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First Generation Students: From Admission to Graduation

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1 First Generation Students: From Admission to Graduation
Association of American Colleges and Universities Conference Annual Meeting 2013 Ms. DeLaine Priest Dr. Vivian Ortiz Associate Vice President Director University of Central Florida University of Central Florida

2 Presentation Overview
UCF Overview UCF First Generation Population Factors that affect the transition, retention, and graduation of first generation college students UCF Interventions and Support Services Engagement Impact of Assessment and Evaluation Q/A

3 UCF Institutional Overview
Metropolitan Research University Orlando, Florida 2nd Largest Institution in the Nation Undergraduates ,968 Freshman ,129 Transfer , 364 Graduates ,522 Medical School TOTAL ,767

4 UCF Institutional Overview
Racial/Ethnic Demographics: Hispanic % African American 10% Asian/Pacific Islander % Fall Freshman Profile ( ): Average SAT Score Average ACT Score Average High School GPA Residency (all students) In-state % Out-of-State %

5 UCF First Generation Student Definition
A First Generation Student (FGS) is a student whose parents or guardians have not earned a bachelor’s degree How do your schools define FGS?

6 UCF First Generation Students
Over 11,500 UCF undergraduates are first generation college students (approx. 23% of all undergraduates) Summer to Fall Full Time FTIC Cohort Retention ( ) = 83.8% 59 % of First Generation Students identify as female and 41% as male Racial/Ethnic Background (FTIC ) 6% Asian 11% Black 26% Hispanic 53% White 4% Other

7 FGS in Perspective A 2007 study by the Higher Education Research Institute found that 17percent of entering first-year students were first generation students. Now look at 2012, where one in three college students is first generation (Greenwald, 2012). Significant increase and growth in enrollment of first generation students in just five years.

8 Research on FGS Note: Before any factors can be discussed, limitations of the research on first generation college students should be noted. While studies indicate that first generation students are less likely to be retained, little is known about the college experiences of first generation students (Duggan, 2001; 2002; Pike & Suh, 2005) What is known: 15 percent gap between 3-year persistence on first (73 percent) and second (83 percent) generation students (Walburton, Bugarin, & Nunez, 2001) Differences in the pre-college characteristics of first and second generation students can affect FGS persistence and graduation rates (Terenzini, Springer, Yeager, Pascarella, & Nora, 1996) More likely to have spent less time socializing with peers in high school and interacting with high school teachers (lower levels of engagement) FGS are less likely to live on campus, to develop relationships with faculty members, and more likely to work more hours off campus (Richardson & Skinner, 1992; Terenzini et al., 1996) FGS are less likely to develop strong relationships with other students and to become involved in clubs and organizations (Billson & Terry, 1982; Richardson & Skinner, 1992) FGS are more likely to report lower levels of engagement in college (Pike & Suh, 2005)

9 Factors affecting FGS Transition to college, academically and culturally (Choy, 2001; London, 1989, 1996; Nunez & Cuccaro-Alamin, 1998) Lack of knowledge (Tym, McMillion, Barone, & Webster, 2004): Campus environment Academic expectations University operations (housing, financial aid, etc.) Less parental support in making the decision to attend college (Billson & Terry, 1982; Choy, 2001; York-Anderson & Bowman, 1991) Less family support in attending college (Terenzi et al., 1996) Academic expectations (Terenzi, Springer, Yeager, Pascarella, & Nora, 1996): Longer to complete degree programs Weaker cognitive skills (reading, math, critical thinking) Lower degree aspirations

10 Characteristics of FGS
More likely to be a Black or Hispanic woman from a low income background Less likely to enroll in college, even if academically qualified for admission Less academically prepared Less knowledge of college protocol Lower achievement test scores Lower college entrance exam scores Attend part time and discontinuously Less likely to live on-campus More likely to work 20+ hours a week and have financial concerns More likely to experience transitional issues Less confidence in their ability to succeed in college Engle (2007), Jehangir (2010), Higher Education Institute (2007)

11 Characteristics of FGS
Married FGS less likely to persist (52.8 percent) Male FGS more likely to persist (9.4 percent) FGS whose primary language at home was not English were more likely to persist than if English was their primary language at home (14.7 percent) Hispanic FGS were less likely to persist than White FGS (35.4 percent) FGS who chose an institution so they could live at home were more likely to persist than those that stated they could not live at home (18.3 percent) FGS attending private institutions were less like to persist than those attending public institutions (12.3 percent) For every one unit increase in GPA, FGS were 12.8 percent more likely to persist Lohfink& Paulsen (2005)

12 Why Provide Support to First Generation Students
First Generation Students are at a distinct disadvantage compared to their peers when it comes to retention and graduation from higher education institutions ‘Access does not equal success’

13 UCF’s Response to First Generation Students
Large number of underserved students No targeted programming for FGS though it is an at-risk population Need to be proactive in addressing issues of student retention and success

14 Evolution of UCF’s First Generation Program
Identified the need for a First Generation Student Program Identified the barriers to FGCS success Developed the mission and goals of the FGCS Program Maximized the potential for success through appropriate unit/program alignment Identify first generation college students: Financial Aid (FAFSA) Admissions Orientation Creation of initiatives targeting this population

15 Challenges that UCF FGS Experience
Financial Navigating the college system Academic Preparation Campus Engagement Family/Cultural Challenges Expectations of Self Preparation for future after college

16 Multicultural Academic and Support Services (MASS)
Mission: maximize student success by assisting Multicultural and First-Generation College Students in their transition to the University of Central Florida and by connecting with the University community and our partners to promote and facilitate academic support services and programs. Brother to Brother Program SOAR Program First Generation Program Workshops/Speakers Community College Day Multicultural Transfer Student Welcome Reception

17 UCF’s First Generation Program: Overview
||Part of the Multicultural Academic and Support Services Office Mission: To ease FGCS’ transition to college, provide them an academic home, demystify their college experience, assist them with navigating through the university landscape, and help them prepare to succeed at UCF and beyond. The Program Offers: One-on-one Support through graduation Financial support through scholarships and information on financial resources Referral to resources Opportunities to connect with students, faculty, staff, professionals and alumni Programs and workshops that provide role models to FGCS and help them succeed

18 UCF’s First Generation Program: Initiatives

19 Multicultural & First Generation Knights Networking Reception
UCF’s First Generation Program: Initiatives First Generation Speaker Series Multicultural & First Generation Knights Networking Reception

20 UCF’s First Generation Program: Collaborations
Advisory Board : Boeing, Orange County, Orlando Magic, Disney World, Universal Studios, INROADS, State Farm Community partners with KAPLAN & Target Campus Partners: McNair Program, Office of Undergraduate Research, Career Services, Financial Aid, Multicultural Student Center, UCF Colleges, PRIME STEM Program, UCF Foundation Grants provided to UCF First Generation Program Target Grant: Student Scholarships Orlando Magic Youth Fund: Student Scholarships/Programming UCF Parent and Family Fund: Lunch and Learn (Pilot) and First Generation Speaker Series

21 UCF Interventions and Support Services
Programs Preparing FGCS Students for Graduate School or STEM Fields Learning Environment and Academic Research Network (LEARN) Living-Learning Community for incoming undergraduate students planning to major in the STEM fields, which intentionally outreaches to first-generation students, underrepresented minorities, and low- income students. Student Support Services-PRIME STEM Project The goal of SSS grant is to increase the college retention and graduation rates of its participants and help students make the transition from one level of higher education to the next. McNair Program McNair Mission: To increase the number of first-generation college students from low-income families and members of underrepresented groups in the nation's professoriate.

22 Assessment and Research
To promote continuous improvement To gather indicators that will be useful for decision-making and planning To gather evidence about how well students are meeting student learning outcomes Research Confirm hypothesis Gain new information Advance knowledge in a discipline Solve a problem

23 References Billson, J. & Terry, B. (1982). In search of the silken purse: factors in attrition among first-generation students. College and University, 58, Chen, X (2005). First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education: A Look at their College Transcripts. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Choy, S (2001). Students Whose Parents Did Not Go to College: Postsecondary Access, Persistence, and Attainment. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Duggan, M. (2001). Factors influencing the first to second year persistence of first-generation college students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research, Cambridge, MA. Duggan, M. (2002). The effects of social capital on the first to second year persistence of first-generation college students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(03), 188. Engle, J. (2007). Post-secondary access and success for first-generation college students. American Academic, 3(1), Greenwald, R. (2012). Think of first generation students as pioneers, not problems. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Higher Education Research Institute (2007). First in my family: A profile of first-generation college students at four-year institutions since Retrieved from Lohfink, M. & Paulsen, M. (2005). Comparing the determinants of persistence for first-generation and continuing-generation students. Journal of College Student Development, 46(4), London, H. (1989). Breaking away: a study of first-generation college students and their families. American Journal of Education, 97(2), London, H. (1992). Transformations: cultural challenges faced by first-generation students. In L.S. Zwerling & H.B. London (Eds.), First-generation students: confronting the cultural issues. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

24 References Nunez, A. and S. Cuccaro-Alamin (1998). First-Generation Students: Undergraduates Whose Parents Never Enrolled in Postsecondary Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Pike, G. & Kuh, G. (2005). First and second generation college students: a comparison of their engagement and intellectual development. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(3), Richardson, R. & Skinner, E. (1992). Helping first-generation minority students achieve degrees. In L.S. Zwerling & H.B. London (Eds.), First-generatio n students: confronting the cultural issues. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Terenzini, P., Springer, L., Yaeger, P., Pascarella, E., & Nora, A. (1996). First generation college students: characteristics, experiences, and cognitive development. Research in Higher Education, 37, Tym, C., McMillion, R., Barone, S., & Webster, J. (2004). First-generation college students: a literature review. Research and Analytical Services. Warburton, E., Bugarin, R., & Nunez, A. (2001). Bridging a gap: academic preparation and postsecondary success of first-generation students. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. York-Anderson, D. & Bowman, S. (1991). Assessing the college knowledge of first-generation and second-generation college students. Journal of College Student Development, 32,

25 Student Development and Enrollment Services
Questions? Student Development and Enrollment Services Vivian Ortiz (407) DeLaine Priest (407)

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