Presentation on theme: "Accounting Faculty in U.S. Colleges and Universities: Status and Trends, 1993 – 2004 by David W. Leslie* *Chancellor Professor of Education, The College."— Presentation transcript:
Accounting Faculty in U.S. Colleges and Universities: Status and Trends, 1993 – 2004 by David W. Leslie* *Chancellor Professor of Education, The College of William and Mary, Fellow, TIAA-CREF Institute
Data source = 1993 and 2004 iterations of the National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty (conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics). Weights approx. 20,000 responses to known population parameters, covers many elements of faculty characteristics, work, attitudes. Response rates have been high – e.g., 80-85%. On-line data analysis system limits use of small cell sizes; cannot crosstabulate with too many variables in play (e.g., highest degree and gender and discipline and age could not be jointly specified in a field as small as accounting.) See appendix of full report for more detail on NSOPF.
Principal findings: Number of accounting faculty declined 13% while number of accounting students increased 12%. Most of this decline occurred in 4-year, non-doctoral universities (the regional, comprehensives). A steep decline also occurred in numbers of accounting faculty under the age of 41. (And among men; number of women stayed the same.) About 500 accounting faculty will retire annually in the foreseeable future. Accounting produces about 150 new Ph.D.s a year, half of whom are foreign nationals. Scarcity of replacement faculty and market forces appear to be driving salary inversion, so that accounting faculty under the age of 45 are paid at higher average salaries that those over 45. Workload (work-week, student credit-hours taught, and research) all show steady increases among faculty at research and doctoral universities.
Table 5: Number of full-and part-time accounting faculty, by type of institution, 1993 - 2004.1993FT2004FT1993PT2004PT Research/Doctoral285330722163851 4-Yr. Non-Doct.4572316927143555 2-Year2274228746013911 Total9699852894788317
Table 6: Numbers (and % change) of male and female accounting faculty by tenure status, 1993 - 2004. Male 93 Male 04 %ChangeFemal e93 Female 04 %Change Tenured or on- track 60684361-0.28Tenured or on track 200022530.13 Not eligible78386600-0.16Not eligible 38153628-0.05 Overall1390 5 1096 1 -0.21Overall581558810.01
Table 7a: Income of all accounting faculty with Ph.D. or 1st professional degree, under/over age 45, 1993 (Inflated) – 2004 Basic salary from institution Total income from the institution Total income of respondent from all sources N Age in 1993 45 and under44,744.2548,584.4471,418.582500 46 and over65,751.4873,323.7599,172.304200 Age in 2004 45 and under92,731.80101,061.90125,370.801500 46 and over73,982.6081,149.6098,144.604400
Conclusions (1) The estimated number of accounting faculty (all institutions, all ranks) declined 13.3% between 1993 and 2004, while estimated undergraduate enrollment grew over 12%. Business fields other than accounting have added substantial numbers of faculty during the same period. The aggregate number of students per faculty member in accounting has increased from 20.5:1 to over 28:1. The decline in numbers of faculty has been principally among males; the number of women accounting faculty has not increased in any significant way, although they are an increasing proportion of all accounting faculty (as the number of males has declined). The mean age of accounting faculty is increasing.
Conclusions (2) The number of individuals within ten years of normal retirement (age 55 and over) increased between 1999 and 2004, while the number of accounting faculty under the age of 40 declined during the same period. Ph.D. production has remained relatively steady at roughly 140 per year (with annual fluctuations) over the past 10 years. Demand for replacement faculty in accounting is estimated at roughly 500 per year for the next 5 – 10 years, while available supply of new Ph.D.s is estimated to be about 140 per year (half of whom are foreign nationals). On the whole, accounting faculty appear satisfied with their jobs, and their workload. They are probably less fully satisfied with their pay. (Note, though, that satisfaction levels remained essentially constant from 1993 to 2004, notwithstanding substantial increases in both pay and workload.) Workload and productivity have both increased substantially for faculty at research and doctoral institutions.