEFriday, May 8, 2009, 10:00am to 1:00pm Conference Room C, United Nations HeadquartersEvaluating the Role of Biofuels inSustainable Rural DevelopmentIntroduction to the CourseGail Karlsson, Senior Policy Advisor to ENERGIA, the International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy, editor of The Role of Biofuels in Rural Development and Empowerment of Women, and a member of IUCN’s Commission on Environmental LawOverview on the Potential of Biofuels for Economic and Social DevelopmentProfessor Richard Ottinger, Dean Emeritus of the Pace University School of Law and Chair of the Energy and Climate Specialists Group within IUCN’s Commission on Environmental Law, and author of Biofuels – Potential, Problems & Solutions.”Course Instructors:Barbara Bramble, Chair of the Board of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels, and Senior Program Advisor for International Affairs of the National Wildlife FederationStephen Gitonga, United Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Development Policy, Environment and Energy Group, Sustainable Energy Programme, Energy Policy Specialist.Sabina Anokye Mensah, Gender and Development Coordinator, GRATIS Foundation, Ghana, contributing author to ENERGIA’s publication The Role of Biofuels in Rural Development and Empowerment of WomenCoordinated by:Professor Ottinger, tel: , andGail Karlsson, tel: ,International Union for the International Network on Gender andConservation of Nature Sustainable Energy
17Technology is a product of engineering and science, the study of the natural world 2 partsbody of knowledge accumulated over timeprocess-scientific inquiry that generates knowledge (K of design & creation of human-made products & process for solving problems)
18TechnologyObjects, i.e., tools, machines, instruments, weapons, appliances or the physical as devise for performanceKnowledge or know-how used in technological innovationActivities or what people doProcess that begins with needs and ends in solutionSocio-technical system or manufacture and use of objects
20Technology is never gender-neutral In many developing countries, girls’ and women’s access to information and communication technology is constrained by:Social and cultural biasInadequate technological infrastructure in rural areasWomen’s lower education levels and fear of or lack of interest in technology Women’s lack of disposable income to purchase technology services
21Technology Development and Transfer : What do we know? Investments in clean, energy-efficient technologies are growing fast, including new financial products and marketsSubstantial financing gap for the required scale-up of clean, energy-efficient technologies for both mitigation and adaptation are availablePrivate sector incentives are being reinforcedAfrica has great potential for all of the renewable energy technologies in recent years: wind, solar, biofuelsCarbon markets (including CDM) can play important role but Africa is yet to see the benefitsIndigenous adaptation technologies already exist in Africa and need to be documented, scaled-up and diffused
22Areas of focus for technological intervention Technology needs and needs assessmentTechnology informationEnabling environments for technology transferCapacity building for technology transferMechanisms for technology transferFinancing
27Name of respondent : Salvacion Calimlim Particulate Matter USEPA PCIA & University of Berkeley,Aprovecho, ARECOP, ENERGIA,UNDP REP-PoR, CIDA-AIT SEA UEMA,WBDM 2007Name of respondent : Salvacion CalimlimParticulate MatterBefore After Percent reduction Mar May mg/m3 or mg/m3 or %600 ug/m ug/m3Carbon MonoxideBefore After Percent reductionMay May2.66 ppm pm %
28Group work (15 minutes) Group 1 For technology intervention What are your reasonsGroup 2Against technology interventionWhat are your reasons?Group 3For innovation
29Key issues to considerWhat technology development and transfer issues are key challenges for African countries? How do we integrate gender dimensions in TDT?What key issues Africa should focus on?What key sectors Africa needs to focus on in TDT?What can AMCEN and other regional institutions do to support actions by African Countries on gender-responsive TDT?Do you think Africa requires a regional technology action plan for mitigation and adaptation? Why? How will you go about this plan? What will be the mechanism, esp. in gender considerations?How quickly can Africa move to low carbon emission economies? How will gender be integrated in the initiative?What policy approach is needed in Africa to accelerate gender-responsive technology development and transfer for mitigation and adaptation?
30What level of investments are required for sustainable technology development and transfer within Africa?How will Africa address the issue of intellectual property rights?What form of international R&D sharing and co-operation should take place?What should be the role and ultimate scope of carbon markets and CDM in TDT?What incentive mechanisms should be in place to stimulate private sector participation in TDT in Africa?What institutional arrangements should be put in place both at the national, sub-regional & international level to facilitate and enhance TDT?
31Agenda 21: Chapter 34 Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology, Cooperation and Capacity-building34.1 Environmentally sound technologies protect the environment, are less polluting, use all resources in a more sustainable manner, recycle more of their wastes and products, and handle residual wastes in a more acceptable manner than the technologies for which they were substitutes.34.2 ESTs …”process and product technologies”…. “end of the pipe technologies”
32The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol have paid attention to the need for development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries,For the purposes of enabling these countries to achieve advancement in their development whilst limiting their greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
33The Article 4.1 (c) of the UNFCCC commits all Parties to the Convention to promote and cooperate in the development, application and diffusion, including transfer of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in all relevant sectors, including the energy transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors.
34Article 4.5 commits the developed country Parties and other developed Parties in Annex II to the Convention to “take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties to enable them implement the provisions of the Convention….”
35Article 4.7 states that “the extent to which developing countries under the Convention will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources (Article 3.1) and transfer of technology (Article 4.5) and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties”.
36The Article 3.14 of the KP on commitments, acknowledges the need to minimize the adverse impacts of climate change on developing countries and notes among the “issues to be considered shall be the establishment of funding, insurance and technology transfer”.Article 10.6(b) of KP recognises that adaptation technologies would improve adaptation to climate change.
37Article 10.6 (c) of KP commits Parties to “cooperate in the promotion of effective modalities for the development, application and diffusion of, and take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance practices and processes pertinent to climate change, in particular to developing countries including the formulation of policies and programmes for the effective transfer of environmentally sound technologies that are publicly owned or in the public domain and the creation of enabling environment for the private sector, to promote and enhance the transfer of access to, environmentally sound technologies.
38Furthermore, Article 11.1 (b) of the KP commits developed countries Parties and other developed Parties in Annex II to the Convention to “provide financial resources, including the transfer of technology, needed by developing countries to meet the agreed full incremental costs of advancing the implementation of existing commitments under Article 4.1 of the Convention
39The design of Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol i. e The design of Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol i.e. Clean Development Mechanism should also lead to the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.According to the World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change, ... a two-degree Celsius warming above pre-industrial levels could permanently reduce Africa's annual per capita consumption by four to five per cent....The report calls on industrialised countries, which have released most of the greenhouse gases, to lead the way in charting a new low-carbon economic path. In addition, the report calls for financial support to enable developing countries adapt to climate change and lay the foundation for low-carbon economies.
40Several decisions have been made since the adoption of the UNFCCC and later the KP In Marrakech, 2001 the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) was established and with a 5-year mandateEGTT was placed under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) to provide advice and recommendations to SBSTAThe Special Climate Change Fund was also agreed upon – but with limited funds
41The EGTTOver the years (since 2001) EGTT has produced very good technical papersBut has not lived to the expectations of developing countries in terms of actual technology development and transfer to developing countries. Because the EGTT under the SBSTA has failed to addresses the followingThe setting up of specific technology goalsDevelopment of indicators and accounting systems to track progress on technology transfer?Unable to undertake implementation actions under SBSTA because of the limitations of the SBSAT itself.In 2006 in Nairobi, developing countries did not see the need to renew the mandate of the EGTT
42In Bali in 2007 an agreement was reached to renew the mandate of the EGTT Now the EGTT reports both to the SBSTA and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI).The difference here is that Parties now recognize that implementation of the UNFCCC and the KP commitments on technology development and transfer has not been met and that there is the need to urgently address DTT implementation under SBI.As a consequence the COP by its decision 4/CP.13 called the GEF to elaborate on a strategic programme to scale up investment in technology development and transfer.
43TDT and the Bali Action Plan (BAP) Decision 1/CP.13 - the BAP rightly recognizes again that development and transfer of technologies to developing countries as one of the means to support implementation of actions on mitigation and adaptation to climate change.TDT is one of the four major building blocks to be discussed and agreed upon in Copenhagen.
44Achievements after Bali Following from Bali (4/CP.13), the GEF has now elaborated a strategic programme aimed at scaling up development and transfer of technologies – the Poznan Strategic ProgrammeGEF has already issued a call for proposals (CFP) for pilot technology development and transfer projects – CFP closes in August 2009
45Key issues under the Bali Action Plan on TDT Effectiveness of tools & mechanisms for technology co-operationRemoval of barriers to promoting technology transfer including:FinancingIntellectual property rightsTariffs and non-tariffsCapacity buildingWays to accelerate deployment, diffusion and transfer of technologiesCo-operation on research and development
46What should Africa look for under the BAP? Call for the creation of an international framework agreement for technology development and transfer or new mechanism that addresses both mitigation and adaptation, in order to boost the effectiveness in innovation and investment required around the world to address climate change.
47TDT mechanism of framework agreement should: Be informed by the shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention and the urgent need for adaptation to the impacts of climate changeInclude an incentive package to scale up technology development and transfer to developing country Parties in order to promote access to affordable environmentally sound technologies through creation of additional value and crediting for participation in technology development, deployment, diffusion and transfer for greenhouse emissions reduction and enhanced resilience to impacts of climate change
48Incorporate an institutional mechanism and tools for supporting, supervising, monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of agreed actions on technology development and transfer;Provide for a compliance and enforcement regime for development and transfer of technologies linked to quantified emissions reduction and limitation commitments and increased resilience of communities and ecosystems to the impact of climate changeSupport capacity building and capacity development in developing countries for technology development, adoption, deployment, diffusion and transfer including, inter alia, support for national systems of innovation
49Ensure improved access to new and additional, adequate, predictable, appropriate, equitable and sustainable public-sector financial resources and investments to support mitigation and adaptation and technology development and transfer and technology cooperationPromote substantial private-sector participation, finance and investments in technologies for mitigation and adaptationEnsure protection of intellectual property rights that guarantees access to and use of technologies by avoiding over-protectionism
50Ensure access to technology information, including in particular the costs and performance of technologiesProvide for international programme for joint or collaborative research, demonstration and early stage deployment of technologiesProvide guidance on national/domestic government policies needed to, notably creating a higher level of long-term policy certainty(a) over future demands for low carbon technologies, upon which the private sector including the industry’s decision makers can rely, and(b) for private financing of technologies for adaptation.
51Pay specific attention to the technology needs of (a) major emerging and big economies, (b) emerging but small developing economies, and (c) least developed countries, and (d) small island developing states; among developing countriesPromote and finance south-south cooperationSupport mechanism for early action on sector specific technology innovation, development, demonstration, massive deployment and transfer.
52Technology Development and Transfer Aspects of the Shared Vision A medium to long-term vision for the entire technology cycle from innovation through to application and transfer be guided and driven by medium to long-term global goal based on:Level of emission reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of the ConventionQuantum of technology development, deployment and diffusion requiredUrgent need for adapting to the impacts of climate changeLevel of finance and investment requiredExtent of sectoral coverage, andLevel of participation by all technology development and transfer actors
53Incentive Package for Added Value and Crediting In order to promote access to and use of affordable environmentally sound technologies there is the need to create additional value and crediting for participation in technology development, deployment, diffusion and transfer. International mechanism could be put in place to assess and include an incentive package to scale up the development and transfer of technology to developing country Parties.The international mechanism could lead to rewards/credits for participation in development and transfer climate friendly technologies through a link with Parties commitment in terms of quantified emission limitation and reduction obligations.Promoting and providing direct incentives for technology programmes such as supporting international technology cooperative development networks, national policies/actions, certify credits for special and priority technology programmes, and managing long-term regulatory risk.
54New Mechanisms for a TDT – Institutional and Financial The new mechanisms to operate under the authority and guidance of the COP and be accountable to it. It shall aim to achieve:Accessibility, affordability, appropriateness and adaptability of technologies required by developing countries for enhanced action on mitigation and adaptation;Provision of full costs and full incremental costs, as per Article 4.3 of the Convention;Adequacy and predictability of funds for technology transfer;Removal of barriers for technology development and transfer
55Institutional Mechanism – Executive Body comprising and be supported by: Strategic Planning Committee to: develop strategy; provide regular guidance; assess and elaborate technology-related matters; continuously evaluate progress; and develop updates for the Technology Action Plan,Technical Panels to generate and compile current expert information related to: capacity building; policies and measures; intellectual property cooperation; sectoral, cross-sectoral, and cross cutting cooperation; assessment, monitoring and compliance; and other necessary topics.Verification Group to verify the financial and technological contributions made to the mechanism in accordance with the overall “measurable, reportable, verifiable” requirement of Decision 1/CP.13.Secretariat to support and facilitate the activities of the Executive Body.
56Technology Action Plan The Technology Action Plan should define specific policies, actions, and funding requirements for all relevant technologies under the following classifications:Public domain technologiesPatented technologies.Future technologies.The Action Plan should support the establishment of national and regional technology centers of excellence and should reinforce north-south, south-south and triangular cooperation, including joint research and development.
57What do you think should Africa do to prepare a joint action plan for TDT Action plan for Technology development, deployment, diffusion and transfer for mitigation and adaptation in AfricaLegislative instrumentsInstitutional ArrangementsCapacity development dimensionsDevelopment of a master plan, including partnership/collaboration platforms, private sector engagement and monitoring and evaluation schemesFunding mechanisms
58Support mechanism for policy formulation including international negotiations Development of technical papers by experts within sub-region, e.g. Africa Technical Expert Panel on TDTAssist member countries to develop the necessary “pull” mechanisms or enabling environment (starting with NAPA)Support harmonization of regional TDT policy frameworksSupport and develop regional positions on TDT
59Enhancing women’s leadership and gender equality In many poor communities in developing countries, there are more women-headed households with inherent leadership skills- awareness-raising campaigns on sustainable development and CC mitigation and adaptation- enabling women with leadership skills to identify, manage sustainable development projects using indigenous, ecologically-friendly technologies with high potential for carbon marketElected women in local and national government- establish mechanism to train these elected women in knowledge management related to sustainable development projects and CC mitigation to intelligibly influence policy formulation and reforms
60Addressing the needs of poor women and men Since they comprise large portion of the population, even low carbon technologies create impactsExample: 1 improved cookstove reduces 1 ton of carbon a year used by 2M poor women and men in the kitchen; up-scaling successful pilot projects; biogas and methane projects among millions of poor householdsImprovement of low carbon technologies for poor women and men - capability-building activitiesExample: women tend to contribute less to GHG emissions (agriculture) but CC has severe impacts on women’s socio-economic activities
61Addressing the needs of poor women and men (cont.) - training them on how to conduct baseline and methodologies in analyzing potential amount of emission reductionsExample: existing bioenergy systems, use of biomass as cooking fuel- CC policies focus on mitigation, such as, renewable energy must offer alternative waysExample: government policy prohibiting open field-burning of agricultural wastes (Clean Air Act) implemented hand-in-hand with energy-efficient and ecologically-friendly technologies that converts agricultural wastes into compost or energy-efficient charcoal briquette or clean cooking energy
62Among those funds, mechanisms and technologies on CC mitigation and adaptation What portion of the Civil Society are aware of the existing mitigation finance and ESTs?What portion of the funds have been accessed by Civil Society, esp. poor women and men? How do they avail of the funds?What roles did women and men play in the planning, implementation and sustainability of development projects?What were the gains and pains of women and men? Social-cultural, economic, technological, environmental?What have women and men contributed to the success/failure of the development projects?How much is the projects’ share in the carbon market?
63Technological solutions to climate change will be very different if more women were in leadership and decision-making positions.
64Thank You for our active participation in the discussion