Presentation on theme: "UNEP OzonAction Webinar on Challenges for the phase-out of HCFC in the air conditioner sector 17 th October 2012 Sukumar Devotta Member, RTOC and World."— Presentation transcript:
UNEP OzonAction Webinar on Challenges for the phase-out of HCFC in the air conditioner sector 17 th October 2012 Sukumar Devotta Member, RTOC and World Bank New OORG India firstname.lastname@example.org Current Status of Room Air-Conditioners with New Alternative Refrigerants
Small Self Contained (SSC) Air-Conditioners Products Configuration of SSC Air-Conditioners Packaged Terminal AC Window ACPortable AC
Non-ducted Split Air-conditioners Non-ducted Split A/C Condensing-out door unit One or more indoor units Capacity – about 7 kW Charge quantity- 0.25- 0.30 kg/ kW
Ducted Split Air-conditioners Ducted Split A/C Condensing -out door unit Air distribution system for multi- rooms with ducts and outlet and inlet grills Capacity – 5 kW to 17.5 kW HCFC-22 - Refrigerant prior to 2000 Charge quantity- 0.30-0.35 kg/kW Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems with Scroll compressors; cooling capacity 10 kW to 130 kW have been introduced
HCFC-22 - Preferred Refrigerant for Packaged ACs HCFC-22 is a single component refrigerant ODP=0.055; GWP=1810 Moderately high pressure with lower and compact compressor size With a critical temperature of 96.1 o C, suitable even for high ambient conditions Miscible with mineral oils Compatible with commonly used materials Almost all ACs and heat pumps manufactured prior to 2000 used HCFC- 22. Most A5 countries are still predominantly using HCFC-22. Several major producing A5 countries, within Asia, Middle East and South America, are now initiating actions to introduce HCFC-22 alternatives.
Product CategoryUnits Manufactured 2004 Units Manufactured 1999 Increase 2004 vs 1999 Window-mounted and Through-the Wall (Packaged Terminal) Air Conditioners 15.2 million12.9 million18% Non-ducted or Duct-free Split Residential and Commercial Air Conditioners 39.2 million19.6 million100% Ducted, Split Residential Air conditioners 6.9 million6.0 million15.0% Total61.3 million38.5 million57% Global Growth of Residential ACs
Product CategoryEstimated Population Operating Units (2004)* Estimated HCFC-22 Bank (metric-Tonnes) Window-mounted and Through-the Wall (Packaged Terminal) ACs 115 million81000 Non-ducted or Duct-free Split Residential and Commercial ACs 259 million305000 Ducted, Split Residential Acs and Heat Pumps 83 million273000 Total457 million659000 Estimated Population of Residential ACs & HCFC-22 Banks In 2012, with about 75% the installed base of ACs using HCFC-22, it represents about 1.5 million Tonnes of HCFC-22 bank. In 2012, the global HFC (mainly R-410A) demand represents approximately 20% of the total refrigerant demand.
Alternatives to HCFCs- Desirable Characteristics Alternatives to HCFCs VOC Flamm -ability? Low Toxicity Low Cost Zero ODP Low GWP Similar or better Performance There is no ideal Refrigerants – Always some compromise
Alternatives to HCFC-22 for ACs Natural Fluids HFCs (R-410A & HFC-32) Zero ODP R-410A - High GWP HFC-32 – Low GWP? Low GWP Blends - Cost and Timeline (uncertain) HC-290 & Blends Zero ODP Negligible GWP Better energy efficiency Flammability Emerging Standards? HCFC-22 Montreal Protocol ODP GWP CO2/NH3 Zero ODP Negligible GWP Matl Compatibility, Technology, Efficiency,
HCFC-22 Alternatives Refrigerant T b )T c LFL (kg/m3) ODPGWP HCFC-22-4196-0.0551780 R-410A-5272-02000 HFC-134a-26101-01430 R-407C-4386-01800 HC-290-42970.03803 R-744-7831-01 HC-1270-48920.04003 HFC-1234yf-29950.29304 HFC-161-381020.076012 HFC-32-52780.3060675
HCFC Phase out Management Plan (HPMP) - Recommendations to MLF HPMPs should also address climate change by using alternatives with lower GWP taking into account energy efficiencies, equipment, and climate circumstances. Conversion policy would consider discouraging the use of HCFC alternatives with high GWP. Strategic activities be identified between now and the establishment of the baseline (at the end of 2010). These might include, demonstration projects with no or very low GWP technology and effective energy conservation measures. The choice of technologies should also ensure that environmentally-safe substitutes and related technologies are transferred to Article 5 countries under fair and most favourable conditions.
Alternatives (HFC Blends) to HCFC-22 R-407C (HFC-32/125/134a) : Retrofit candidate with HFCs; Lower energy efficiency and capacity, Lubricant change; Material compatibility; Was used in developed countries for early phase out of HCFC-22 but is decreasing. R-410A (HFC-32/125): For new systems (OEMs); Significant design changes (New compressor, HXs, Lubricant, Capillary etc.). Only HFC blend extensively used in many countries, including some A5 countries. China mainly exports R-410A products. R-417A (HFC-125/ HFC-134a/ HC-600): Retrofit candidate with HFCs; Material compatibility; Similar capacity; Not seriously considered in developed countries; R-422A, B & D (HFC-123/HFC-134a/ HC-600a): Retrofit candidate with HFCs; Material compatibility; Fall in capacity; Not seriously considered in developed countries; R-433A (HC-290/HC-1270): Retrofit candidate, Fall in capacity about 5% than HCFC-22, 5-8% more energy efficiency than HCFC-22, Safety considerations, Not seriously considered in developed countries.
Alternatives (Pure Fluids) to HCFC-22 HC-290: Retrofit possible with similar or slightly lower capacity; New systems have much higher efficiency. Safety considerations; Already in commercial use in many countries including India; HFC-161: Low GWP HFC fluid with excellent performance characteristics. Official safety classification is not yet established. There is some interest in China. Thermal stability at high ambient may be an issue? HFC-32: Considered as a moderate GWP (675) alternative to HCFC-22. It is not a drop-in substitute. Some adaptations are also necessary due to its flammability. The efficiency is comparable or better than R-410A units. There are plans to manufacture HFC-32 units including A-5 countries. HFC-134a: Extensive redesign with substantial cost increase would be required to match HCFC-22 system. No OEM interest. HFC-152a: Low GWP but mildly flammable; Extensive redesign with substantial cost increase would be required to match HCFC-22 system. No OEM interest.
India HC-290 AC Project Split and Window type (China is only for split type) Optimization of the model: Reduction of refrigerant charge Optimization of capillary length Enlargement of condenser area but reduction of tube diameter Energy efficient compressor Performance improved significantly, with COP > 3.7
HC ACs for Exports – Godrejs Stand Godrej is open to the sale of HC-290 ACs in the neighbouring countries, under UNEP coordination. Ozone officers in countries have to confirm whether their country regulations allow these units to be sold, installed and operated. Favourable incentives could be provided to promote this green technology. Proper training of service technicians is an important requirement. This may be done with the assistance of UNEP and/or other implementing agencies. These units are currently slightly costlier than HCFC-22 units (may be less than R-410A models) in the same energy star band, because there is a considerable import content such as compressors and refrigerant. In India, they offer free installation for HC-290 ACs, to ensure that ACs are installed by Godrej trained technicians, the cost of which is bundled with the unit price.
Daikin, METI - Japan and US EPA are promoting HFC-32 Most of the results are on prototype units and open market is yet to be available. Performance is reported to be better than R-410A models. Daikin has offered free access to its Basic Patent Essential to Manufacture and Sale of Air Conditioners Using HFC32 for most developing countries. US, Japan and Korean industries position and market are not yet clear. Some Chinese manufactures may also use HFC-32. There is no interest from local manufacturers from India. However, Daikin is reported to start manufacturing HFC-32 units in India Indonesia plans to use HFC-32 with the support of Japanese METI, Panasonic and Daikin. Kuwait is reported to be doing a joint evaluation for HFC-32 performance under high ambient temperature condition with Daikin. Daikin claims that there are more requests and plans from some A5 countries HFC-32 - Global Trends
Global availability of HCFC-22 substitutes Virtually all alternative refrigerants (r-410A, HFC-32, HCs)are available The important F-chemicals are HFC-32, HFC-125 and HFC- 134a and their blends With limited production capacity, availability of some of the emerging alternatives to HCFC-22 worldwide is doubtful Prices may differ considerably depending on the volume and logistics HFC-blends may normally have patented composition, which may have some implications on global use
Summary of Refrigerant Options and Challenges HFC blend mainly R-410A is the most likely near-term refrigerants; this technology is well proven but requires significant design changes. R-410A Residential ACs with comparable energy efficiency are commercially available including some Article 5 countries As there is some proposal to consider phase-down of HFCs under Montreal Protocol, there is more interest on low GWP refrigerants HC refrigerants are applied in low charge residential Air-conditioning and are in commercial use in many countries including India. China is yet to use HC AC in the local market as the local standards are yet to be revised but is exporting HC ACs. HFC-32 is still under evaluation and yet to be commercially available. It will be soon manufactured in some A5 countries, including Indonesia and India. HFC-1234yf /ze and their mixtures are under evaluation. There is not much open domain information on cost, performance and reliability. Use of HFC zeotropic blends will have some challenges for recovery and recycling.