Presentation on theme: "St. Petersburg Early Intervention Institute, Russian Federation"— Presentation transcript:
1 St. Petersburg Early Intervention Institute, Russian Federation Early childhood intervention as a first step towards inclusive educationElena KozhevnikovaSt. Petersburg Early Intervention Institute, Russian Federation
2 CRC, GENERAL COMMENT No. 7 (2005) Implementing child rights in early childhood Young children should be recognized as active members of families, communities and societies, with their own concerns, interests and points of view.Children with disabilities (art. 23). Young children should never be institutionalized solely on the grounds of disability. It is a priority to ensure that they have equal opportunities to participate fully in education and community life… Young disabled children are entitled to appropriate specialist assistance, including support for their parents… Disabled children should at all times be treated with dignity and in ways that encourage their self-reliance.
3 Early childhood intervention – scientific background Early experience and brain development, sensitive periods, brain plasticityEarly relationships, attachment theoryInteraction and communication (communication vs. ‘conditioning’)Early cognitive development – “scientist in the crib”Infant as a self-actor vs. passive object of care
4 Examples Sensitive periods – infants with hearing loss Brain plasticity – infants with brain damageEarly relationships – infants in infant homes (damage of early institutionalization)
5 Goals of early childhood intervention General for the world:to “normalize” life of the child and familyto help parents to create optimal environment for infant/young child development and educationSpecific for Russia:to prevent infant and young children institutionalization
6 Main parts of early childhood intervention program Interdisciplinary teamwork with families and childrenPsychological support to familiesInformation and legal support to familiesSocial inclusion of families and childrenTransition to preschoolsSupport to inclusive preschool educationTransition to school
9 Benefits of early childhood intervention for: Infants and young children with disabilitiesParents and families of young children with disabilitiesTypically developing young childrenParents of typically developing young childrenTeachers and staff of mainstream preschoolsChild neurologists and pediatriciansState and regional budgetsSociety in general
10 Differences in ECI approach Defectological approach To “normalize” life of the child and the familyFamily centeredParents as partnersChild as an individualityProgram is based on strong sides of the child and familyDefectological approachTo cure or correct defects and “normalize” childChild focusedParents as obstacles or patientsChild as a category /type of defectProgram is based on weak sides of the child
11 Challenges in moving from ‘defectological’ to ECI approach: Strong tradition of ‘medical’ model of disability, belief that medical diagnosis completely predict developmentTradition to divide children into ‘educable’ and ‘uneducable’, into ‘high and low level rehabilitative potential’ groupsBelief that only professionals can help children, lack of respect and trust in families abilitiesNarrow specialization of rehabilitative and correctional educational services according child diagnosisLack of knowledge in early childhood development and education, in PT, OT, AAC methods
12 Education, Social care) MaternityHospitals(screenings)SpecializedMedical Centers:Medical-GeneticAudiologyOphtalmologyMainstreamPreschools(screenings)ChildrenHospitals(NICU, etc.)Early childhoodIntervention(NGO, Health care,Education, Social care)SpecialPreschoolsppChildrenPolyclinics(screenings)RehabilitationCentersSocialCenters
13 ECI ---- preschools ---- schools Experiences of Minsk, Belarus M.,10 years old girl with Down syndrome, studies at 3d grade of mainstream school, one of the best between classmates in Russian language, from 1 to 3 years old was in ECI, from 3 to 7 – in inclusive preschool.E. and D., 8 years old prematurely born twin-sisters starting school this autumn. E. is visually and hearing impaired (got cochlea implant) with mild motor problems. D. has CP, seizures, and visual impairment. Both move independently, talk, read, write, count. First months of life spent in hospital, since 10 months in ECI, from 4,5 years – in preschool.
14 How to find common language between Family with the child with disabilityMedical-social expertisePedagogical-Medical-Psychological CommissionEarly childhood interventionMainstream preschools and schoolsSpecial educationHealth careSocial careLocal communityMay be – through ICF-CY ?
15 EII as a knowledge center in early childhood intervention Support to regional and municipal authorities in developing ECI programsEducation of interdisciplinary ECI teamsEducation in Physical therapy, Occupational therapy, early communication, Alternative and Augmentative Communication, early childhood special education, infant mental health, assessment methods (infants and young children development, vision, hearing), family work, inclusive preschool education etc.
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