Presentation on theme: "CMA Foundation Childhood Obesity Multicultural Communications Webinar"— Presentation transcript:
1CMA Foundation Childhood Obesity Multicultural Communications Webinar Asian Pacific Islander Community Webinar | November 8, 2012Childhood Obesity – Strengthening the Capacity of Healthcare Providers to Work in Multicultural Communities in the Clinical Setting
2The PartnershipIn 2010, the Federal Office of Minority Health, provided funding support to the California Office of Multicultural Health to initiate a partnership with the CMA Foundation to increase awareness among healthcare professionals about the impact and importance of race, ethnicity and culture on pediatric overweight and obesity.This collaboration lead to the update of the Child and Adolescent Obesity Provider Toolkit in 2011 and the development of a series of webinars to provide additional support to healthcare professionals addressing these issues in 2012.This slide provides a background to participants regarding how the webinars fit with the Toolkit. Mayra, since you were on the Expert Panel that created the Toolkit, you may want to make a brief mention of that here as well.
3Webinar Faculty Raynald Samoa, MD Assistant Professor City of Hope Here is where you will introduce yourselves, or we can introduce you. We’ve done it both ways. How would you prefer to do this? It would also be good to provide some background for HealthCare Partners – What it is, how it is organized and how it works with the Latino community in LA County.Raynald Samoa, MD Assistant ProfessorCity of HopeDepartment of Diabetes, Endocrinology and MetabolismSophia Yen, MD, MPH Assistant Professor Division of Adolescent MedicineDepartment of Pediatrics Lucile Packard Children's HospitalStanford University School of MedicineRicky Y. Choi, MD, MPH, Department Head of PediatricsAsian Health Services Community Health Center
4Physician Champions - Obesity Prevention Disclosure StatementWe have no relevant financial relationships with the manufacturer(s) of any commercial product(s) and/or provider(s) of commercial services discussed in this activity.We do not intend to discuss an unapproved/investigative use of a commercial product/device in my presentation.
5Webinar ObjectivesUsing a case presentation format, participants will be able to:Identify how culture and ethnicity can influence Asian-American and Pacific-Island patients' decision making related to overweight and obesity.Identify in which target areas (diet, physical activity) APIs are at greater risk for overweight and obesity.Describe effective patient/provider communication techniques to help families understand behaviors they can take to help their child reach healthy weight/lifestyle/behaviors, particularly focusing on increasing healthy food choices.You’ll want to review these with the participants.
6Complexities of “Asian” AfghanistanArmeniaAzerbaijanBahrainBangladeshBhutanBruneiBurmaCambodiaChinaCyprusGeorgiaHong KongIndiaIndonesiaIranIraq IsraelJapanJordanKazakhstanKorea, NorthKorea, SouthKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLebanonMacauMalaysiaMaldivesMongoliaNepalOmanPakistanPalestinePhilippinesQatarSaudi ArabiaSingaporeSri LankaSyriaTaiwanTajikistanThailandTurkeyTurkmenistanUnited Arab EmiratesUzbekistanVietnamYemen
7Diversity of Pacific Islander MicronesiaTongaFijiPapua New GuineaWallis and FatunaCook IslandsNiueHawaiiSamoaMaoriAboriginesNew CaledoniaGuamNorthern MariannaTahitiTokelau
8Case14 yo Chinese American male presents to clinic with mother for well child check. Noted to have BMI of 28. He gained 10 lb over the summer when he traveled to visit relatives in China. He lives with his parents and grandparents. He is getting As/Bs in school. At home prefers to spend free time playing video games over outdoor activities.
9CaseWhile mother is concerned about his weight, grandparents are dismissive.Grandmother does most of the cooking while parents work late.Dietary history: He usually eats noodles for breakfast. Meals at home are family style. He prefers salty meat and eats 2 small bowls of rice at each meal, ramen noodles 2x a week.
10Why is This ImportantIn the “State of Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health in California Report,” Pacific Islander children had the highest rates of 5th graders in the unhealthy zone for body composition of all ethnic groups in the stateIn Hawaii, Samoan children had the highest prevalence of overweight, and 29% of all 4 & 5 year olds in Hawaii (multiethnic cohort) were either overweight or obese.In a study conducted at a large community health center in New York City, 40% of Chinese US born boys, aged 6–11 years, were identified as overweight or obese.The LA County Department of Public Health looked at Fitnessgram and found that 49% of Samoans in 5th, 7th, & 9th grades were obese.
11Definitions of the Epidemic In 2001, the Surgeon General declared“overweight and obesity” a national epidemic.Originally Different definitions, but now the sameBMI Adults /Children>85th%-94th% overweight>95th% obeseFor adultsOverweight is defined as:Obese is defined as BMI of 30 or greaterThis has been extrapolated to representFor childrenOverweight is defined as >/=95th%At risk for overweight is defined as >=85th% and <95th%According to CDC 2000 growth charts by sex and ageAMA/HRSA/CDC expert committee 6.07 recommended that the definitions be the same.and studies have shown that Chinese/Malay and INdian should be considered obese at lower BMIs for the same body fat…e.g. 26/27 versus 30 in whites…
12Body Mass Index (BMI) Weight (kilograms) BMI = [Height (meters)]2 or lbsx703in2
13BMI of 18 for 4 y/o = high, but 12 y/o = normal also, the weight dips and comes back at about 4 years old
14CDC BMI charts not based on APIs APIs had same % body fat as Caucasian at BMI 3-6 points higherSouth Asians are thinner but have greater body fat and higher insulin sensitivity for any given BMI33% of obese APIs (%BF >25 % for boys, >30 % for girls) not identified using WHO criteriaBr J Nutr Nov;106(9): Epub 2011 May 31.Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asianchildren from different backgrounds.Liu A, Byrne NM, Kagawa M, Ma G, Poh BK, Ismail MN, Kijboonchoo K, Nasreddine L, Trinidad TP, Hills AP.SourceNational Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
15BMI by Ethnicity Per 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: APIA teens more likely to be overweight than Hispanics, blacks and white (non-Hispanic) teensAPIA teens had 4.35 X the odds of being overweight compared to whites/blacksoverweight in this case was >95th percentile
16Consequences of Childhood Obesity Low self-esteemAsthmaSleep apneaHeart diseaseType 2 diabetesFatty liver70% chance of being obese adults
17What Contributes to Obesity among Children? Genetic factorsBehavioral factorsFood intakePhysical activityEnvironmental factorsHomesChildcare or schoolsCommunityINOUTOUTIN
18Which Foods Predispose to Weight Gain? Fast foodHigh in saturated fat & sugarLow in protein2003 CHIS showed:26% of 2-5 y/o APIAs ate 2 or more servings of “high-sugar foods” per dayvs. 23% of African Americanscookies, candy, doughnuts, pastries, cake, or popsicles
19Many Asian Teens Eat Fast Food 4+/wk 2009 CHIS showed:17% of Asian teens vs 10% of whites
20Eating out adds calories fast-food restaurant increased calories by126 calories in 2-11 y/o309 calories in y/ofull-service restaurant160 calories in 2-11 y/o267 calories in 2-11 y/o
22Answer?Juice 14 cal/oz vs Soda 12 cal/ozJuice has more calories!
23Foods That Cause Weight Gain Drinks with CaloriesJuice, soda, sports drinks, 1%/2%/whole milkWhole milk is OK until 2 years oldAFTER 2 years old, kids should drink non-fat milkWater is bestLarge portion sizeAll-you-can-eatMore than in “homeland”Rice, Fatty meat
24Physical Inactivity Watching TV Playing video games Browsing the Internet
2519% of Asians 3-5 y/o Watch More TV Than Recommended <1234-56-2019% of Asians 3-5 y/o Watch More TV Than Recommended2005 CHIS, 19% of kids 3-5 y/o watched more TV than the AAP recommendsimproved from 200112.2% 14,000Less than 1 hour/day43.1% 50,0002 hours/day25.7%)30,0003 hours/day9.8%)11,0004-5 hours/day7.9%)9,0006-20 hours/day1.0%*
262005 CHIS, y/o AsiansCalifornia Health Interview Survey
27% Asian Teens that are Overweight/Obese Teen Boys Worse Than Girls
28CHISAsians had the lowest fruit/vegetable consumption!
29Asians had the lowest amount of vigorous physical activity in the past week
30Case14 yo Chinese American male presents to clinic with mother for well child check. Noted to have BMI of 28. He gained 10 lb over the summer when he traveled to visit relatives in China. He lives with his parents and grandparents. He is getting As/Bs in school. At home prefers to spend free time playing video games over outdoor activities.
31CaseWhile mother is concerned about his weight, grandparents are dismissive.Grandmother does most of the cooking while parents work late.Dietary history: He usually eats noodles for breakfast. Meals at home are family style. He prefers salty meat and eats 2 small bowls of rice at each meal, ramen noodles 2x a week.
32Components for changeMotivationResourcesChangeCulture
33Cultural Context Most Asian Americans are new immigrants 66% born outside of the United StatesMany parents experienced scarcity in childhoodScarcity mindset: “finish every grain of rice”, meatWhile some live in isolation, others live in multigenerational homes and close knit communitiesParents receive input/pressure on child rearingMost APIs are new immigrants, so bring their cultural experiences to American living.Scarcity: Vietnam war, recent modernization or still developing country, rural setting. But eating habits that are advantageous in scarcity contribute to obesity in the United StatesInfluences: you may be able to educate the parent that comes with the child at the office visit, but don’t be surprised if your talking points are over ruled by a strong willed grandparent or community member. Parents are under enormous pressure from multiple people
34Cultural ContextDifferent sources of unhealthy foods/extra calories: salty meat, other high calorie drinks (boba milk tea), instant ramen noodles, white rice, snacks from grandparentsTraditional food may not be so healthyCarbohydratesPork, shrimp, beefFried foods - Lumpia, TempuraRecognize food is an intimate connection to culture and communityFoods are now so abundant that the old way of cooking with more vegetables and little meat is being replaced with much more fatty mea tand little vegetables in mealsAsian take out foods are unhealthy because of the similar replacement with unhealthy ingredients such as fatty meats
35Cultural Context“Plate method” difficult to translate into family style mealsObesity not just a problem in the US.Families may have limited knowledge of some fruits and vegetable that are available in the US.
36Improving Patient Communication to Improve Health Outcomes Patient ValuesGoal AlignmentResourcesPatient AdherenceHealth OutcomesProvider GuidelinesImproving Patient Communication to Improve Health OutcomesThis makes it critical to identify how we improve communication with our ethnically diverse patients to improve health outcomes.
37Recommendations 1) Breast Feeding % obesity in NON BF BF 4.5% 2.8% 4.5% 2.8%Longer is better % obesity2 mos 3.8%3-5 mos 2.3%6-12 mos 1.7%>12 mos 0.8%
38Recommendations2) Healthy Meals - Careful dietary history including ethnic snacks (high calorie drinks) - Identify the person who prepares food for the child. Educate THAT person. - Suggest culturally acceptable food alternatives: Brown rice (vs white rice), ethnic vegetables, avoid fried food -More fish and chicken, less beef/pork - Eat >5 servings of vegetables/fruits per dayIf it is mom’s mother in law, invite her to come in and talk. The mother/father may be disempoweredExplain that small changes can make a big differenceDon’t forget ramen11 yo Obese male. How should you change your diet? "eat more veggies, fruits". How about less? "less snacks, meat, candy, junk food". How about less rice? "but I am Chinese!”Some asians kids are led to believe that if they are smaller in stature, than academic prowess can over come. Parents may emphasize education over sports and physical activity. As over achievers they get frustrated easily with weight loss
39Recommendations Healthy Meals (cont) - Encourage family to try new fruits and vegetables- Avoid fast food- Stress appropriate serving size
40Recommendations3) Brawn helps brain – being fit is key 4) Emphasize importance of setting life long healthy diet and activity patterns 5) Recognize the other competing priorities (stresses of acculturation) and plug them into community activities 6) Screen Time Limit screen time to < 2 hrs/day. Don’t eat in front of a screen.
41Recommendations 7) Strengths: Involve the whole family Family meals Be physically active togetherPlan active family fun
42ConclusionsOverweight and obesity is an important concern in the API communityAPI children are less physically active, watch more screen time, eat more fast food, and eat fewer fruits and vegetables.Ethnic/Cultural accommodations are important in promoting a healthy lifestyle
44Multicultural Resources in the Toolkit EthnoMed –Healthy Roads Media -MiPiramide –Hawaii Pediatric Weight Management Toolkit-by contacting ChockConsumer Health Materials in Spanish –Think Culturally (Office of Minority Health) –The Provider’s Guide to Quality & Culture –
45Community Resources for Healthy Eating Have your staff identify resources available in your community to help you help your patients. These may include the YMCA, health plans, school based programs, faith based organizations, local hospitals, parks and recreation programs and community centers.Have the list easily available in your office.Web based Resource ListAcademy of Nutrition & DieteticsKids Health from NemoursAmerican Assoc. of Diabetes EducatorsUSDA Food & Nutrition ServicesCalifornia Dietetic AssociationYMCA of the USAUnited States Department of AgricultureNCES Health and Nutrition EducationI would like to add here a couple of sites that I use regularly:NCES Health and Nutrition Education- great site to get patient education tear pads in English and Spanish, Posters, Food models to have in the office. The educators, nutritionists and dieticians find this to be of value.choosemyplate.gov: great information for clinicians, parents and kids. Extensive Spanish section as well.