Presentation on theme: "Education for Some More than Others ? A Regional Study on Education in CEE/CIS 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Education for Some More than Others ? A Regional Study on Education in CEE/CIS 2007
Why the title Education for Some More than Others?
BACKGROUND Follow-up to UNICEF IRC report (1998) - Education for All ? - which found marked increase in disparities in quantity & quality of education in CEE/CIS How far has this trend towards Education for Some More than Others continued? How far have the 12 steps towards Education for All recommended in 1998 been taken, & what additional steps are needed now?
A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW 1. The regional context 2. Education reforms – where are we now ? 3. Access and equity issues 4. Learning and Labour Outcomes 5. Costs, financing and governance The report examines:
FOCUS ON EQUITY The report analyses equity and disparity issues in basic education – from 3 different angles : From a Human Rights point of view From a Social Cohesion point of view From a longer-term Economic point of view
Geographic Coverage 29 countries – 6 Sub-Regions Baltic States Caucasus Central Asia Central and Eastern Europe South and Eastern Europe Western CIS
Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Albania Bulgaria Bosnia and Herzegovina Belarus Croatia Moldova TFYR of Macedonia Romania Serbia Ukraine Montenegro Russian Federation CEE/CIS Region
CONTEXT Economic recovery throughout the region but … fiscal difficulties in weaker economies Increased average standard of living but … increased income inequality and rising unemployment rates Decline in absolute poverty but persisting pockets of poverty – particularly child poverty Prevalence of child labour (Moldova, Central Asia, SEE) – to the detriment of schooling Steep downward trend in the population aged 0-17
KEY FINDINGS (1) Reversal and Deterioration of Education in CEE/CIS Almost two decades after the onset of transition … Provision and quality of education in CEE/CIS has not improved; instead, it has deteriorated in many ways Trends observed in 1998 towards increased disparities in education have continued.
KEY FINDINGS (2) 2.4 million children of primary-school age (9%) out of school in the region in 2004 12 million children of secondary-school age (22%) out of school in the region in 2004 More than 14 million children entering adult life without either any kind of formal education or a school diploma
KEY FINDINGS (3) 3 countries – Georgia, Moldova and Tajikistan - unlikely to achieve MDG 2 (universal primary education completion by 2015) 2 countries – Turkey and Tajikistan - not on track to achieve MDG 3 (elimination of gender disparities at all levels of education by 2015)
KEY FINDINGS (4) Family background (family income, parental education) is increasingly a determinant of inequality in enrolment and attendance – mainly at pre-school level Ethnic groups – particularly Roma - are at great educational disadvantage with enrolment and completion rates well below those of the majority-group children (see graphs on next slides) Children with Special Needs : number of children in institutions or receiving benefits tripled between 1990 and 2000 – from 500,000 to 1.5 million Children out of school :
Roma children Net Enrolment Primary Education (%) Source : OSI & TRANSMONEEE
LEARNING OUTCOMES More public expenditure on education produces better results up to a certain level – CEE and Baltic States (see graph on next slide) Socio-economic background is one of the most important factors influencing learning outcomes Between-country disparities: Within-country disparities : Relevance of Education: Countries in the region do better in TIMSS and PIRLS than in PISA source of concern
LABOUR MARKET OUTCOMES Statistics show that young workers of both sexes do benefit from staying in education system as long as possible But focus-group discussions show that people in poorer countries are skeptical about reaping benefits of education - particularly in case of girls in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Turkey High youth unemployment rates : 35.6% in SEE (2001) and 30.4% in CEE (2005)
COSTS, FINANCING & GOVERNANCE (1) Public expenditure on education increased but remains insufficient in most countries and tends to benefit the richest families Reforms have been initiated but have not penetrated the classrooms – particularly in poorer and rural areas Out-dated teaching methods, lack of relevance of curricula, poorly paid and demotivated teachers, low transition to upper-secondary education decreasing quality + falling demand for education
COSTS, FINANCING & GOVERNANCE (2) Decentralization: funding burden passed to local communities and families to the detriment of equity Student/ teacher ratios: Demographic dividend scope for efficiency gains Private tutoring becoming more widespread (69% of secondary school students in some countries) Danger of unethical practices, low-income families lose out
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS (1) Need to re-define the basic package of educational services that a state should provide free to its citizens Need to increase efficiency – take better advantage of demographic dividend - make greater use of Medium Term Expenditure Frameworks Need to improve governance of education systems – decentralization, community participation
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS (2) Make use of existing frameworks – Fast Track Initiative, EU accession and affiliation processes (Stability Pact, European Neighborhood Policy) to push reforms forward Other measures : promote early childhood approaches, child-friendly school principles, child-centered teaching methods, school fee abolition, cash transfers …etc
Need to make better use of field presence/experience to contribute to education reforms through evidence-based advocacy and policy dialogue Need to expand/refine sector analysis to explore further such areas as governance, costing, financing, political economy, accountability, efficiency … using a human rights lens Need to build capacity within UNICEF Offices and among partners to play such a new role
Lead donor agency for FTI in 4 countries Lead role in ECCE reform and expansion – 12 countries initiated the development of Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) Child-Friendly School approach gaining momentum – 6/15 countries involved in the development of Child Friendly School Indicators or Standards for Quality Education Less project work – Greater involvement at policy level Girls Education Campaign in Turkey