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Education and HIV/AIDS Global success in combating HIV/AIDS must be measured by its impact on our children and young people. Are they getting the information.

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Presentation on theme: "Education and HIV/AIDS Global success in combating HIV/AIDS must be measured by its impact on our children and young people. Are they getting the information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Education and HIV/AIDS Global success in combating HIV/AIDS must be measured by its impact on our children and young people. Are they getting the information they need to protect themselves from HIV? Are girls being empowered to take charge of their sexuality? Are infants safe from the disease, and are children orphaned by AIDS being raised in loving, supportive environments? These are the hard questions we need to be asking. These are the yardsticks for measuring our leaders. We cannot let another generation be devastated by AIDS. - Carol Bellamy, UNICEF Executive Director

2 11.8 million Young People (15-24) Living with HIV/AIDS 7.3 million young women - 4.5 million young men 38% 62% South Asia 1.1 million Industrialized Countries 240,000 67% 33% Middle East & North Africa 160,000 59% 41% Central and Eastern Europe 430,000 35% 65% 49% 51% East Asia & Pacific 740,000 31% 69% Latin America & Caribbean 560,000 38% 62% Sub-Saharan Africa 8.6 million Source: UNAIDS/UNICEF, 2000

3 Europe 100 million Africa 180 million Asia 700 million Oceania 5 million North America 50 million Caribbean & Latin America 100 million Total: 1.2 billion Young People that need to be reached with LIFE SKILLS Number of Young People age 15-24 years old, 2005 estimate

4 *three primary ways (ABC): Abstinence; Be faithful; Consistent condom use Most Adolescents Know Little about HIV Prevention Source: UNICEF/MICS, DHS 1999-2001 % of young women (15-19) who have heard of AIDS and % who know the three primary ways of avoiding infection*

5 Most Adolescents have Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS % of young women (aged 15-19) who have at least one major misconception about HIV/AIDS or have never heard of AIDS Most Adolescents have Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS % of young women (aged 15-19) who have at least one major misconception about HIV/AIDS or have never heard of AIDS Misconceptions: HIV can be transmitted through witchcraft; mosquito bites; or believe a healthy-looking person cannot have AIDS virus. Source: UNICEF/MICS, Measure DHS, 1999-2001. Eastern & Southern Africa West & Central Africa Latin America & Caribbean CEE/CIS and Baltic States East Asia & the Pacific Middle East & North Africa Misconceptions (%)

6 Very informed = 4 Moderately informed = 3 Not very informed = 2 Not at all informed = 1 Very informed = 4 Moderately informed = 3 Not very informed = 2 Not at all informed = 1 Voices of children and adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Survey. UNICEF, 2000. Adolescents in Latin America & the Caribbean Regarding AIDS, I feel…

7 Source: UNICEF/MICS & Measure DHS, 1999-2001 Have heard of AIDS Have sufficient knowledge to protect themselves 94 27 91 4 97 14 94 37 97 33 93 4 13 3 96 17 93 16 43 2 90 16 99 23 70 5 81 18 84 15 59 16 72 5 59 5 90 26 Few Have Sufficient Knowledge to Protect Themselves % of young women (aged 15–24) who have heard of AIDS and have sufficient knowledge to protect themselves

8 BoysGirls KnowDont Know Still in school 32% 26% No longer in school 52% 45% 91% Never in school 83% Source: DHS, 1998. Young people cannot protect themselves if they do not know the facts about HIV/AIDS. Adolescents must learn the facts before they become sexually active, and the information needs to be regularly reinforced through schools, communities and the media. It is necessary to maintain continued HIV/AIDS education in order to reach each new cohort of adolescents and to build upon the existing knowledge of all young people. Education Makes a Difference % of youth (aged 15-19) in Cameroon who know that a healthy looking person can have HIV, 1998

9 Condom Use & Educational Attainment % of unmarried adolescents (aged 15-19) in Côte dIvoire reporting condom use during sexual intercourse by educational status, 1998 Source: Enquete de surveillance de comportements relatifs aux MST/SIDA en Côte d'Ivoire. BSS, 1998. ENSEA,FHI/IMPACT, IRESCO. 20 28 40 19 26 45 0 20 40 60 80 100 No educationPrimary Education Secondary and higher education Boys Girls Percentage using condoms during last sexual intercourse

10 Teaching Children about HIV/AIDS Prevention % of women (age 15-49) who have heard of AIDS and who think that children age 12-14 should be taught how to use condoms to avoid AIDS, by educational status, selected countries 2000 52% 38% 45% 55% 80% 48% 56% 65% 87% 65% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% MalawiGabonHaitiCambodia No educationPrimary schoolSecondary+

11 N=1675 Source: Surinam-MICS/UNICEF, 2000 Know test place (%) Knowledge of HIV Testing Facilities Increases with Education Knowledge of HIV Testing Facilities Increases with Education % of young women who know where to get an HIV test by education level Suriname, 2000

12 Source: Malawi 2000 DHS, Tanzania 1999 DHS. Know test place (%) Adult Knowledge of HIV Testing Facilities Increases with Educational Attainment

13 19% 41% 31% 86% 89% 99% 0%20%40%60%80%100% Transmitted through Toilets Transmitted through Mosquitoes Not sure if AID is curable Willing/No objection to provide direct services/help for HIV-positive students Willing to conduct AIDS prevention education Knowledge of AIDS Countries Need HIV/AIDS Training for Secondary School Health Personnel Source: AIDS Prevention Knowledge, Attitudes and Education Practice of Secondary School Health Personnel in China. Jinqi Chen; Decai Zhao; Michael P. Dunne. December 2000. 6th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, 5-10 October 2001, Melbourne, Australia. Abstract Book, page 29. CHINA, 2000. N=573

14 36% 48% 16% Lesotho, Boys & Girls 72% 8% 20% Guinea Bissau, Boys & Girls 46% 10% 1% 53% Senegal, Boys 37% 9% 4% 50% Senegal, Girls 24% 8% 3% 65% Cameroon, Urban Boys & GirlsCameroon, Rural Boys & Girls 62% 15% 23% Non-standard education Primary school Secondary school Out-of-school Reach All Adolescents with AIDS Education Source: UNICEF, MICS, 2000 In many sub-Saharan African countries, adolescents become sexually active by age 15. HIV/AIDS education, therefore, must reach all young people before they become sexually active because it is easier to instil safer sex practices early than to change established risky behaviour. Interventions must account for differences between young people living in rural and urban areas, in school and out of school, younger and older adolescents, boys and girls. % of 14 year olds in primary school, secondary school or out of school, 2000

15 School is a Protective Factor % of girls who were not yet sexually active at various ages, by schooling status, Kenya 1993 and 1998 In school Out of school Source: DHS

16 Prevention programmes must target all adolescents, including those out-of-school Source: Cameroon-MICS/UNICEF, 2000 % out-of-school % in secondary school % in primary school % in pre-school Young adolescence Where are they? Rural areas Urban areas Age N=8,950 % out-of-school % in secondary school % in primary school Young adolescence % out-of-school % in secondary school % in primary school 10-14 year olds Official primary school age

17 Impact of Parents Death on Schooling 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Benin Cameroon Chad Côte d'Ivoire Mali Niger Tanzania Togo Haiti Bolivia Guatemala Peru living with one or both parentsboth parents dead Source: Demographic and Health Surveys, Macro International, USA, and UNICEF, 2000 Proportion of children in school (%) % of youth (aged 10-14) in school according to whether their parents are alive Selected countries, 1994-1998

18 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 KenyaZambia 19951999 19961998 Source: Adapted from World Bank, Education and HIV/AIDS: A Window of Hope, 2002 Impact of HIV/AIDS on Teachers Number of deaths of teachers between 1995 and 1999, Kenya and Zambia Number of deaths

19 Children are Adversely Affected by the Loss of Teachers to AIDS

20 1. End the silence, stigma and shame. 2. Provide young people with knowledge and information. 3. Equip young people with life skills to put knowledge into practice. 4. Provide youth-friendly health services. 5. Promote voluntary and confidential HIV counselling and testing. 6. Work with young people, promote their participation. 7. Engage young people who are living with HIV/AIDS. 8. Create safe and supportive environments. 9. Reach out to young people most at risk. 10. Strengthen partnerships, monitor progress. Young people and HIV/AIDS, Opportunity in Crisis. UNICEF, UNAIDS, WHO, 2002. Education is a Major Component of the 10 Step Strategy to Prevent HIV/AIDS Part of an AIDS education and awareness project, girls sit on the floor around a large poster, drawing lines to connect groups at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, at the Pang Lao School, in the northern city of Chiang Rai. Thailand.


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