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The Humanitarian System: Roles, Responsibilities and Coordination Module 02.

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Presentation on theme: "The Humanitarian System: Roles, Responsibilities and Coordination Module 02."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Humanitarian System: Roles, Responsibilities and Coordination Module 02

2 Learning Objectives Have a basic knowledge of the international Humanitarian System Understand the diversity of actors involved in humanitarian action and be able to identify common principles upheld by all. Understand the purpose and importance of coordination Be aware of the main humanitarian coordination bodies and mechanisms. List key sources of resource mobilization for humanitarian response

3 Humanitarian System – Network of Actors This figure: Shows a number of diverse actors involved in international and national humanitarian efforts – affected population, government, UN agencies, NGOs, donors, etc Provides useful reminder of the role played by various actors Underscores the need for strong coordination

4 A U S T R A L I A Host Government Disaster Management Actors at the country level UN system and other Agencies Target population Bi-lateral donors NGOs, Red Cross & other civil society members

5 Well-known, long-standing gaps Limited & inconsistent linkages: UN & non-UN Coordination erratic/personality driven Insufficient accountability (particularly for IDPs) Inconsistent donor policies WHY REFORM? Findings from the 2005 Humanitarian Response Review

6 Humanitarian Reform Strengthening existing humanitarian response through greater: Accountability Predictability Leadership Partnership

7 HUMANITARIAN COORDINATION Effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergencies HUMANITARIAN FINANCING Adequate, timely and flexible financing CLUSTER APPROACH Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors PARTNERSHIP Strong partnerships between UN and non-UN actors 23 Roles, Responsibilities and Coordination: The 3 Pillars of Reform 1

8 Partnership is the Foundation for Reform Partnership amongst UN and non-UN partners including government, the civil society organizations, NGOs, CBOs and international organizations Respect for each others mandates Recognition of agency-based approaches Collaborative and inclusive process: o aims to avoid excessive and unfocused meetings o builds on the complementarity amongst actors

9 Global Humanitarian Platform NGOs are major actors in humanitarian assistance NGO resources and expertise are often greater – and may differ from – those of UN agencies Weaknesses with IASC … UN-centric, felt as out of touch with or even irrelevant to the realities on the ground 2005 External Review of the IASC recommended the creation of an outreach mechanism -> Global Humanitarian Platform GHP is unique due to: o Spirit of equality and informality o Equal status of all three pillars o Participation of national NGOs

10 GHP Objectives Achieve a common understanding on the concept of partnership by developing "Principles of Partnership". Partners to ensure principles permeate their operations and actions Implement Principles of Partnership at country level. Dialogue on strategic issues of common concern: o accountability to the populations for, and with, whom we work o strengthening of the capacity of local actors o the safety and security of the staff o roles in situations of transition Meet annually to take stock of the progress to date and make adjustments, where appropriate

11 HUMANITARIAN COORDINATION Effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergencies HUMANITARIAN FINANCING Adequate, timely and flexible financing CLUSTER APPROACH Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors PARTNERSHIP Strong partnerships between UN and non-UN actors 23 Roles, Responsibilities and Coordination: The 3 Pillars of Reform 1

12 Pillar I: Pillar I: Humanitarian Coordination – United Nations At the top is the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) – responsible for oversight of all emergencies requiring UN humanitarian assistance – acts as the central focal point for Governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental relief activities – ERC is the Head of OCHA OCHA coordinates the UNs response to complex emergencies and natural disasters – supports the Humanitarian Coordinator (HC) at country level in needs assessments, contingency planning and the formulation of humanitarian programmes – OCHA also provides response tools, and advocacy and information services

13 Humanitarian Coordination – The IASC Chaired by the ERC, the Inter Agency Standing Committee (IASC) is an inter-agency forum established in 1992 responsible for: – coordination – policy development and decision-making – IASC comprises the main UN agencies, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the INGOs The IASC focuses on generic policy issues, whilst the IASC Clusters have specific technical areas of policy and operational concern

14 Coordination: Roles and Responsibilities UN has designated Humanitarian Coordinators (HC) in 29 countries, managed by OCHA, and are responsible for leading and coordinating the humanitarian action of relevant organisations in-country In the rest of the countries, this function is assumed by the UN Resident Coordinator (RC) who is also the Representative of UNDP. The HC/RC ensure the following: – Coordination and inclusion of the various humanitarian actors – Coordination and development of a common strategic vision – Articulation of a common strategic plan for realizing this vision (e.g. CHAP Common Humanitarian Action Plan) – Efficient and effective division of labour among organizations (through clusters)

15 Coordination: Roles and Responsibilities – HC/RC (2) – Timely, effective and efficient implementation of strategic plan by holding cluster leads accountable – By establishing inter-cluster coordination, needs assessment, monitoring and evaluation – Ensuring the strategic plan is funded – All necessary efforts are made to obtain free, timely and unimpeded access to populations in need – International humanitarian and human rights laws are promoted and respected

16 Coordination: Roles and Responsibilities Humanitarian coordination is a very demanding function as time is of critical concern. Is influenced by: – nature and impact of the crisis – stakeholders capacities – political commitment of national and international players National Government or occupying power has primary responsibility for the provision (and coordination) of response to the territory affected by disaster Humanitarian agencies have an essential role to play by supporting the government and respecting their coordination function Exceptions are when the authorities are themselves responsible for abuse and violations, or when their assistance is not impartial

17 Coordination: Roles and Responsibilities National governments may be able to mount their own relief operations to help their people depending on national capacity and scale of the crisis The capacity of a national government to coordinate and respond to a crisis is determined by the existence of: – Clear, pre-determined, lines of authority and responsibility – Knowledge and aptitude within the government to manage its relationship with international agencies – Availability of reliable information systems – The capacity to work constructively with the media – Adequate national technical capacity for programmes designed to address emergency nutrition problems

18 Coordination: Roles and Responsibilities Inter-Agency Coordination Groups can fill the coordination vacuum by coming together and working under a common framework in situations where there is no recognised government or authority Some of these coordination groups have been complemented by the IASC cluster fora to add impetus to emergency focus as seen in Somalia NB: This does not occur very often

19 Collaborative Groupings within the Humanitarian System - Donors The Good Humanitarian Donorship (GHD) initiative comprises representatives of government, donors and the European Commissions Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) It endorses the principles and good practice of humanitarian donorship By defining principles and standards, it provides a framework to guide official humanitarian aid and a mechanism for encouraging greater donor accountability

20 International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement: Federation, Committee, National Societies International Federation Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies carries out relief operations together with the (global) network of national societies: – Promoting humanitarian values – Disaster response (food, food security, nutrition…) – Disaster preparedness (pre-positioning of stocks) – Health and community care 9-Feb-1420

21 International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement: Federation, Committee, National Societies International Committee of the Red Cross mandated: – to be the guardian and promoter of international humanitarian law – to protect the lives and dignity of victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence – to provide them with assistance (health, protection, detention, tracing, etc). – Geneva Conventions – Specific ICRC Statutes used in contexts where Geneva Conventions do not apply 9-Feb-1421

22 National Societies 9-Feb-1422 Unique network of 187 member national societies which cover almost every country in the world Act as auxillaries to the public authorities of their own countries in the humanitarian field and provide a range of services Their local knowledge and experise, access to communities and infrastructure enable the Movement to reach areas and peoples in need During wartime, National Societies assist the affected civilian population

23 9-Feb-1423

24 International NGOs NGOs can be distinguished by area of speciality (nutrition assessments, selective feeding, general food rations, livelihood support, advocacy); by the way they work (whether they are operational or work through local partners); by relationship and dependence on donors (whether mainly dependent on donors that provide only food assistance or not). Sources and mechanisms of funding vary enormously. Some largely dependent upon government, while others have developed mechanisms to access large amounts of private and public funding ( greater autonomy in strategic direction and geographic locations) 9-Feb-1424

25 Local NGOs Including church-based groups Often have a great connectedness to local populations and their needs Are easily accepted by the community Have a great deal of understanding of local context and the dynamics of the population, its characteristics and socio-political environment May have experience in diverse emergency situations Are usually present before an emergency strikes and remain once the crisis is over Tend to work at lower levels than international NGOs Fill gaps that international NGOs may miss In general NGOs are responsible for most nutritional surveys conducted during emergencies 9-Feb-1425

26 Pillar II: Funding Mechanisms for Humanitarian Response

27 Initiatives to Strengthen Humanitarian Financing Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) Emergency Response Funds (ERFs) Pooled Funding Good Humanitarian Donorship initiative (GHD)

28 Flash Appeal – Multiple donors CERF Project proposals Nutrition Cluster SOP plus projects Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) 6 months on up to 6 months CERF doesnt replace appeals; it interacts with them

29 What is CERF? 1.Rapid response grants (2/3 of the $450 million grant facility) – available within 24 hours – To Promote early action and response to reduce loss of life – To Enhance response to time-critical requirements – To Strengthen core elements of humanitarian response in underfunded crisis 29 grants were allocated Jan-Sept 2010 to support rapid response to new crises 2.Under-funded crises (1/3 of grant facility) if no other funding source immediately available, including agencies own unearmarked agency funds and earmarked donor grants. 14 such grants were given Jan-Sept 2010 to bolster existing under-funded humanitarian operations 3. Loans ($50 million) funding committed but not yet paid; or commitment very likely Spent within 3 months for life-saving needs (no op costs) Launched in 2006, CERF is managed by OCHA, (but cant access) and only UN and IOM (International Organisation on Migration) are eligible to apply; NGOs cannot apply directly

30 CERF Decision-Making Process CERF funding decisions begin at the country level Project proposals are submitted and reviewed by the cluster members for approach, consistency and to ensure that identified needs are prioritised Decisions are guided by criteria on what constitutes life-saving interventions HC or RC – Country Team CERF Secretariat Consultation with Government. Prioritisation of Needs. Assessment Consultations OCHA Consultations Agency HQ Approved or rejected by ERC Life-saving criteria Funding situation Humanitarian response strategy Country capacity

31 Life-Saving Maybe, depending on context Not Life- Saving Primary Healthcare De-mining Infrastructure Reconstruction Therapeutic Feeding Livestock Vaccinations IM systems Emergency WatSan General Food Distributions Micro-Credit Shelter/NFI Surveillance systems Preparedness Plans Protection Psycho-social Vulnerability assessments

32 Global Nutrition Cluster UNICEF is the Global Nutrition Cluster Lead Agency Currently more than 30 agencies are part of the Global Nutrition Cluster (GNC) At global level, the GNC focuses on coordination, capacity development, emergency preparedness, assessment, monitoring, surveillance and response triggers and supplies. GNC supports country clusters through: – rolling out a capacity development strategy; – strengthening and expanding a global roster to improve surge capacity (e.g., rapid response capacity); – improving the material resourcing of nutritional emergencies through establishing supply requirements; – producing practical tools to improve the consistency and quality of response efforts

33 Pillar III: Pillar III: The Cluster Approach - Aims To close gaps, increase predictability, and strengthen response capacity, coordination and accountability Better linkages with Government/national authorities More strategic responses Better prioritization of available resources

34 At the Global Level Originally IASC designated lead agencies for 9 clusters in key response areas Global Cluster Leads are accountable to the ERC for: o Strengthening system-wide preparedness and technical capacity to respond o Ensuring predictable leadership and accountability in designated area of work o Establishing broader partnership bases o Setting standards and policy

35 Designated Gap Areas or Clusters and Lead Agencies TechnicalWater, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) UNICEF NutritionUNICEF HealthWHO ShelterUNHCR (conflict) IFRC (natural disasters) EducationUNICEF/SC-UK AgricultureFAO Cross-cuttingCamp ManagementUNHCR (conflict) IOM (natural disasters) ProtectionUNHCR Early RecoveryUNDP Common ServicesLogisticsWFP TelecommunicationsOCHA/WFP/UNICEF

36 Responsibilities of Cluster Leads at the global level Each Lead Agency works with partners to: – Set Standards and policies -Documentation and dissemination of best practices Develop response capacity -Stand-by rosters & surge capacity -Emergency preparedness -Provide support to organizations working in the field -Material stockpiles Provide Operational Support Advocacy and resource mobilization

37 At the Country Level Country-level IASC designates Lead Agencies Each Cluster Lead facilitates a process that ensures a well-coordinated and effective humanitarian response Provider of last resort ensure adequate and appropriate response subject to access, security and funding Ensure agreed priority needs are met fill critical gaps Cluster Leads at the country level are accountable to the HC/RC

38 When? of the Cluster Approach Contingency Planning & Preparedness Responses to major new emergencies (sudden on-set) Rolled-out in on-going/protracted emergencies, e.g., Somalia Eventually to be used in all countries with Humanitarian Coordinators Where? of the Cluster Approach

39 Partnership = - relationship between groups - mutual cooperation & responsibility - for achievement of specified goal Partnership is essential in todays world; issues are too complex for any one organisation Working together is an urgent life-and- death issue Global Humanitarian Platform – Geneva, July 2007

40 Key tools available through the GNC Harmonised Training Package for Nutrition in Emergencies Toolkit for Nutrition in Emergencies Factsheet: WHO Growth Standards in Emergencies Initial Rapid Assessment Tool (developed with Health & WASH Clusters Funded updating of NutVal Software (WFP) Funded development of Guidelines for Selective Feeding: the Management of Malnutrition in Emergencies Promote use of Sphere Minimum Standards and co-funded the revision of the Nutrition and Food Security Chapter Support for MAM : – literature review (CDC); – development of decision tool (tree); – design of product sheet; – development of Guidance Note Updating of Cluster Coordinators training package Development of Handbook (in progress: targets practitioners within the nutrition cluster and other clusters; addresses 13 functional areas for cluster coordination

41 Coordination Processes, Mechanisms and Tools – Nutrition Cluster At country level, the nutrition cluster is supported by its coordinator and works with national and international partners to establish and agree a workable coordination mechanism which can act as an information sharing and planning forum. Its main tasks are: – Organising joint assessments – Promoting emergency preparedness – improving coverage of emergency nutrition programmes – Feeding into CAP or Flash Appeals – Developing agreed plan of action Each country coordinator works in a consultative and cooperative manner with as many agencies and organisations as is appropriate, including the national government.

42 Partnership underpins all humanitarian action Strengthened sectoral coordination Stronger and more accountable leadership Flexible, adequate and timely funding No longer reform, but the way we do business! Building a stronger, more predictable humanitarian response system

43 What does this mean for YOU? Change attitudesway you work Change attitudes and way you work – genuine partnerships and accountability! Build on achievements Build on achievements - ensure, deliver better product – IMPACT on vulnerable populations preparedness contingency planning Improve preparedness and contingency planning linkagesrecovery and development Better linkages to recovery and development governments local capacity development Improve support to governments and local capacity development


45 Any questions?

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