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Institute of Development Studies University of Guyana

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Presentation on theme: "Institute of Development Studies University of Guyana"— Presentation transcript:

1 Institute of Development Studies University of Guyana

2 The CY Report The main objective:
Prepare a social policy framework document as a blueprint for national social policies in the OECS.

3 The CY Report Subsidiary objectives:
Undertake a background analysis of the current social and economic situation; Provide a justification for social policy; Suggest An indicator of overall policy goals and objectives; and Recommend programme initiatives and institutional arrangements.

4 This Review Seeks to present the central components of Prof. Thomas’s Framework The Key concepts underpinning the framework Will not present the economic or social analysis which is presented in the study; but Seeks to open the Dialogue around the institutionalization of a Social Policy Framework which Prof. Thomas suggested

5 Key Findings The absence of a conceptual framework, grounded in the reality and aspirations of the region, and linked as well to the evolving global norms and practices, is, perhaps, one of the most important deficiencies of social policy in the region.

6 Methodology and Structure of the CY Thomas Report
A Qualitative Study entailing An extensive review of relevant literature; and In-depth interviews with key stakeholders from the OECS Secretariat, member countries and regional personnel working on OECS issues

7 Structure and Methodology ..cont’d
Introduction Review of : economic performance and outcomes; Social performance and outcomes; Assessment of the international environment and social policy; Elaboration of the framework for social policy design, implementation and monitoring in the OECS; and A recommended modality for taking the report forward.


9 Five considerations, which justify the construction of a social policy framework:
Economic growth is a necessary, though not a sufficient condition for social development; Growth has been below the estimate of 6 percent per year real growth indicated by ECLAC as required to bridge the social and technological gaps in Latin America-Caribbean region;

10 Basic Considerations … cont’d
The particular configuration of the regional economies leaves them vulnerable to exogenous shocks, both external and internal, even in periods of high growth. The need therefore, for social protection policies to deal with interruptions even in the context of high economic growth remains urgent; The region's economic structure has embedded in it a number of systemic constraints, limitations, and weaknesses; and

11 Basic Considerations … cont’d
The prospects of OECS growth depend upon: (a) further diversification, (b) continued FDI inflows, (c) international competitiveness, (d) political and social stability, and (e) the performance of the global economy.

12 Key systemic constraint and limitation in the OECS,
The SIGNIFICANT VULNERABILITY of the OECS. Based on the combination of small size, economic openness, the degree of diversification of the economy, levels of income, and exposure to natural disasters

13 Major External & Internal Pressures on the OECS Social Welfare System
Donors & Inter-governmental Change of vision to suit donors’ perspectives. Increased role of international obligations, standards and norms Globalisation Economic uncertainty Internal: Demographic changes

14 Different Pressures Ideological pressures;
Pressures created by the fact that the upper middle classes are tending to withdraw from participation in the state system of social welfare provisioning; Labour market changes and their impact on education, training, unemployment, and the nature of the work process; and The disincentive effects of welfare provisioning. Ideological pressures against state provision of welfare.

15 Major Implications for Social Policy
The view of social policy and social spending as an investment in people and institutions (social capital) and therefore productivity enhancing, has gained only limited acceptance throughout the region; There is manifestly insufficient coordination between social institutions, even at the level of central government; The central role of the worker or the “core-bread winner” in social policy formulation is not adequately recognized;

16 Major Implications … cont’d
Institutions across all the domains remain severely deficient in their capacity, flexibility, and adaptability; The legal basis for a modern social service delivery system is not there; The importance of social relationships and shared values as resources for effective social action is not sufficiently recognized; Since the 1970s, redistributive policies have receded into the background of public discourse; and

17 Major Implications … cont’d
The region’s institutional approach to social services delivery and the reality of the poverty of particular communities The region’s institutional approach to social services delivery has been based on the universal principle of state provisioning to all citizens through line ministries; and However, poverty, one of the region’s most glaring social gaps, has been frequently associated with particular communities.

18 Needs Based & Rights Based
A rights-based approach prioritizes individuals, households and communities as active agents with claims to resources to promote their own development. It is participatory and partnership oriented; and recognizes all rights, including economic, cultural and social. the needs-based approach can potentially establish top-down command and control mechanisms to ensure their provision.

19 International “good-practice”
First, it reveals the experience to date from learning-by-doing as interpreted by the donor countries and translated into policy support for the region; and Second, it sets the norms and standards against which the framework recommended in this report can be measured.

20 Social Policy: A Conceptual Framework for the OECS
A major challenge to the promotion of sustainable human development in the OECS is the absence of a coherent and well-articulated framework to shape the evolution of social policy; and Policy interventions will be largely ah hoc and reactive to the unfolding domestic and external situations.

21 Construct of a conceptual framework for Social Policy in the region
Eight concrete steps are required: Step 1: provide a workable definition/description of social policy as it applies to the OECS. Step 2: present a clear delineation of the philosophical premises on which the definition/description of social policy rests. Step 3: state the overall objective of the social framework.

22 Construct of a … cont’d Step 4: identify the main strategic objectives, which follow from the overall objective. Step 5: indicate the main areas through which social welfare/protection benefits are to be provided. Step 6: identify the basic concerns of the social policy framework and the groups of policies which address these. Step 7: bring together the components of the framework Step 8: highlight the key innovative features of the framework.

23 Definition Social policy refers to
Those aims, objectives and declared intentions of a range of organizations in the public, private/business, civil sector, and international community that are intended to meet the needs of the entire OECS population, male and female, in order to improve their well-being or welfare; The way these are translated into programmes for change; and The outcomes of these programmes

24 Four premises: Population of the OECS, both male and female, are actors, owners, and initiators of social policy. They are expected to have (and demand) increasing agency over the domains of society, economy, polity, and culture. The necessity/imperative for social reform and change is a widely shared value among the population of the OECS.

25 Social Development is a “public good”,
Social change will be ultimately reflected in the nature and quality of the social relations, inter-connections, and shared values among the population of the OECS.. Social Development is a “public good”, There is therefore, a strong philosophical presumption underlying the definition/description in favour of participation and partnership as the best form of social interaction Social development is a public good:in at least two senses. One is that it is part of the “commons” or common heritage of all citizens of the OECS, and second is that responsibility for its provision is collectively shared by members of society.

26 Overall objective The creation of more secure and functional social relations/also termed social capital The enlargement of the capability of its population, both men and women, (and in particular poor and vulnerable groups) to meet their needs and interests; Through effective participation in the activities of the four central institutions of the OECS: state, market, household, and community.

27 Strategic objective The development objective of social policy in the OECS may be described as enabling the population as a rule, men and women, and vulnerable groups in particular, to (1) address their needs and interests, (2) secure greater “livelihood security”, and (3) to strengthen social relations (social capital).

28 Nine development goals
Poverty eradication Building social capital Securing family/household relations Gender equity Participation/empowerment Institutional sustainability Environmental sustainability International competitiveness Macroeconomic stability and balance

29 Social Protection/Welfare Objective
The social protection/welfare objective addresses both the principles that guide the distribution of welfare benefits and provisioning in the society, and the specific means or “welfare mix” through which these are provided.

30 Theoretical approaches
The risk-based approach Capability or resource approach The risk based approach is premised on an individualistic view of social protection. It is an approach based on the social risks that6 individuals are likely to encounter and their responses to these. It has also been criticized as unhistorical and static. The capability or resource approach has been developed by Sen. This approach focuses on the houehold and the com munity and the resources at their command to satisfy their needs and interests.

31 Social Welfare Regime/Paradigm
Social protection/welfare is offered through specific welfare regimes or paradigms.

32 Social Protection Objective
Welfare Paradigm/Regime Welfare Mix Welfare Outcomes Stratification Effects The welfare mix is the particular combination of , and interaction between, the public, private, household and community sectors in the provisioning of livelihoods, the social policies and programmes they pursue, and the way they distribute welfare benefits. This mix is affected by both domestic and international factors. The welfare outcomes are encaptured in several indicators. However these can be combines into two indexes, namely the degree of decommodification in the society (ie the measure of the extent of the insulation/protection afforded to households in the OECS, in event they are threatened by adverse situations in the Labour market and the degree of de-familisation (ie. The extent to which a person’s standard of living its independent of family or houehold membership. The stratification effects referred to above, indicate the manner in which the various institutions providing social welfare protection are embedded in the social structure and their influence therefore in shaping economic, political and social relation in order to ensure the particu;ar manner in which the social system is reproduced. Welfare regimes therefore, shape the perception of equity and in turn are influenced by these perceptions.

33 Operationalizing Social Protection/ Welfare
Employment Income supplements Consumption provisioning Direct services Regulation Employment eg. Work programmes or training; 2 Income supplements eg. Cash transfers to the needy or insurance to the unemployed 3. consumption provisioning eg. Food and nutrition programmes for school children, lactating mothers; 4. Direct services eg. The provision of health and education services 5. regulation eg. State regulation of no-state provisions such as insurance, private pensions and redundancy payments.

34 Basic Concerns & Related Policies
Empowerment Livelihood security Social services Social integration

35 Basic concerns … cont’d
The basic concerns can be addressed through three types of social policy Investment in human capital Protection/compensatory policies Social integration policies Investment in human capital – education, health and labour market reform To this he adds in his way forward: Social Indicators, Database and Information systems

36 Highlight features The Social Policy Framework suggested, deliberately goes beyond the social sector budgetary analysis that very often passes for social policy determination in the region. It seeks to create the context within which programmes and projects, whether originating in the state, private, civil, household, community, domestic or international sectors, can be conceived, assessed, implemented, and evaluated; The Framework focuses on the all the key levels of decision-making in the society;

37 Highlight features …cont’d
In a basic sense, the framework provided here is intended to be iterative; The framework takes a long-term perspective of the development of social policy; The starting point of the framework has been the review of social and economic performance and outcomes in the region; The proposed framework should form the basis for dialogue; and The framework treats gender equity as a cross-cutting theme.

38 Value-added of this Report
Is its contribution towards crafting a conceptual social policy framework document, within which social policy interventions and programmes in the Region can be located.

39 Political will We are reminded that without political commitment to pursue a course of social policy, its successful implementation, is highly unlikely.

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