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Child Poverty in Egypt. Contents Definitions and Measurements of Child Poverty Income Poverty Trends :The Growth- Inequality-Poverty Triangle How income.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Poverty in Egypt. Contents Definitions and Measurements of Child Poverty Income Poverty Trends :The Growth- Inequality-Poverty Triangle How income."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Poverty in Egypt

2 Contents Definitions and Measurements of Child Poverty Income Poverty Trends :The Growth- Inequality-Poverty Triangle How income poverty affects children: children in poor households Child Poverty Situation: Global Criteria

3 Poverty Alleviation Poverty reduction has become an important goal of national and international development action. Poverty reduction has become an important goal of national and international development action. According to the Global Human Development Report for 2000, poverty limits human freedom and deprives a person of dignity. According to the Global Human Development Report for 2000, poverty limits human freedom and deprives a person of dignity. Poverty reduction is the first MDG goal, the other goals are related closely to poverty. Poverty reduction is the first MDG goal, the other goals are related closely to poverty.

4 Poverty Reduction Strategy In designing poverty reduction strategy, four main stages should be followed. In designing poverty reduction strategy, four main stages should be followed. First; identification of the poor; First; identification of the poor; Second; assessment of main characteristics of the poor in terms of their location, their socio- economic and demographic characteristics; Second; assessment of main characteristics of the poor in terms of their location, their socio- economic and demographic characteristics; Third, assess factors that generates poverty; identify linkages between economic and social policy and child outcomes. Third, assess factors that generates poverty; identify linkages between economic and social policy and child outcomes. Finally poverty reduction strategies can be designed. Finally poverty reduction strategies can be designed.

5 Why Child Poverty is Different than Adult Poverty Child Poverty differs from adult poverty in that it has different causes and effects, and the impact of poverty during childhood has permanent effects. Child Poverty differs from adult poverty in that it has different causes and effects, and the impact of poverty during childhood has permanent effects. Children are particularly dependent on their care takers, and thus, the situation of the mother, the father, the family, and, in general, the immediate environment have direct and strong impact on childrens wellbeing. Children are particularly dependent on their care takers, and thus, the situation of the mother, the father, the family, and, in general, the immediate environment have direct and strong impact on childrens wellbeing. The focus is on child poverty but it is clear that children are not isolated actors, and policies addressed to realize childrens rights should be related to policies oriented towards the women, families, and the community. The focus is on child poverty but it is clear that children are not isolated actors, and policies addressed to realize childrens rights should be related to policies oriented towards the women, families, and the community.

6 How can we define Child Poverty Children experience poverty as an environment that is damaging to their mental, physical, emotional and spiritual development. Children experience poverty as an environment that is damaging to their mental, physical, emotional and spiritual development. Expanding the definition of child poverty beyond traditional conceptualizations, such as low household income or low levels of consumption, is particularly important, UNICEF, Expanding the definition of child poverty beyond traditional conceptualizations, such as low household income or low levels of consumption, is particularly important, UNICEF, 2005.

7 How to Measure Child Poverty Two approaches to measuring child poverty. The first approach is the monetary approach, which uses an income-based poverty line to identify poverty.. The first approach is the monetary approach, which uses an income-based poverty line to identify poverty. The second approach is the deprivation approach, which establishes a set of basic services and capabilities and then measures the number of children who do not have access to the basket of services and capabilities. The second approach is the deprivation approach, which establishes a set of basic services and capabilities and then measures the number of children who do not have access to the basket of services and capabilities.

8 Interrelation between non- monetary and monetary child poverty Monetary Factors Non-Monetary Factors Factors underlying Deprivation, Poverty and Disparity Lack of monetary resources can cause deprivation, poverty and disparity But this is not always true. Income non-poor families may experience various deprivation, and income-poor families may be saved from some deprivation.

9 Debates about the methods of poverty measurement are common; Views differ on Measurement of individual welfare Units of measurement Setting of poverty lines Identification of the income poverty

10 Identification of income poverty, cont. *What is the standard of living indicator to measure welfare? Total expenditure or income. *How to distinguish between the poor and non- poor? Draw a poverty line *How can poverty levels be expressed in one indicator? Headcount (% of the poor), poverty gap (the gap between income of the poor and poverty line).

11 Methodology for Constructing Absolute Poverty Lines Draw Poverty line A bsolute poverty line will classify two persons at the same real consumption level as poor or non- poor, irrespective of the time or place The cost of basic needs methodology to Construct absolute poverty lines is usually used.

12 Poverty Lines Used in International Comparisons 1$ and 2$ Advantage: Easy to compare between countries Advantage: Easy to compare between countries They suffer from problems: They suffer from problems: They ignore differences in consumption patterns and prices across regions They ignore differences in consumption patterns and prices across regions May not account for the differing basic needs requirements of different household members May not account for the differing basic needs requirements of different household members For example, young versus old, male versus femaleFor example, young versus old, male versus female Usually ignore economies of scale within households Usually ignore economies of scale within households Non-food items can be shared among household members.Non-food items can be shared among household members. Estimates of PPP is based on baskets that do not reflect the consumption pattern of the poor Estimates of PPP is based on baskets that do not reflect the consumption pattern of the poor

13 Second Approach Child poverty as severe deprivation The measures of child poverty are based on internationally agreed definitions based on child rights. The measures of child poverty are based on internationally agreed definitions based on child rights. The measures are: adequate nutrition, safe drinking water, decent sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education, and information The measures are: adequate nutrition, safe drinking water, decent sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education, and information

14 Thresholds Severe nutrition deprivation: children whose heights and weights for their age were more than -3 standard deviations below the median of the international reference population i.e. severe anthropometric failure. Severe nutrition deprivation: children whose heights and weights for their age were more than -3 standard deviations below the median of the international reference population i.e. severe anthropometric failure. Severe water deprivation - children who only had access to surface water (e.g. rivers) for drinking or who lived in households where the nearest source of water was more than 15 minutes away (e.g. indicators of severe deprivation of water quality or quantity). Severe water deprivation - children who only had access to surface water (e.g. rivers) for drinking or who lived in households where the nearest source of water was more than 15 minutes away (e.g. indicators of severe deprivation of water quality or quantity). Severe deprivation of sanitation facilities – children who had no access to a toilet of any kind in the vicinity of their dwelling, e.g. no private or communal toilets or latrines. Severe deprivation of sanitation facilities – children who had no access to a toilet of any kind in the vicinity of their dwelling, e.g. no private or communal toilets or latrines.

15 Thresholds, Cont. Severe health deprivation – children who had not been immunised against any diseases or young children who had a recent illness involving diarrhoea and had not received any medical advice or treatment. Severe health deprivation – children who had not been immunised against any diseases or young children who had a recent illness involving diarrhoea and had not received any medical advice or treatment. Severe shelter deprivation – children in dwellings with more than five people per room (severe overcrowding) or with no flooring material (e.g. a mud floor). Severe shelter deprivation – children in dwellings with more than five people per room (severe overcrowding) or with no flooring material (e.g. a mud floor). Severe education deprivation – children aged between 7 and 18 who had never been to school and were not currently attending school (e.g. no professional education of any kind). Severe education deprivation – children aged between 7 and 18 who had never been to school and were not currently attending school (e.g. no professional education of any kind). Severe information deprivation – children aged between 3 and 18 with no access to, radio, television, telephone or newspapers at home. Severe information deprivation – children aged between 3 and 18 with no access to, radio, television, telephone or newspapers at home.

16 Sources of Data Poverty statistics rely on data from Household Income, Expenditure and Consumption Surveys; HIECS Household Income, Expenditure and Consumption Surveys; HIECS Censuses; Censuses; Health and Demographic Surveys. Health and Demographic Surveys. Labor Market Surveys/LFSS. Labor Market Surveys/LFSS. Surveys are nationally representative;

17 Between 1995/96 and 2004/05, overall Income poverty has remained unchanged, yet with worsening trend in Rural Upper Egypt Overall poverty is back to the same level of 1995/96. Overall poverty is back to the same level of 1995/96. Almost 14 million individuals (up from 11.5 million in 1995/96 and 10.7 million in 1999/2000) could not obtain their basic food and non-food needs. Almost 14 million individuals (up from 11.5 million in 1995/96 and 10.7 million in 1999/2000) could not obtain their basic food and non-food needs. Poverty increased in all regions between 2000 and 2005, but only Upper Egypt deteriorated between 1995 and Poverty increased in all regions between 2000 and 2005, but only Upper Egypt deteriorated between 1995 and 2005.

18 Distribution of poor is uneven across regions

19 The Poverty-Growth-Inequality Triangle Absolute poverty and poverty reduction Aggregate income level and growth Distribution and distributional changes

20 Case of Egypt: Growth Incidence Growth and Distribution Period showed growth in expenditures with increased inequality; Period showed growth in expenditures with increased inequality; Declining poverty Period showed decline in mean expenditure and increased inequality; increasing poverty. Period showed decline in mean expenditure and increased inequality; increasing poverty. Growth effect on poverty Ineq- uality effect on poverty Overall effect on poverty

21 How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Poverty Risk by age, 2005 (percent) How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Poverty Risk by age, 2005 (percent) Children have higher probability to live in poor households

22 How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Poverty Measurements by Household Structure How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Poverty Measurements by Household Structure RuralUrban FemaleMaleFemaleMale Married with no children Married with 1-3 children Married with more than three children Widowed with no children Widowed with 1-3 children Widowed with more than three children Never married Others All Households

23 How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Enrolment Rate Enrolment Rate for Children Aged 6-15 Enrolment Rate by age and Gender Enrollment rates drop sharply at secondary stage. Enrollment rates drop sharply at secondary stage.

24 How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Net Enrolment Rate by School Type and Poverty Status for different Levels of Education, Net Enrollment in Public Schools Girls 'Net Enrollment Rate Net Enrollment Rate Net Enrollment in Public Schools Girls 'Net Enrollment Rate Net Enrollment Rate Urban Areas Non Poor Poor Total Rural Areas Non Poor Poor Total Secondary Schools Rural AreasUrban Areas Non Poor Poor Total

25 How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? illiteracy among poor children How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? illiteracy among poor children Illiteracy among children(12- 15yeaars) There are strong relation between poverty and education attainment of children. Large gender, urban/rural gaps for both poor and non poor, do exist. High degree of female disadvantage in enrollment for poor girls, where poverty interacts with gender to produce large gaps in educational enrollment among the poor. This is the main factor producing poverty.

26 How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Working children, 2005 Percentage of working children 6-14 Percentage of working children 15-17

27 How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Fertility Rate and Under Five Mortality Rate by Poverty Status, How Does Income Poverty affect Children ? Fertility Rate and Under Five Mortality Rate by Poverty Status, Under Five MortalityFertility Rate Urban Non Poor Poor Total Rural Non Poor Poor Total All Egypt Non Poor Poor Total

28 Income Poverty and water deprivation Allأقل من Non poor Poor All 23% of poor children are water deprived. 16.9% of children are poor in terms of income poverty and water deprivation

29 Poor Children and Shelter Deprivation الاجمالي اقل من فقراء غير فقراء جمله

30 Distribution of Children by quintiles of Distribution of Children by quintiles of Wealth index Total Age less than 18Age 18+Wealth index Poorest Poorer Middle Richer Richest 100 Total

31 Child Poverty: Deprivation Criteria Water; Location

32 Child Poverty: Deprivation Criteria Water; Wealth Index

33 Child Poverty: Deprivation Criteria Shelter; Location

34 Child Poverty: Deprivation Criteria Shelter; Wealth Index

35 Child Poverty: Deprivation Criteria Education; Location

36 Child Poverty: Deprivation Criteria Education; Wealth Index

37 Statistical Analysis is expected to answer questions like How has poverty been changing in recent years? What does this imply for the supports and services available to children, women and their families, including to those with limited resources and/or special disadvantages? To what degree do national and sub-national dimensions (such as region or residence), household and community dimensions (e.g. household structure, income/wealth, gender, age, or education of the household members), and individual characteristics (such as gender and age of the child) correlate with and/or explain child poverty and/or poor results? What deprivations in what part of the country, and among which groups of households or children, boys or girls, are the most frequent and/or persistent? How have the perceived changes and patterns in child poverty and disparity relate to changes in income inequality and disparity/inadequacy in financing the social sectors? What other factors might be at work behind deterioration or improvement in outcomes?


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