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The Africa Context Africa is the world's second largest continent spread. 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area on the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Africa Context Africa is the world's second largest continent spread. 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area on the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Africa Context Africa is the world's second largest continent spread. 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area on the surface of the Earth. In terms of population as well, Africa have more than 900 million people inhabiting the continent - 14% of the world's total population. There are a total of 46 countries on the continental mainland and the number climbs up to 53 if we include all the island groups as well. The Africa continent - are home to diverse cultural and geographic features. A continent that is most susceptible to the influence and detrimental effects of Global Climate Change. Represented countries at the meeting here and/or those reported are about 15 of the 53. A Summary Report, WMO REGION1 AFRICA (For the UNEP/WMO 7ORM Meeting 18-21May2008, Geneva)

2 Compliance issues of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments Many African countries are serious in addressing the compliance of the Protocol and many are before the scheduled phasing-out of Ozone Depletion Substances (ODSs). In general all countries, except for a handful of the leading developing countries, are the less manufacturers, exporters and emission venting culprits of the world. The verification of atmospheric monitoring and research activities thus remains lacking far behind these aforementioned compliance drivers, for they are the more resource demanding and inhibiting factors that most countries are faced with. A Summary Report, WMO REGION1 AFRICA (For the UNEP/WMO 7ORM Meeting 18-21May2008, Geneva)

3 In the true sense expansive regional networks is really non-existing except in regions where major First World Countries are very active collaborating. Some of these main activities are found in northern and western Africa regions (French Western Africa) and to a lesser extent in eastern and southern Africa. Some of the major developed world collaboration is from European countries such as, France, Norway, Switzerland, Czech Republic and few others. And then from USA. One can sense that the three Global GAW Stations is a major impetus and focal point on the continent, and although not each country need such a Global station, a few more could prove to be further stimulant to enhance the magnitude on regional scale activities. The three WMO GAW global stations are Tamanrasset - Algeria, Cape Point - South Africa and Mt Kenya, Kenya. Undoubtedly, by far the most African countries are dependant on their established National Meteorological Services (NMHS) with one or two local universities collaborating on very limited scales. It should also be noted that NMHS traditionally are orientated in rendering national services of Weather forecasting and the provision of basic climate information and the atmospheric components of research and monitoring is a specialization not easy to be afford. Notably the observations are ground-based instrumentation with one or two aircraft platforms available for monitoring and research purposes. The ground based platforms are also the most basic platforms with UV radiation monitoring receiving some wide spread attention. Africa involvement in global issues such as those of the Artic and Antarctic is really not evident. It is only detectible in the one or two countries on the continent that have direct territorial/political interest in these regions. Africa Priorities are limited to the African Continent – There is no room for using resources for diverse involvement in spite the global importance of the Pole Regions also for Africa. The Africa involvement ranges from a few countries involved in elaborated programs, but many others seemingly has a complete lack of any involvement. The countries on the forefront are also those who really have very strong collaboration partners and investors from either the European Community or USA. Ozone and related monitoring and observation network/activities

4 Through WMO/UNEP initiatives and NHMS awareness campaigns do benefit local awareness. Primitive/basic and sophisticated in-country activities are depicted on various websites. Furthermore, outreach to rural communities does occur. So indeed 16th September – World Ozone Day – day for the protection of the Ozone Layer has succeeded in its aim, and these activities should be maintained and even encourage further. Very limited research efforts are undertaken. Mostly limited to one or two in-country research professors with only one or two students. This emphasizes the limited projects in the areas of monitoring/data collections/analyzing and degree/dissertations write ups, which ultimately e spell the end of a short and sometimes expensive collaborative project. The real–sustained long term measurements do not benefit from these efforts. Resources in this manner is utilized some time at great value for limited periods, as instruments fall into disuse and are discarded thereafter. Ozone and related modeling and process studies is non– existing. However during some large scale sub-continent Research projects such as SAFARI 2000 many field experiments has been conducted with very profound results of data collection and research finding beings published. Africa Research Efforts

5 –Fact: Major and large ground-based observation gaps exist over Africa. A critical shortage of regional centers does exist. The model of Global GAW station connecting to a vast regional network may prove to be a new model to approach for enhancing country participating. Keeping in mind not each country need to have or maintain a Global station. –In-country expertise for instrument maintenance and instrument operation is in need of further support. In this sense NMHS (technical divisions) can play a greater role for facilitating local endeavors. –Many collaboration is based on short term collaboration research projects (secondary university degree studies), but once this is completed the instruments are packed away and efforts are not sustained. Universities should collaborate more and more with Operational institutions such as the countries NMHS, disasters management structures including early warning infrastructures and environmental protection agencies. –Sustained collaboration for expertise in the capacity building of laboratories – even small broadband instruments could be very useful, -hand held ozone meters, etc could contribute to sustained monitoring efforts. Collaboration in major initiatives do not allow mostly for instrumentation/operational investments, such as the European Framework 7 Program. There is a very limited African participation in these programs, as the Need to bring own resources to participate is in most cases extremely difficult. –It is reported that many countries are also involved in air- quality monitoring activities in cities. These efforts also will need integration into the wider atmosphere monitoring scientific communities. Potentially this can be seen as a viable mechanism to enhance in-country capacity – thus building on Air Quality monitoring infrastructure and such new initiatives. Africa – Gaps and Recommendations Part 1

6 Africa – Gaps and Recommendations Part two –More resources for African workshops. Instrument calibrations as it is are extremely expensive for countries to participate with their own resources. –Major ozone symposiums and workshop are held in the developed work and especially the northern hemispheres. – E.G 8ORM can be held at the Ozone Secretariat in Nairobi 2011. Perhaps we shall see more African and Asian participants to be able to attend. More international support for attendance of workshops and international symposiums, but also with some ongoing research project coupled to this is needed for sustained efforts over longer periods. –A real need for expert visits to Africa to maintain the scientific interest. This also includes technical expertise to assist with the few operating networks and instruments. The most expensive instrument could be rendered out-of-order due to a fuse not being able to be replaced or power supply difficulties. A global or regional slush fund for this could be created for identified countries and their instrumentation and operating networks. –Trust fund is inadequate and we need to convince /leverage the UNFCCC/GEF Multilateral Clean Development Mechanisms CDM type of funding levels. CDM type of funding for the expansion of ozone monitoring and research: - for various reasons. –Can we not convince the Space Agencies of the World to invest more in Ground-based monitoring efforts… after all for satellite validation and ground truthing efforts; this is the data they also desperately need. Funding could be drawn Satellite observation programs. Those Satellite programs operate with enormous budgets of the Developed World / Government funding and thus the tax payers monies. – This statement might be not true as the funding for these allocations are just not visible to the ground –based monitoring communities. –Ozonesonde soundings (vertical profiling) occur only in three locations on the Africa continent. (The estimate cost is about 1 000US$ per single sounding that excluding the initial ground based tracking systems as a once off investment). –Caution – More Dobsons for Africa. Keep in mind…for the long term sustainment (20-30 years etc) great cost for future calibrations etc. needs to be taken into account as well. As Africa may get more ground based instruments, one must not create a too heavy burden on countries to sustain these themselves. From Dobson experience this is a real effort to maintain operational and requires special and continuous observer and technical training to remain within that particular country. – Modernization for Africa in the future could be another major issues in years to come. –UV monitoring - only with some few broadband instrumentation and this is basically not useful for any trend assessments of UV exposure. –Thus some countries have data- short term and even with many data gaps, but the owners of such data should be encourage further to publish and submit information the many international newsletters in our scientific communities, to publications such as SPARC, WCRP, MeteoNews, IGBP, IGAC,SOLAS etc. –More regional GAWTEC/WMO, Germany initiatives could be very helpful if it could be directed towards an Africa –GAWTEC. WMO Regional Training Centers for Africa and other regions could place more emphasis and dedication towards atmospheric monitoring and research training sessions. - Traditional these centers focuses on Weather Forecasting, Climate variability, Numerical Weather Prediction, and other more popular related topics traditionally linked to a Meteorological Service.Recommendations

7 Africa – Gaps and Recommendations Part Three –Can we not convince the Space Agencies of the World to invest more in Ground-based monitoring efforts… after all for satellite validation and ground truthing efforts; this is the data they also desperately need. Funding could be drawn Satellite observation programs. Those Satellite programs operate with enormous budgets of the Developed World / Government funding and thus the tax payers monies. – This statement might be not true as the funding for these allocations are just not visible to the ground –based monitoring communities. –Ozonesonde soundings (vertical profiling) occur only in three locations on the Africa continent. (The estimate cost is about 1 000US$ per single sounding that excluding the initial ground based tracking systems as a once off investment). –Caution – More Dobsons for Africa. Keep in mind…for the long term sustainment (20-30 years etc) great cost for future calibrations etc. needs to be taken into account as well. As Africa may get more ground based instruments, one must not create a too heavy burden on countries to sustain these themselves. From Dobson experience this is a real effort to maintain operational and requires special and continuous observer and technical training to remain within that particular country. – Modernization for Africa in the future could be another major issues in years to come. –UV monitoring - only with some few broadband instrumentation and this is basically not useful for any trend assessments of UV exposure. –Thus some countries have data- short term and even with many data gaps, but the owners of such data should be encourage further to publish and submit information the many international newsletters in our scientific communities, to publications such as SPARC, WCRP, MeteoNews, IGBP, IGAC,SOLAS etc. –More regional GAWTEC/WMO, Germany initiatives could be very helpful if it could be directed towards an Africa –GAWTEC. WMO Regional Training Centers for Africa and other regions could place more emphasis and dedication towards atmospheric monitoring and research training sessions. - Traditional these centers focuses on Weather Forecasting, Climate variability, Numerical Weather Prediction, and other more popular related topics traditionally linked to a Meteorological Service.Recommendations

8 Some reports that was available from countries. Egypt – Very Active Algeria – Very Active Madagascar -French (Focus on Protocol compliance - ozone research and Monitoring not existing) Ethiopia – Verbal communications (a submitted a report concerning ODS and Emissions Inventories. Botswana – Very Limited. Compliance and the Maun Dobson Station. Tanzania – Reasonable activities, Focus on meteorology and UV – Mt Kilimanjaro Kenya – active with Swiss support. Limited activities Nigeria – limited activities. Compliance issues a focus Togo - No instruments no research. Some GAW expectations. Station Kauma-Konda, but no progress Morocco, Casablanca – What happened to Your Dobson – 69-1989? Brewer Mark II and Mark III -and Dobson Problems. Uganda – no monitoring and research activities. - Kampala City needs Surface ozone measurements. Discussions with Zambia, Ghana and Sudan representatives at this meeting also reveal the same limitations of activities on Ozone monitoring and relevant research issues. The ODP phase out and emissions compliance are the priorities linked also to Climate Change impact and adaptation priorities. Comoros – Some activities and compliance protocol Issues. South Africa – Very active, However no real tangible monitoring and research efforts in Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Angola, etc. France – Involvement in La reunion and other western African Regions. SAOZ measurements perhaps the most concentrated research efforts through FRANCE. Benin – in French support Some reports that was available from countries.

9 The END


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