Presentation on theme: "Prepared for the Presidents Trust by Carol Geary Schneider, Association of American Colleges & Universities Liberal Education: Our Students' Best Preparation."— Presentation transcript:
Prepared for the Presidents Trust by Carol Geary Schneider, Association of American Colleges & Universities Liberal Education: Our Students' Best Preparation for Work AND Citizenship
A Note to Presidents This case combines and synthesizes evidence from two previous PowerPoint presentations* prepared for the Trust: The Economic Value of Liberal Education The Civic Case for Liberal Education *Each of these PowerPoint presentations remains available to Trust members at m m
More College-Educated Workers are Needed but Supply is Not Keeping up with Demand Economists predict that by 2018, America will be 3 million college-educated workers short to meet demand, but college graduation rates are flat. By 2018, 22 million new and replacement jobs will require some college. By 2018, 63 percent of all jobs will require at least some postsecondary education. Sources: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce; AAC&U, College Learning for the New Global Century (2007); Lumina Foundation for Education.
Education Provides an Umbrella: High School Dropouts Bear the Brunt of Unemployment Source: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce
Americans Get the Economic Message Everyone understands that college has become the gateway to opportunity for 21 st century learners. More than 90% of high school students now hope to enroll in postsecondary education, because they see college as a prerequisite to economic advancement and a fulfilling life. College Learning for the New Global Century, 2007, note 3.
There has been almost no public or policy discussion about what students really need from a 21 st century college education. Back stage, however, educators, employers and civic leaders have been actively examining the learning students need for a fast-changing economy and an interconnected world. A consensus on the 21 st century goals for college learning has started to emerge. But What Should Students Learn in College?
In what follows, we explore the learning students need… To contribute and thrive in a dynamic, innovation- fueled economy To make wise choices as citizens, at home and abroad We explore the new consensus among educators, employers and civic leaders on making the most of college in this global century. Overview
College Learning in the 21 st Century Economy In a word, employers are demanding more – much more They want and seek many more college educated works They also seek much higher and broader levels of learning in those they employ, retain and promote
Why Is There a Need for Higher Levels of Learning? In a globalized knowledge economy, the capacity to drive innovation is the key strategic economic advantage Rapid scientific and technological innovations are changing the workplace and demanding more of all employees Global interdependence and complex cross- cultural interactions increasingly define modern society and the workplace and call for new levels of knowledge and capability
Employers Continue to Raise the Bar and Hire for Innovation 95% of employers put a priority on hiring people with the intellectual and interpersonal skills that will help them contribute to innovation in the workplace 93% of employers say that they are asking employees to take on more responsibilities and to use a broader set of skills than in the past 95% of employers say that a candidates demonstrated capacity to think critically, communicate clearly, and solve complex problems is more important than their undergraduate major 91% of employers say that the challenges their employees face are more complex than they were in the past. Source: It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (Hart Research Associates, 2013)
The Need for New Learning is Constant Every year, more than 1/3 of the entire US labor force changes jobs. Research Suggests That Today's Students May Have Jobs by the Time They Are % of Workers Have Been With Their Company Less Than 5 Years. Every year, more than 30 million Americans are working in jobs that did not exist in the previous quarter. DOL-BLS
The Growing Demand for Higher Order Skills Source: Council on Competitiveness, Competitiveness Index
What Employers Say [Employers] generally are...frustrated with their inability to find 360 degree people who have both the specific job/technical skills and the broader skills (communication and problem- solving skills, work ethic, and ability to work with others) necessary to promise greater success for both the individual and the employer. From Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Report of Findings Based on Focus Groups Among Business Executives (AAC&U, 2006)
National Surveys of Employers on College Learning and Graduates Work Readiness AAC&U commissioned Hart Research Associates (in 2006, 2007, and in late 2009) to interview employers (C-level suite executives and, in 2009 additional human resource professionals) whose companies report that hiring relatively large numbers of college graduates Findings are summarized in the following reports: How Should Colleges Prepare Students to Succeed in Todays Global Economy? (AAC&U, 2007) How Should Colleges Assess and Improve Student Learning? Employers Views on the Accountability Challenge (AAC&U, 2008) Raising the Bar: Employers Views on College Learning in the Wake of the Economic Downturn (AAC&U, 2010) It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (AAC&U, 2013) See:
In this Economy, Narrow Learning is Not Enough!
Balance of Broad Knowledge and Specific Skills Preferred Which is more important for recent college graduates who want to pursue advancement and long-term career success at your company? It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (Hart Research Associates, 2013) Having both field-specific knowledge and skills AND a broad range of skills and knowledge Having a range of skills and knowledge that apply to a range of fields or positions Having knowledge and skills that apply to a specific field or position
Key Capabilities Open the Door for Career Success Irrespective of college major or institutional selectivity, what matters to career success is students development of a broad set of cross-cutting capacities… Anthony Carnevale, Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce
In the 21 st Century, Liberal Education Outcomes Have Become the Key to American Capability and Student Success
What is a Liberal Education?
A Liberal Education Provides: Rich Knowledge – of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural Worlds Intellectual and Practical Skills Personal and Social Responsibility Integrative and Applied Learning
The LEAP Essential Learning Outcomes Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World through study in the sciences and mathematics, social sciences, humanities, histories, languages, and the arts Intellectual and Practical Skills, including inquiry and analysis, critical and creative thinking, written and oral communication, quantitative literacy, information literacy, and teamwork and problem solving Personal and Social Responsibility, including civic knowledge and engagement – local and global, intercultural knowledge and competence, ethical reasoning and action, and foundations and skills for lifelong learning Integrative and Applied Learning, including synthesis and advanced accomplishment across general and specialized studies
Employers Strongly Endorse the LEAP Essential Learning Outcomes – And They Urge New Effort to Help All Students Achieve Them
Employers Want More Emphasis on Key Learning Outcomes Put more emphasis than colleges have in the pastLess emphasisThe same emphasis Critical thinking/ analytical reasoning Ability to analyze/solve complex problems Effective oral communication Effective written communication Apply knowledge/skills to real-world settings Locate, organize, evaluate info from multiple sources Innovation/creativity Teamwork/collaboration in diverse group settings Ability to connect choices and actions to ethical decisions It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (Hart Research Associates, 2013)
How important is it for colleges and universities to provide the type of education described below? This particular approach to a four-year college education provides both broad knowledge in a variety of areas of study and more in-depth knowledge in a specific major or field of interest. It also helps students develop a sense of social responsibility, as well as intellectual and practical skills that span all areas of study, such as communication, analytical, and problem-solving skills, and a demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills in real-world settings. Source: How Should Colleges Prepare Students to Succeed in Todays Global Economy? (AAC&U, 2007)
How important is it for colleges and universities to provide this type of education (see previous slide)? It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (Hart Research Associates, 2013) Only somewhat important Fairly important Very important
Higher Level Liberal Education Skills and Abilities = Higher Wages Data from Georgetown University Center for Education and the Workforce Center on Education and the Workforce
There is a Salary Premium for Liberal Education Outcomes From a federal database analyzing qualifications for 1,100 different jobs, there is consistent evidence that the highest salaries apply to positions that call for intensive use of liberal education capabilities, including (random order): Writing Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Judgment and Decision Making Problem Solving Social/Interpersonal Skills Mathematics Originality Source: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce
In sum, college alone is not enough to ensure economic opportunity and success. The hallmark outcomes of liberal education prepare students to adapt to change, succeed in innovative environments and work successfully with peers and clients from other cultures and other parts of the world. College Learning and Economic Opportunity
In an economy fueled by innovation, the capabilities developed through a liberal education have become Americas most valuable economic asset. College Learning for the New Global Century (AAC&U, 2007)
College and Civic Capacity While economic opportunity is a very important college outcome, it is equally important for colleges to build civic capacity- the knowledge, judgment and commitment to solve societal problems and ensure the integrity and vitality of our democratic society.
As in the economy, the civic challenges Americans face are daunting Within Our Borders, And in the Global Community
Challenges Within Our Borders Cultures – Multiple and Multiplying Economy – In the Midst of Painful Dislocations and Volatility Society – Riven Over Immigration and Other Social Questions Politics – Contentious, Fractured, Declining Confidence in Public Sector
Global Challenges Poverty, War, Suffering... Sustenance and Human Dignity Illiteracy and Its Effects... Education and Opportunity Energy and the Environment... Research and Innovation Terrorism and Fear... Law, Justice, Democracy, Freedom
Global Challenges (Cont.) The United States Historic Role in Global Leadership And as a Voice and Force for Democratic Values and Democratic Self-Determination
The Issues at Home and Abroad Are Immense Rising to These Challenges Will Require Civic Will, Capacity, and Commitment – the Determination to Tackle Hard Questions – in All Their Complexity
Americas Best Hope Civic Capacity is Developed Through Education – and Liberal Education is the Crucial Key Both to New Civic Capacity And to Meeting the Challenges We Face at Home and Abroad
Liberal Education and Civic Capacity
Liberal Education – By Design – Builds Both Capacity (rich knowledge, high level skills; social imagination) AND the Commitment (an examined sense of ethical and civic responsibility) To Create and Test Responsible Solutions – and to Learn with and for Others – Not Just Ourselves
The Civic Value of the Essential Learning Outcomes Rich Knowledge – of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural Worlds Knowledge that can be applied to big societal, scientific, and global challenges; knowledge of the diverse peoples who must work together to solve our problems of health, human dignity, and sustainable communities Intellectual and Practical Skills Especially the capacity to deliberate and work together, across differences of many kinds Testing solutions, and discovering what works
The Civic Value of Liberal Education (cont.) Personal and Social Responsibility Ethical reasoning and action Intercultural knowledge and engagement Perspective taking and the capacity to work with people and communities different from ones own Democratic values – including a strong respect for human dignity and active citizenship Integrative and Applied Learning The demonstrated ability to apply knowledge, skills, AND a developed sense of responsibility to complex problems and new challenges
Liberal education prepares students for career success and for mindful citizenship It builds commitments and capacity to work on emerging problems – in the workplace and in communities In Sum
... [W]e are not forced to choose.... A flourishing economy requires the same skills that support citizenship. Martha Nussbaum The Liberal Arts Are Not Elitist Chronicle of Higher Education, June 10, 2010
Policy Influencers and Business Leaders Agree We must raise the level of civic knowledge and engagement. The learning outcomes important for civic engagement are the same as those essential for workplace success.
Republicans and Democrats Agree Colleges and universities are uniquely positioned to model and teach respectful dialogue. – Democratic policy influencer College is the last marker before…[one is] released into the real world…colleges and universitiesif they have an opportunity to play a key role in civic education…they should. – Republican policy influencer Source: Key Findings from Focus Groups on Increasing Support for Civic Learning in Higher Education (Hart Research Associates, 2011)
Employers Value Candidates Who Have Intercultural Skills and Who Show An Interest in Giving Back Very important that our employees have this quality/skillFairly important Comfortable working with colleagues, customers, and/or clients from diverse cultural backgrounds Show an interest in giving back to the communities in which our company is located or those that it serves It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (Hart Research Associates, 2013)
47 Expecting students complete internship or community-based field project to connect classroom learning with real-world experiences Expecting students to develop the skills to conduct research collaboratively with their peers Expecting students to work through ethical issues and debates to form their own judgments about the issues at stake Will help a lot to prepare college students for success after graduationWill help a fair amount 78% 74% 66% Employers Think Key Practices Would Help Prepare Students For Success It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (Hart Research Associates, 2013)
48 All students should have educational experiences that teach them how to solve problems with people whose views are different from their own All students should learn about ethical issues and public debates important in their field All students should have direct learning experiences working with others to solve problems important in their communities All students should take courses that build knowledge, judgment, commitment to communities, ensure integrity/vitality of democracy All students should acquire broad knowledge in liberal arts and sciences Strongly agree with this statement about the aims of college learningSomewhat agree 86% 87% 82% 80% 91% Employers Agree On Key Learning Experiences For All Students, Regardless of Major It Takes More Than a Major: Employer Priorities for College Learning and Student Success (Hart Research Associates, 2013)
But in Higher Education Today, Not Every Student Actually Gets a Liberal Education Many Are Steered to Narrow, Technical Training, Largely Devoid of the Studiesin the Sciences, the Humanities, the Social Sciences and the Artsthat Build Big Picture Knowledge, Creativity, and Leadership
First-Generation Students Frequently Miss Out on the Arts and Sciences First-generation students take fewer courses than others in mathematics, science, social studies, humanities, history, foreign languages, or computer science. From National Center for Education Statistics, First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education: A Look at Their College Transcripts. (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2005).
First-Generation Students Are Over-Represented in So-Called Career and Technical Programs and in For-Profit Institutions that Never Were Designed to Foster Either Broad Knowledge or Civic Learning
Prominent Policy Leaders Are Vigorously Promoting Short-Term Technical Certificates for First-Generation Students – Faster, Less Costly, Directly Attuned to Job Availability Such programs typically include NO studies in the humanities or social sciences
Is It Possible to Be Civically and Globally Prepared Without Any Study of: World histories? Global cultures? Political, economic, and social systems and challenges? The ideas and institutions that support constitutional democracy? The great religious and philosophical traditions of peoples around the world?
Is It Possible to Be Economically Prepared Without Any Study of: World histories? Global cultures? Political, economic, and social systems and challenges? The ideas and institutions that support constitutional democracy? The great religious and philosophical traditions of peoples around the world?
What We Need – Today – from the Higher Education Community, Is the Commitment to Ensure that Every Student Gets a Liberal Education While in College We Have Made that Commitment at X Institution, and We Are Proud to Be a Leader in Making Liberal Education a Top Priority for Our Students, Our Faculty, Our Staffand through Their Achievementsan Important Resource for Our Community and our Economy
Here Is What Our Campus Is Doing Mission Learning Outcomes Signature Programs Community Partnerships
Higher Education Is Poised and Ready to Provide New National Leadership in Educating Citizens for the Challenges We Face, at Home and Abroad
Today, Hundreds of Colleges and Universities Are Placing New Emphasis Both on the Broad Aims of Liberal Education AND on Developing Students Civic Capacities and their Economic Savvy
Members Priorities: % of AAC&U Member Campuses that Require the LEAP Essential Learning Outcomes Knowledge of Human Cultures and the Physical and Natural World Humanities92% Sciences91% Social Sciences90% Global/World Cultures87% Mathematics87% Diversity in the United States73% United States History49% Languages Other than English42% Sustainability24% Intellectual and Practical Skills Writing Skills99% Critical Thinking95% Quantitative Reasoning91% Oral Communication88% Intercultural Skills79%* Information Literacy76% Research skills65%
Members Priorities: % of AAC&U Member Campuses that Require the LEAP Essential Learning Outcomes Personal and Social Responsibility Intercultural Skills79%* Ethical Reasoning75% Civic Engagement68% Integrative and Applied Learning Application of Learning66% Integration of Learning63% Note: Nearly 80% of AAC&U member institutions surveyed reported that they had a common set of learning outcomes for all students. Percentages cited above are the percentage of those with campus-wide goals reporting that this outcome is one of the learning goals they have for all students. This data was generated as part of AAC&Us initiative, Liberal Education and Americas Promise (LEAP). The four categories of learning outcomes correspond to a set of Essential Learning Outcomes developed as part of LEAP. See and Learning and Assessment: Trends in Undergraduate EducationA Survey Among Members of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U and Hart Research Associates, 2009). * The starred items are shown in two learning outcome categories because they apply to both.
Collectively, Faculty Members Have Created New Educational Practices that Move Complex Questions and Problem- Solving to the Center
Educational Practices that Build Analytical and Problem-Solving Capacity First-Year Seminars and Experiences – widely adopted across the country, these courses often focus on societal questions and intercultural learning Learning Communities – feature topically linked sets of courses that examine problems like hunger, poverty, energy from diverse disciplinary and societal perspectives Common Intellectual Experiences – these programs of common study often probe questions about the nature of a good society and individual responsibilities to self and others Service Learning – over the past two decades, service learning has become a top priority for connecting college learning directly with societys urgent problems and with community partners who are working to solve them
Educational Practices (cont.) Collaborative Assignments and Projects – expected in many courses and programs, these group assignments build capacities that are fundamental for active citizenship, effective problem-solving and workplace success Undergraduate Research – opportunities to work with scholars on unsolved problems help college students learn the arts of evidence-based reasoning which is fundamental to innovation at work and problem-solving in society Diversity/Global Learning – these programs build direct knowledge of people, communities, and challenges different from ones own; they build civic vision and capacity and economic capacity Capstone Courses and Projects – often required in students majors, these culminating experiences frequently provide opportunities for students to apply their knowledge and skills to important problems in their chosen field and in society.
As we tackle big challenges – in the economy and civil society – graduates need the kind of education that fosters BOTH economic innovation and social responsibility.
In a period of relentless change, all students need the kind of education that leads them to ask not just how do we get this done but also what is most worth doing? College Learning for the New Global Century, 2007, page 13.
Liberal Education – Our Students Best Preparation for a Complex and Fast-Changing World