Presentation on theme: "Feasibility study on China‘s mercury-free catalyst R&D"— Presentation transcript:
1Feasibility study on China‘s mercury-free catalyst R&D Dr Sun YangzhaoFECO/ MEP/ChinaOctober, 2011
2ContentPVC industry developments and mercury management status in ChinaProject background and progressMercury pollution control policiesDifficulties and challengesNext steps
31.PVC production and mercury management in China PVC plastic is widely used in industry, agriculture, national defense and chemical construction materials, etc in China.Chinese PVC production can be divided in two categories: carbide method and ethylene method.For the carbide route, CaC2 is used as raw material, and activated carbon with HgCl 2 serves as catalyst for the production of VCM which will be further used to make PVC.Table 1: PVC Data for China 2009 (Source MIIT, 2010)Type of Production# ofFacilitiesPVC production(million tonnes)% of total productionCarbide-based945.863.4Ethylene103.3536.6Total1049.15
4Mercury in carbide based process Currently for one ton PVC produced in China:1.2 kg of HgCl 2 catalyst consumed on average (as 11% of HgCl 2 content).For 5.8 million tons of PVC produced in 2009, around 7000 tons of mercury catalyst used, comprising:770 tons of HgCl 2 and 570 tons of mercury were used (MIIT, 2010)Carbide-based PVC production consumes around 60％ of China’s total annual mercury use.
6Catalyst Effectiveness Sublimation and intoxication causes reduction of catalyst effectiveness.When it decreases to certain level, catalyst need to be replaced and inactivated catalyst becomes worn catalyst.Usually waste catalyst contains 3-4.5% mercury.After Hg remover, part of the sublimated HgCl2 will enter the worn acid and alkali and get emitted.
7Necessity of carbide process Carbide PVC production uses lots of mercury, but it remains necessary：Chinese energy structure characterized as "lack oil, poor in gas and rich in coal"Ethylene method can hardly meet the need of PVC industry aloneCarbide PVC industry pays high attention to mercury pollution administration.
8Emission reduction measures for carbide PVC production The industry has adopted the following measures to reduce mercury use and emissions:low mercury subsititute for high mercury one；activated carbon in mercury remover to absorb mercury in gas phase；waste acid recycled by desorption device, a few of which are used to neutralize worn alkali；waste alkali used to neutralize waste acid, and collected together with other waste liquid for central treatment;waste catalyst, activated carbon and other waste sludge are sent to certified orgnization for central treatment.
102. Project background and progress UNEP has provided funds for China to carry out PVC project through small grants program. The project is now on its second phase.Phase I “Communication and Deliberation of the Practice of Mercury Use and Emission Reduction during PVC production” agreement was signed in January of 2009.Phase II “Feasibility study on China‘s mercury-free catalyst R&D ” agreement was signed in April of 2011.
11Target and Research Results of Phase I Phase 1 - Overall Target：To reduce mercury use in Chinese PVC industryDuration：From Jan to Sep. 2009Activities and results：Organization of “Workshop on Mercury Reduction in Carbide PVC Production”Investigation and study on mercury use and reduction status in Chinese PVC production by acetyleneAnalysis of administrative and policy needs mercury use in this industry.
12Target and Progress of Phase II Phase 2 Overall Target - To promote mercury free catalyst development and use in VCM production.Implementation duration：April 2011-December 2011Main activities：Organization of “Project workshop on Mercury free catalyst development feasibility”;Develop a feasibility study report on mercury-free catalyst research and development, including identification of near-term and long-term activities.
13Project workshop on Mercury free catalyst development feasibility, 19-20 September 2011 Approximately 40 participants from Chinese government and industry, representatives from the international communityAgenda：International mercury convention negotiation processChina PVC industry updateUpdates of mercury-free catalyst R&D home and abroadOutcomes:Exchange of ideas on demands for and challenges to develop mercury-free catalyst technology.Expert team proposed draft criteria for a peer review process.
14Wide-spread use of low Hg catalyst timetarget201250% use of low Hg catalyst per VCM production25% less use of HgCl per ton of PVC at averagewhole industry realizes sound collection of worn Hg catalystindustrialization of efficient collection technology of VC composing gas phase50% use of HCl deep desorption technology2015whole industry uses low Hg catalyst50% less use of HgCl per ton of PVC at average100% recycling of worn low Hg catalystHigh efficient Hg recycling technology penetration rate of 50%over 90% penetration rate of HCl deep desorption technology100% use of NaHS treatment for Hg bearing wast waterBy adoption of low Hg catalyst, mercury removal and centralized treatment of waste, producers are able to meet the national emission limit requirements.
15Mercury free catalyst R&D progress Currently, carbide PVC producers are working with research institutes on following research:to carry out acetylene VCM fluidized bed technology, i.e. mercury-free catalyst, supportive process, reactor.catalytic system of hydrogen chloride of acetylene to produce VCM; R&D of gas-liquid mercury-free catalyst.enterprise-based mercury-free catalyst R&D and engineering pilot platform is taking initial shape.
163. Relevant industry mercury pollution control policy 2007 – Industry restructuring directory list (2007) specifies HgCl2 catalyst under restricted category.Encourages oxychlorination of ethylene to replace carbide method；For new, modified or expanded PVC installation must reach the scale of over 300,000 tons a year.2009 – MEP released clean production standards for chloralkali industry (carbide PVC), which specifies technological requirements to produce VCM in a clean manner.April 2011 – 12th Five Year Plan for Comprehensive prevention and control of heavy metal pollution was approved and promulgated by the State Council (applies to lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium and arsenic).
17Clean Production Auditing Standard 2009 MEP Clean Production Standards forChloralkali Industry (carbide PVC)IndicatorClass 1Class 2Class 3I. process and equipment requirement1. For HCl desorption deviceuse HCl deep desorption technoogyuse HCl regular desorption technology2. For mercury catalystuse low Hg and waste acid water treatment technologyuse low Hg catalyst technology3.VC mercury recycling requirementsVC mercury recycling treatmentII. resource and energy use indicatorsHg catalyst consumption per unit of product(kg/t）22.214.171.124III. Pollutant generation indicator (before end treatment)waste water generation per unit of product123540THg per unit waste water(g/t)126.96.36.199Clean Production Auditing Standard
18Notification requires： Notification on Enhancing Hg Pollution Prevention and Control in Carbide PVC industry.Issued by MEP - JanuaryPurpose was to enhance pollution prevention and control management framework in carbide PVC production, Hg catalyst production and treatment of worn catalyst.Notification requires：Increased awareness of the importance of pollution control in carbide PVC productionPromotion of low Hg catalyst and effective reduction of Hg emissionsTighter environmental management and strengthened monitoring measuresStrengthened policy support and supportive measuresIncreased role of industry association in education and training.
19Hg bearing waste management Hg and Hg compound bearing waste or polluted waste are already listed into State Hazardous Waste ListMEP is formulating Hg bearing pollutant prevention and control technical policy, which includes worn Hg catalyst.
20Difficulties and Challenges Ahead (1）Legislation and Enforcementinadequate force in industry restructuring as well as in promoting and applying new reduction technology and new materialadministrative weakness in mercury and HgCl2 catalyst production and supplyproduction operation needs to be standardized.(2) Capacitybasic situation and understanding is not clearlack of monitoring/surveillance of mercury discharge.
21Difficulties and Challenges Ahead （3）TechnologyApplication of low-mercury technology needs to be further improved and researchedNeed of alternative techology:mercury-free catalyst is still under research and developmenteconomic and other effects of application need to be taken into consideration before wide-scale adoption.HCl desorption is only partly applied among enterprises.
22Difficulties and Challenges Ahead （4）Financinginvolves a wide range and large number of enterprisesmost enterprises are small-scale with limited profit marginsalternative technologies are highly specialized and expensive.As a developing country, China is facing huge shortage of labor-power, material and financial power.
23Next steps for Carbide based PVC Production Phase1 (Jan 2010~Jan 2012)Activity 1：Raise understanding of mercury pollution risks amongst local environmental protection bodies and industry.Activity 2：Develop emission inventory.Activity 3：Study the evaluation and application standards of low-mercury and non-mercury catalyst.Activity 4：Set up reduction plan and targets across PVC industry.Phase 2（Jan. 2012~Dec.2013Activity 5: Research mercury alternative technology and pilot application, apply mercury reduction measures and standardize administration.Activity 6: Initiate assessment and operation guidance for above.
24ConclusionAlthough the Chinese central government has paid a lot of attention to mercury pollution prevention and control in the VCM sector, it is still facing a lot of difficulties and uncertainties with spreading information on the low-mercury catalyst and the researching & development of free-mercury catalyst.We hope for more support, including finance and technologies from developed countries!
25Acknowledge Special thanks extended to the following: Chemicals Branch, DTIE of UNEPDepartment of International Cooperation, MEPDepartment of Pollution Prevention and Control, MEPChemical Registration Center, MEPChina Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association