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SCALE UP OF HIV-RELATED PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, CARE AND TREATMENT FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN A Programming Framework.

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Presentation on theme: "SCALE UP OF HIV-RELATED PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, CARE AND TREATMENT FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN A Programming Framework."— Presentation transcript:

1 SCALE UP OF HIV-RELATED PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, CARE AND TREATMENT FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN A Programming Framework

2 CONTENTS I.Background: Putting HIV care and treatment for children in context II.Components of the care package: Interventions to aid child survival in the context of HIV III.Key Strategies: 7 Strategies and action points for scaling up HIV diagnosis, care, support and treatment for children IV.Resources and Tools: Links to key resources I.Background: Putting HIV care and treatment for children in context II.Components of the care package: Interventions to aid child survival in the context of HIV III.Key Strategies: 7 Strategies and action points for scaling up HIV diagnosis, care, support and treatment for children IV.Resources and Tools: Links to key resources

3 I. BACKGROUND HIV burden among children 2 million children (under 15 yrs old) have HIV – 90% live in sub-Saharan Africa Nearly children were newly infected in 2007 – Most infections could be avoided through PMTCT interventions

4 BACKGROUND HIV affects child survival Without treatment, 50% of children with HIV die by age 2 (30% by age 1) About children died of causes related to HIV in 2007, most from sub-Saharan Africa Those with HIV are more likely to die from common childhood illnesses (respiratory infections, TB, malaria, undernutrition, etc.), including those who survive the first year of their life

5 BACKGROUND Scope of the Programming Framework To guide governments in resource constrained settings scale up HIV prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment for children who are exposed to or who have HIV Focuses on the needs of countries with a high HIV burden

6 BACKGROUND Guiding Principles for peds care and treatment Urgency Life-long Care High- quality care Family- centered Care Universal Access

7 II. COMPONENTS OF THE CARE PACKAGE 1. Interventions for all infants and children to aid survival 2. Survival interventions for infants and children who are exposed to HIV 3. Survival interventions for infants and children who are infected with HIV All children HIV exposed children HIV pos children

8 1. Interventions for all children to aid survival Newborn care, including – Skilled care at birth – Early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding – Early postnatal visit Prevention interventions, including – Exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age – Good maternal nutrition – Growth monitoring – Complete, timely immunization Treatment interventions, including – Oral rehydration therapy for diarrhoea – Prompt treatment for pneumonia and malaria

9 2. Survival interventions for infants and children who are exposed to HIV Antiretroviral prophylaxis (maternal and infant) Provider-initiated HIV testing, including infant viral testing Early and regular clinical assessment Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis Counseling and support around nutrition and infant feeding Care, treatment and support for family members

10 3. Survival interventions for infants and children who have HIV Early antiretroviral therapy and follow-up care Adherence and treatment support Regular clinical and laboratory monitoring Psychosocial support TB screening, prevention and management

11 3. Survival interventions for infants and children who have HIV (cont.) Nutrition, infant and young child feeding – Macronutritional support, vitamin supplementation, regular growth monitoring Management of severe malnutrition Prevention, active early detection and management of opportunistic infections – Pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria Additional Immunizations

12 III. STRATEGIES FOR SCALING UP 1.Enhance government leadership, ownership and accountability 2.Integrate and decentralize delivery of HIV prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment services to children 3.Enhance early identification of infants who are exposed to or have HIV 4.Ensure reliable procurement and supply management 5.Bolster laboratory capacity 6.Strengthen community-based capacity for care and support 7.Strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems 1.Enhance government leadership, ownership and accountability 2.Integrate and decentralize delivery of HIV prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment services to children 3.Enhance early identification of infants who are exposed to or have HIV 4.Ensure reliable procurement and supply management 5.Bolster laboratory capacity 6.Strengthen community-based capacity for care and support 7.Strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems

13 1. Enhance government leadership, ownership, and accountability i.Initiate a rapid, systemic situational analysis of current programming, including an assessment on pediatric interventions ii.Update pediatric treatment targets iii.Ensure that management and coordination structures address pediatric care and treatment

14 2. Integrate and decentralize delivery of HIV prevention, care, support and treatment services to children Integrate HIV diagnosis, care, treatment, and support for children into: i.Existing HIV care and treatment services ii.Existing maternal, newborn and child health programs Decentralize: iii.Interventions to lower-level health systems where applicable iv.Utilize communities for early identification and provision of care

15 Pediatric Dosing Chart example 2. Integrate and decentralize delivery Simplified approaches to dosing and use of simplified formulations such as FDCs help to decentralize pediatric care

16 3. Enhance early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV i.Ensure updated policy and technical guidance that follow-up with identified HIV- exposed infants and children ii.Document info on receipt of serves for PMTCT on maternal and child health cards iii.Use DBS to support early diagnosis iv.Implement provider-initiated testing and counseling at sites likely to yield a high volume of positive test results

17 3. Enhance early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV (cont.) v.Use family-centered approaches; secure HIV testing for additional family members vi.Use IMCI and IMAI approaches at peripheral sites with referral for HIV testing vii.Better use CHWs viii.Identify where routine determination of HIV exposure status is feasible and efficient

18 3. Enhance early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV (cont.) E.g.: Child Health Card (Zambia) Test Follow-up time Co-trimoxazole Date baby referred to ART; Date initiated; Age of initiation Infant feeding

19 3. Enhanced early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV (cont.) Simple tools that explain the process of sample collection for DBS can help ensure high quality samples are collected

20 Example of EID System (Kenya) Sample Collection Packaging ART/PMTCT centre Testing lab Courier Samples Courier Results 2 Week turnaround to receipt of results 1 day 4 days 1 day 5 days 1 day Source: J. Hungu, CHAI Potential Bottleneck! Potential Bottleneck! Care for child

21 4. Ensure reliable procurement and supply management i.Coordination of supply stakeholders and linkages with overall supply implementation plans ii.Integrated supply systems based on what exists and already works iii.Ensure children are included in national PSM plans

22 5. Bolster laboratory capacity i.Plan for lab service expansion to accommodate early infant testing for HIV ii.Select assays for viral diagnosis iii.Develop systems for timely and reliable use of lab results iv.Provide staff with appropriate education and training to ensure high-quality diagnostic services

23 6. Strengthen community-based capacity for care and support i.Integrate community-based approaches into child health and HIV programming strategies ii.Accelerate case-finding through integration into community- health programmes iii.Improve case follow-up and essential care for HIV-exposed newborns and their families iv.Enhance community capacity to provide care and support v.Promote child survival through nutrition, immunization, malaria, and TB interventions vi.Adapt norms for confidentiality and disclosure to specific local settings

24 7. Strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems i.Include core indicators of PMTCT and HIV care and treatment services for children in national monitoring and evaluation frameworks ii.Expand efforts to monitor programme effectiveness and quality

25 IV. SELECTED RESOURCES AND TOOLS 1.Guidance documents 2.Websites 3.Training curricula 4.Tools 1.Guidance documents 2.Websites 3.Training curricula 4.Tools

26 1. Guidance documents referred to in the Programming Framework WHO – Guidelines African Network for Care of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (ANNECA) – Handbook Columbia University ICAP – Pocket Guide and Clinical Manual Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – A range of tools to support programming

27 2. Websites WHO HIV/AIDS: UNICEF: International HIV/AIDS Alliance: Mothers2Mothers (m2m): Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation:

28 3. Training Curricula IMAI/IMCI – C omplementary course on HIV/AIDS (chart booklet) WHO/UNICEF – Infant and young child feeding counseling: an integrated course African Network for the Care of Children affected by HIV/AIDS (ANECCA) – An HIV care training curriculum

29 4. Tools Spectrum – software package developed by UNAIDS, used to determine consequences of current trends and future programme interventions with respect to the HIV epidemic – For more info, visit Data/Methodology Data/Methodology

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