Presentation on theme: "Maturation Effect of Student Interns: A Comparison to Professional Values Brian Patrick Green University of Michigan-Dearborn Roland Madison John Carroll."— Presentation transcript:
Maturation Effect of Student Interns: A Comparison to Professional Values Brian Patrick Green University of Michigan-Dearborn Roland Madison John Carroll University Michael Callahan University of Michigan-Dearborn
Introduction Faculty comment on the differences in values those with and without an internship. Bring more to the classroom, link classroom to practice, & significant maturation process. Firms perceive students with internship experience better entry level accountants. Critical to obtaining position is the interview. Few data driven studies on change in student values. Internships maturation effect on values important to employers.
Purpose Measure the effects of a formal internship program on students reported value traits employers view as important during the interview process. Pre-Post survey design Fall 06, Winter 07, and Summer 07 Compare student trait values to employers Measure changes in student values over time
Prior Research-General 1952, the American Accounting Association practical experience …would enhance the overall value of the educational experience. 1978 AICPA reinforced support for internship Lang (1979), Paperman (1979), DeFilippis (1982), and Chandra and Paperman (1983) identified advantages for employers & students 1990 AECC: internships may be part of the solution to the added costs to meet the 150-hour requirement.
Prior Research-Specific Pasewark et al. (1989) Significant positive impact on the probability of students receiving an office interview for accounting firms. Green and Calderon (2005) reported movement in student perceptions and values towards benchmark employer responses. OUR STUDY…. Does the internship experience help students understand factors important to secure an off-campus office visit and an entry-level position? Does the internship experience help students understand the traits, skills, and attitudes that are most desirable to employers?
Research Questions Are student values of interview traits different than employers? Are there student maturation effects due to the formal internship experience? Are student trait values for a first interview different than values for a second interview? Are employer trait values for a first interview different than values for a second interview? Are there differences in reported trait values between students with and without prior professional experience?
Research Data Four categories trait values identified by employers and prior research Personality, technical/business, interpersonal, and background traits. Student values of specific traits and identify potential internship maturation effect.
Research Method Developing the survey Personality (6), technical/business (6), interpersonal (11), and background (11) Pre-Post design
Sample Business school internship students before and after their initial internship experience. Mid-western, regional, non-residential university 9,000 students (1,100 in the business school). Fall 06, winter 07, and summer 07 semesters Pre-internship 105 student responses Post-internship 58 student responses 21 employers Students were highly encouraged, but not required Only demographic significant difference: Senior/Junior –2 nd semester juniors now seniors
Demographics Panel A: Pre-Internship Students n = 105 Male: 53 Female: 52 Mean Age: 22.72Mean GPA: 3.393 Year in School: Seniors 46 Juniors 52 Other 7 Major: Accounting 37 Finance 23 Marketing 24 Other 22 Degree: BBA 94 MBA 5 MS 5 Other 1 Mean Work Experience: Professional 2.60 Non-professional 5.15 Panel B: Post-Internship Students n = 58* Male: 24 Female: 34Mean Age: 22.71Mean GPA: 3.385 Year in School: Seniors 52 Juniors 6 Other 0 ** Major: Accounting 20 Finance 17 Marketing 14 Other 8 Degree: BBA 58 MBA 0 MS 0 Other 0 Mean Work Experience: Professional 2.35 Non-professional 5.48 * Most graduating seniors did not complete a post internship survey. **Note: Many students advanced from second semester juniors to first semester seniors. Panel C: Employers n = 21 Male: 13 Female: 8Involvement: Interviewer 17 Supervisor 13 Other 1* Mean Work Experience: Professional 15.14 Major: Accounting 14 Other 7 Highest Degree: BBA 11 MBA 10 MS 1 Industry: Public Accounting 10 Financial 3 Manufacturing 5 Other 3 * Ten employers listed 2 positions of involvement.
Trait/Value Categories 1 st & 2 nd interview students placed less value on each trait than employers. Student and employer order ranking of their relative values, nearly identical 2 nd post-students significantly less value on personality traits 1st students significantly less value on technical skills than employers Pre-students significant increase value of interpersonal skills 1st to 2 nd interview. Employers valued background skills significantly 2 nd Post-students valued background skills significantly less than pre-students SUMMARY: Student most value personality & interpersonal such as being personable, & least value technical & background such as GPA Likable person more important than core knowledge and skills learned in the business school.
1st Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Pre to 2 nd Interview Post to 2 nd Interview Student Pre to Post Personality 1.4761.7241.3330.40990.29270.196 0.03030.4884 Technical 2.8003.2412.333 0.07630.01504E-090.04770.1514 Interpersonal 1.7042.2411.524 0.34370.05710.0420.35510.1413 Background 2.6192.8622.190 0.04790.03860.1710.74520.4005 2nd Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Employer 1 st to 2nd Student Pre to Post Personality 1.5522.0691.4760.68620.16660.08290.1223 Technical 2.1052.6552.0950.96700.07260.13490.1018 Interpersonal 1.5811.9291.4290.34880.30600.16230.1346 Background 2.7522.9312.0950.00250.55690.70490.0084 * 1 = extremely important, 4 = neutral, and 7 = extremely unimportant Significant at p-value <.10.05.01.001 Trait/Value Categories
All personality traits extremely important to important. Positive attitude most important during the 1st Strong work ethic next most important Charismatic personality valued least Pre-students vibrant and charismatic personality significantly more important for 2 nd Employer rate positive attitude & strong work ethic significantly more important than post students Greatest significant difference between students and employers is a strong work ethic Post see 0.142 mean difference in value between a bubbly personality & strength work ethic Personality Traits/Values
1st Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Pre to 2 nd Interview Post to 2 nd Interview Student Pre to Post Vibrant personality 2.0382.2412.2380.35520.9930.0550.3060.543 Charismatic personality 2.0572.3792.2860.34260.8100.0660.1840.358 You are personable 1.7051.9661.7620.79890.5400.4410.4150.442 You like people 1.7902.3452.0000.35090.3360.2070.1830.114 Positive attitude 1.4101.8281.2380.19610.0940.8540.7690.264 Strong work ethic 1.4292.0361.3330.45160.0720.7470.2120.135 2nd Interview Means P-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Employer 1 st to 2 nd Student Pre to Post Vibrant personality 1.8942.0712.0000.6190.8500.2040.590 Charismatic personality 1.9242.1072.2380.2310.7420.8250.599 You are personable 1.6481.8931.6670.9730.5170.5760.491 You like people 1.7142.1071.5710.3520.1240.0350.276 Positive attitude 1.4001.8211.1900.0920.0650.7480.258 Strong work ethic 1.4101.9291.1430.0340.0290.2140.188 Personality Traits/Values
Technical Business Traits/Values Employers value technical skills (1.190) and work experience (1.143) extremely important, during1st Post students value 4/6 traits significantly < employers –decision making (p >.01 level), core competencies (p >.01 level), other skills (p >.001 level), experience (p >.001 level). Employers rate problem solving, dealing with ambiguity, & decision making extremely important, 2nd pre and post somewhat important. Employer importance means increased significantly, for all six business traits in 2 nd Pre (p >.001) & post (p>.05), except for core competencies and work experience, technical business trait significantly more importance during 2nd Students may feel that competencies and experience examined through resume and transcripts, yet employers rate high value
1st Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Pre to 2 nd Interview Post to 2 nd Interview Student Pre to Post Solve problems 2.1332.6552.0000.5640.0701E-050.0170.102 Deal with ambiguity 2.4482.7592.2380.6340.1815E-060.0170.311 Decision making process 2.3052.6901.6670.3540.0099E-050.0630.260 Core competencies 2.2382.6551.5710.5400.0030.0581.0000.196 Other technical skills 2.5103.1721.1900.2151.7E -091E-040.0500.013 Work experience in business area 2.2882.7931.1430.1612.2E -050.5860.2700.118 2nd Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre-StudentPost-StudentEmployerPre to EmployerPost to Employer Employer 1 st to 2nd Student Pre to Post Solve problems 1.7242.2141.6190.5730.1160.0420.182 Deal with ambiguity 1.9142.3571.7620.4200.1000.0020.198 Decision making process 1.8572.2861.7140.4530.1450.0290.256 Core competencies (major area) 2.0482.6791.9520.5800.0710.0090.102 Other technical skills 2.1242.6792.1900.8490.1910.0010.128 Work experience in business area 2.2292.5002.1500.6220.3410.0020.478 Technical Business Traits/Values
Interpersonal Skills Traits/Values Consistent with the aggregate values No significance across most comparisons Employers rated potential to learn as 2 nd skill, in 1 st (1.429) & 2 nd (1.190) interview. –Pre significantly lower at 1.810 and 1.705 –Post values were 2.241 and 2.000 Employers rated listening well (1.143) most important skill under all categories –Pre & post significantly value less during 2 nd interview. Employers & Pre 9/11 traits significantly increase 1 st to 2 nd interview. 2 nd interview students place less importance on speaking & listening, critical skills in the overall interview process.
1st Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Pre to 2 nd Interview Post to 2 nd Interview Student Pre to Post Professionalism 1.5521.9311.3330.2100.1050.0090.4240.287 You listen well 1.5431.8621.2860.1240.1220.4010.9850.390 Oral communication 1.6761.8621.7620.7230.7850.0390.7450.619 Written communication 2.3522.6902.3330.8910.3674E-040.0070.354 Self motivated 1.8952.3101.8100.5530.1700.0120.6400.275 Work with older 2.0572.9313.0950.0100.7470.0160.8760.044 Be decisiveness 2.3142.6902.6670.2490.9517E-050.1650.305 Effective leader 2.0762.4142.5240.1660.7729E-040.0050.375 Potential to learn 1.8102.2411.4290.0190.0320.1870.1180.324 Adapt to corporate life 2.2572.3102.3330.9920.9570.0280.2640.956 Manage time 1.9332.0691.8570.4910.5450.0020.5410.878 Interpersonal Skills Traits/Values
2nd Interview Means P-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Employer 1 st to 2 nd Student Pre to Post Professionalism 1.4001.8571.2380.2930.0990.3290.222 You listen well 1.5901.8211.1430.0030.0570.1860.527 Oral communication 1.5621.8571.5000.6780.3000.0100.405 Written communication 1.9622.2861.7620.2380.1370.0240.376 Self motivated 1.7052.2141.5710.3980.0780.0560.175 Work with older 2.3202.8932.7140.2780.7100.0880.188 Be decisiveness 1.9902.3932.3330.2740.8680.0900.241 Effective leader 1.8002.0712.1430.2200.8500.0080.548 Potential to learn 1.7052.0001.1900.0020.0260.0210.532 Adapt to corporate life 2.0192.1071.8570.3670.5340.0960.973 Manage time 1.6672.2141.3810.0540.0310.0140.227
Background & Other Traits/Values Lowest value traits 1 st & 2 nd by all groups. –background used as interview screens Employers see GPA significantly more important 1 st interview (2.571 to 2.905) Anecdotally extra-curricular activities extremely important to employer, yet data reports somewhat important to neutral (3.190). Employers extremely important 1 st & 2 nd interview (1.667/1.381) why you want the internship? (well this is a CPA firm…)
1st Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre- Student Post- Student EmployerPre to Employer Post to Employer Pre to 2 nd Interview Post to 2 nd Interview Student Pre to Post Why you want internship 1.7052.2761.6670.8730.1190.0840.5990.123 General work experience 2.2002.5172.1430.7630.2670.2010.5230.327 Job related life experiences 2.2102.8972.2380.9250.0740.9990.3260.042 Why chose University 2.8863.3103.2380.2900.8530.3090.2820.149 Why chose major 2.2762.7242.7140.1580.9790.0100.6700.143 Made up for past failures 2.2952.8972.4290.7190.2570.3570.0200.111 Understanding of the company 2.1052.9312.3810.2770.1120.0060.1840.021 Your goals & how obtained 2.2102.5862.1900.7500.1790.0390.7950.211 GPA 3.0573.1382.5710.0630.1410.1020.0090.939 Extra curricular 2.7962.9663.0500.5310.8260.6590.1430.752 When graduate 2.8482.8932.8100.7290.8300.2770.8790.916 Background & Other Traits/Values
2nd Interview MeansP-Values Trait or Value Pre-StudentPost-StudentEmployerPre to Employer Post to EmployerEmployer 1 st to 2 nd Student Pre to Post Why you want internship 1.8952.3571.3810.0060.0100.1100.196 General work experience 2.3432.5712.2380.6860.3750.6050.481 Job related life experiences 2.2112.7502.2400.9220.1950.9960.151 Why chose University 3.0003.4643.1430.6340.4100.6660.178 Why chose major 2.5522.8572.7140.6130.7271.0000.429 Made up for past failures 2.1902.5001.9050.1200.0960.0380.408 Understanding of the company 1.8192.7141.8570.9620.0290.0040.022 Your goals & how obtained 2.0382.6791.9050.3650.0350.1620.092 GPA 3.2763.7862.9050.1540.0380.0310.220 Extra curricular 2.8673.4293.1900.3740.5540.5410.178 When graduate 2.7052.7862.6190.5850.6800.2960.994 Background & Other Traits/Values
Female students higher values than males on 11/11 (4 significant) interpersonal traits or skills. Significant differences disappeared for 2 nd interview, except adapting to corporate life. Female students placed lower value on 10/11 background traits than males. –GPA, females (3.706) strongly significant lower value than males (2.334) Further Analysis: Gender
Further Analysis: Experience 1 > or < 0.5 years of professional experience –Pre: 72 less than, 33 greater than –Post 36 less than, 22 greater than 4 categories –1 st, less ex pre students significantly less value on personality (pre = 1.616, post = 1.156) interpersonal (pre = 1.850, post = 1.375) traits or skills p > 0.01 and p >.05 value, respectively. –Less ex post students (2.444) placed more value on background than ex students (3.545) at p > 0.05 value.
Further Analysis: Experience 2 34 Individual Traits 1 st Interview –Pre 27/34 significant differences, less ex-students placing less value on all traits 4/6 personality, 5/6 technical, 11/11 interpersonal, 7/11 background –Post 9/34 significant differences, less ex-students 1/6 personality, 3/6 technical, 1/11 interpersonal, 4/11 background 34 Individual Traits 2nd Interview –Pre 27/34 significant differences, less ex-students placing more value on all traits 3/6 personality, 4/6 technical, 11/11 interpersonal, 9/11 background –Post 5/34 significant differences, less ex-students 0/6 personality, 1/6 technical, 2/11 interpersonal, 2/11 background
Conclusions 1.Are student values of interview traits different than employers? –Student consistently place less value on traits/skills than employers. 2.Are there student maturation effects due to the formal internship experience, indicated by a change in students reported pre-post trait values? –Maturation effect, pre to post internships decrease students values of many traits Increase number and severity of significant differences between post & employers 3.Are student trait values for a first interview different than values for a second interview? –Students tend to increase value of traits from the 1 st to 2 nd interview 4.Are employer trait values for a first interview different than values for a second interview? –Employer, generally increase value of technical and interpersonal traits for the 2 nd interview. 5.Are there differences in reported trait values between students without prior professional experience and those with at least minimal professional experience? –Internship eliminates most significant differences between more and less experienced students values of traits or skills