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TATIONpRÆSEN 2 July 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY Evaluating and managing risks posed by pesticides Environmental and.

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Presentation on theme: "TATIONpRÆSEN 2 July 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY Evaluating and managing risks posed by pesticides Environmental and."— Presentation transcript:

1 TATIONpRÆSEN 2 July 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY Evaluating and managing risks posed by pesticides Environmental and other factors Hans Løkke

2 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 2 Outline Experiences from the Sahel region PRéLISS Mango IPM The DPSIR model Drivers Pressures States Impacts Responses (management) Information strategies Conclusions

3 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 3 Experiences from the Sahel region - PRéLISS Work performed within the PRéLISS project on susstainable grasshopper regulation in Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal Most pesticides are used in national arial spraying programmes conducted by Plant Directorates The extent of local ground based spraying is small Programme Régional de Lutte intégrée contre les Sauteriaux au Sahel

4 TATIONpRÆSEN 2 July 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY PRéLISS.org Implementation of a decision support system for the control of the Senegalese grasshopper: IPM – pesticides yes/no - or - metarhizium

5 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 5 Oedaleus senegalensis

6 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 6 Migration

7 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 7 PRéLISS II Implementation of a decision support system on the control of the Senegalese grasshopper at the Regional Centre AGRHYMET in Niger and the Plant Protection Institutes in Niger, Senegal, Burkina Faso and Mali Systematise the grasshopper data sampling programmes that are already carried out by the Plant Protection Institutes - the input data required by the model Implement a rapid electronic system to transfer sampling data and output from the decision support system Education and capacity building of personnel at AGRHYMET and the Plant Protection Institutes Dissemination of knowledge on grasshopper ecology and grasshopper control achieved during PRéLISS I and PRéLISS II

8 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 8 Modelisation There are three models in the decision support system: 1. SahelEco – a complicated ecosystem model (without GIS) 2. A more simple model based on the model of Launois, A strong spatial model, resolution 1 km 2. Input data from satellite images The three models have almost the same user interface User interface GIS Grasshopper data Model 1Model 2 Model 3

9 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 9 Sampling of grasshopper data Aim: to have input data for the models of the decision support system to have data for validation purposes modify the sampling programs at the Plant Protection Institutes to provide the data required by the decision support system Egg pod sampling Sweep netting

10 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 10 Weaver ants as biocontrol agents in fruit trees Have been used in citrus in Southeast Asia for centuries IPM with weaver ants in mango in Australia A native species in Africa Prey on almost all insects

11 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 11 The main problem is fruit flies Causes enourmous losses all over tropical Africa

12 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 12 Initial results Very promising results from Benin – 90% reduction in pupae from mangos from ant trees Weaker but positive results from pilot experiments in Senegal

13 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 13 Learnings from Sahel Local spraying of cotton is a major problem – young people/children used for spraying Pesticide containers are used for drinking water and food storage Need for better local organisation: Knowledge transfer from extension services to non-educated farmers is difficult Limiting factors: Water, fertilisers, quality seeds, quality pesticides Extension services need resources (vehicles, fuel) Need for control of pesticide quality, and for bringing illegal products and banned pesticides to light

14 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 14 Which international risk assessment tools are available from Europe? New EU pesticides legislation – comprehensive regulation dealing with almost all topics from production to licensing of pesticides Not covering cocktail effects, combinations of pesticides and other stressors The principle of Integrated Pest Management is laid down, i.e. the promotion of non-chemical pest control methods such as crop rotation, to be used wherever possible as alternatives to pesticides

15 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 15 Aerial crop spraying will in general be banned Special protection of the aquatic environment and drinking water (" buffer zones " or " safeguard zones ) Minimum use of pesticides in parks, public gardens, sports and recreation grounds, school grounds and playgrounds and in the close vicinity of healthcare facilities. Training of pesticide users and salespeople, on handling and storage Awareness-raising and inspection of pesticides application equipment.

16 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 16 US risk assessment tools United States of America: EPA Regulates the use of pesticides under the authority of two federal statutes: the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) – comprehensive regulations dealing with almost all topics from production to licensing of pesticides

17 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 17 DPSIR model D riving forces P ressures S tates I mpacts R esponses European Environment Agency (EEA)

18 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 18 DPSIR model As a first step, data and information on all the different elements in the DPSIR chain is collected. Then possible connections between these different aspects are postulated. Through the use of the DPSIR modelling framework, it is possible to gauge the effectiveness of responses put into place

19 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 19

20 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 20 Drivers Social and economic factors Growth and size of human population Technological change Economic growth Political and social institutions Culture Knowledge and information exchange Agricultural area by crops (cereal, oil crops, forage, woodlands) Agricultural intensity Area and use of grasslands Irrigation of agricultural land Climate change (temperature, humidity)

21 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 21 Pressures Pesticide use Total agricultural land Harvesting pressure Livestock Use of fertilisers Introduced species and genomes

22 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 22 States Soil fertility Special habitat remaining Ecosystem quality Number of wild species Number of keystone species Erosion

23 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 23 Impact Worker exposure Toxic waste/obsolete pesticides Home and personal use Drinking water and food Environmental impact husbandry wildlife biodiversity ……

24 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 24 Impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity Reduced abundancy of birds and mammal species Impact on pollinators Reduced soil biodiversity Impact on plant species composition and abundance Loss of specialised, threatened plant species, mosses and epilithic lichens Loss of natural enemies of pests Loss of molluscs, crustacean species and fishes Fragmentation of landscape

25 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 25 Responses Ban of most toxic pesticides Warning systems and decision support systems Crop-rotation regime determines the levels of diseases, weeds and pests Information strategies for presenting know-how and guidance on plant protection and risks to the environment Alternative methods of controlling and preventing pests Training in organisation and sharing of knowledge

26 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 26 Information strategies Human health risks (direct contact, food residue intake, risks to livestock) Safe pesticide storage and application Handling of pesticides in connection with the filling and cleaning of sprays Environmental risks Soil and water pollution Indoor applications

27 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27 Advanced information strategies Appraisal of the relationships between yield losses, time of spraying and residual concentrations in foodstuffs Preventive strategies through crop choice and technical factors, including the influence of fertilisation level on pests Population dynamics of pests in different cultivation systems/farms

28 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 28 Alternative methods of controlling and preventing pests Resistent varieties Biological control/pest control Mechanical weed control Measures to avoid seed-born diseases GMO crops

29 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 29 Warning systems and decision support systems For predicting situations in which significant attacks could develop, which should averted by spraying; Decision support systems, which incorporate prevention and chemical control for special crops

30 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 30 Main conclusions Prerequisites for success of management: Organisation skill Sharing of knowledge

31 UNEP - Pesticides Hans Løkke 2 July, 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 31 Conclusions on information strategy Elucidate methods that are considered to show special potential on a local scale Ensure political and economic support to the methods Introduce preventive and non-chemical methods of control Substitute with less toxic compounds Implement information strategy and document efficiency by monitoring

32 TATIONpRÆSEN 2 July 2009 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY Thank you for your attention Thanks to the PRéLISS team (preliss.org)


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