Presentation on theme: "Child Sensitive Social Protection"— Presentation transcript:
1Child Sensitive Social Protection Gaspar FajthChief, Social Policy and Economic Analysis,UNICEF Policy and Practice, New YorkStrategies for the extension of Social ProtectionTurin 5 October, 2009
2The themes of this presentation Introduction: the SPF-I and childrenWhy Social Protection needs to be child sensitive?What is so special about children?The relevance of social protection programmes for childrenChallenges, issues
31. Introduction: the Social Protection Floor and children UN Crisis response (April 2009)Comprehensive Framework for Action (Food Taskforce)Joint Crisis Initiatives (#6: Social Protection Floor)The Social Protection FloorBasic social servicesIncome securityFocus on poor and vulnerable populationsInitiative and/or approach? The issue of national ownershipJoint Statement on Child Sensitive Social Protection(August 2009)The aim of this session
4Poverty and absolute child deprivation: global evidence Chance of a woman dying from complications during pregnancy or delivery:Ireland: 1 : 48,000Niger: : 7Chance of a child dying during her/his first 5 years of lifeHungary: 1 : 143Cameroon: 1 : 7Risk that a child will never attend schoolDeveloping countries: 1 : 7Risk that a young child will be malnourishedDeveloping countries: 1 : 3Risk that a child will live in absolute poverty (severe human deprivation)Developing countries: 1 : 2Risk that the child will live in household with no access to social protectionWorld: 4 : 5
52. Why Social Protection needs to be ‘child-sensitive’? Many societies want to prioritize children/make progress on the MDGsSocial protection can reduce future povertythrough preventing risks, protecting from impact, promoting proactive responses and transforming the legal environment and/or societal valuesChildren’s experiences of poverty and vulnerability are different from those of adultsloss of family care is a significant risk for children in the contexts of malaria, HIV/AIDS, conflict, humanitarian crises, and juvenile justice and child protection practiceschildren’s complex physical, psychological , emotional and intellectual development create particular opportunities as well as vulnerabilitiesthey can not and should not respond alone
6Child poverty has been defined as “deprivation of the material, spiritual and emotional resources needed to survive, develop and thrive, leaving [children] unable to enjoy their rights, achieve their full potential or participate as full and equal members of society” (SOWC 2005)“Child sensitive social protection” therefore needsto have a multidimensional focuslook at the options of child-centered as well as adult-centered programmesto be developed as an evidence-based approachconsider the fiscal and political realities, but aim at maximizing opportunities and developmental outcomes for children within given constraintschallenge those constraints taking advantage of evidence on progress elsewheredevelop indicators and analyses, assessmentsraise awareness and build a coalition for making social protection child sensitiveQuestions?
73. What is so special about children? Moral and legal commitmentsHigh returns to investmentShort window opportunityStrong gains from combination of interventionsHigh risks that investment will not happen
8Moral and legal commitments Private and public supportHouseholdsintra- and inter-household distribution and use of resourcescoping strategies are not always sustainable/may have negative child impactCorporate sector responsibilitybusiness strategyworkforce (HR) policyPublic authoritieslaws, policies, programmestransparency, accountability, effectiveness and efficiencyQuestionsWhat factors influence these?How can we measure and/or influence them?
9Moral and legal commitments (cont’) 1989 Convention on the Rights of the ChildThe rights of the individual childcitizenshipfamilyhealtheducationprotection from abuseaccess to social securitymaximum available resourcesinternational collaborationLegislative reform and implementationQuestions:What are the implications?How to operationalize/prioritize/make progress?
10Evidence on the high returns from investing in children Micronutrients for childrenthe most productive global investment (Copenhagen Consensus, 2008)providing essential vitamins and minerals would cost $60 million per year and hold annual benefits above $1 billion: a 1500 per cent rate of return (Horton at al 2008)Early childhood developmentanalysis of four early childhood and pre-school programmes indicates benefit-cost ratios range between to one in the US (Schweinhart, L 2004)Indonesia Early Childhood Development Project suggests a ratio of 6 to 1 (World Bank 2009)Infant and maternal nutrition – intergenerational effectsevidence in rural Guatemala suggests that that for every 100 gram increase in maternal birth weight, her infant’s birth weight increased by 29 grams (Ramakrisnan at al 1999)Basic educationthe estimated rate of return to one additional year of schooling is 10 per cent on average globally even without counting the social benefits of better education (Psacharopoulos at al. (2004)Child protectionChildren from socio-economically deprived families had a chance 700 times the average for placement in substitute care in the UK (Bebbington and Miles, 1989)Question:How evidence like these could be used in the policy process?
11Short window opportunity Permanently damaging effects of even temporarily lack of support
12Strong extra gains from combined interventions For example:Nutritioncalorie, protein, micronutrients intake as well as water and sanitation, disease controlStimulationcognitive learning and emotional supportBest results come from a combination of nutrition support and stimulation for young children
13Good nutrition and psychosocial development help each other In a Jamaican study, stunted children aged 9-24 months were randomly assigned to nutrition only, stimulation only, nutrition and stimulation, and control group and IQ was monitored … The benefits from a combination of nutrition supplements and stimulation were additive: after 2 years of intervention the children receiving both treatments caught up to the nonstunted control group (top line)
14But remember! Stimulation works also the other (negative) way… Stigma and “low expectations” influence child behaviourThe case of competition at a maze in India: children's performance differed when their caste was made public! (WDR 2006 p76)Stress can permanently lower memory capacity in childrennew research finds causality between chronic stress associated with poverty and impaired brain development in children (Economist )These findings are particularly importantin the context of gender, adolescent, HIV/AIDS-related, poverty alleviation and special needs (child disability) programmmeswhen making decisions on targeting of social programmes
15High risk that child-related commitments will not be realized/investment will not happen Structural poverty and/or social exclusionpoor maternal nutrition, healthloss of parental upbringinglow parental education and/or parenting skillslow awareness on children’s needs and/or opportunitiesdiscrimination (e.g. gender, disability, ethnicity)poor access to assets and incomeCurrent poverty impactsIdiosyncratic shocks (catastrophic health expenses, loss of a family member, loss of jobs etc)Aggregate /covariate shocks (economic, social or environmental crises)Agency and governance issuesVoicelessnessPrincipal agent issue/relational nature of child well being (dependency on adults)
16Summary: children should get priority in public policy Moral and legal commitmentsPrivate and public support1989 Convention on the Rights of the ChildHigh returns to investmentChildhood is the best opportunity to invest in human resourcesBroader social and economic gains; returns tend to be particularly high among girlsShort window opportunityPermanently damaging effects of even temporarily lack of supportStrong positive feedback from combination of interventionsProgress needed at all major dimensions of child well beingHigh risks that investment will not happen, due toStructural poverty and/or social exclusionCurrent poverty impacts due to economic, social or environmental crisesGovernance and agency issuesStrong evidence on the impact of poverty on children
174. The relevance of social protection programmes for children Social protection is part of broader development policySocial protection cuts across many sectorsThe principles of Child Sensitive Social ProtectionSocial protection programmes relevant for childrenAre Conditional Cash Transfers magic bullets?How programmes could address the continuity of risk and vulnerability
18Social protection is part of broader development policy Source: World Bank 2008
19Social protection cuts across many sectors NutritionSocial PolicyHealthWater and sanitationEducationChild protectionSocial Protection Social welfareSource: UNICEF
20Transfers could help removing barriers on the demand side However, action on the supply side of services is often also necessaryIncome/consumption poverty is a major barrierBut poverty is multidimensional and factors other than income matter too!The structure of social expenditures shows different patterns by regions:Source: World Bank 2008
21Social protection programmes relevant for children Social assistance (safety net) programmesTargeted child grants (unconditional)Conditional cash transfers (CCTs)School feeding and other nutrition programmesFee waivers (health, education) and other in-kind transfersEmergency programmes (cash handouts, social funds, nutrition, education kits etc.)Workfare programmes, active labour market policies (including youth programmes)Means-tested unemployment benefit or other social assistanceSocial pensionsSocial insurance programmes (contributory)Cash family allowances (often hidden as tax benefits)Maternal and parental benefitsSick leavesPublic health insuranceUnemployment benefitPublic pension schemes
22Universal social protection programmes Birth grants (conditional to birth registration)Pre-school programmes (subsidized)Social care services (visiting nurses, counseling, shelter, respite care services etc.)Free health services (e.g. on maternal and child health)(Public health measures and free education is not considered as social protection, but these are very important for children)Universal child grants/allowancesPrice subsidies (staple and other food, fuel and energy, housing, water etc.)Social protection is also private…
23Conditional Cash Transfers – a magic bullet? What is a CCT?Social assistance programmes that provide cash transfers on evidence that households use health, education or other services (e.g. social work services in Chile’s Solidario)Focus on addressing structural poverty through investment in children’s human capitalConditionalities - e.g. compliance with immunization plans, checkups for pregnant women, regular school attendance, participation in parents-teachers meetings etc.Key examplesThe Bolsa Familia in Brazil and the Oportunidades in Mexico, which cover respectively about 12 and 5 million families with a budget less than 0.5 % of GDPKey featuresThe practice of evaluation – demonstrating results, helping political acceptance and improving designHigh concentration on the poor – the share of beneficiaries in poorest income quintile fall between 32% (Education Support Project in Cambodia) and 74% (Bolsa Familia)Programme non-compliance could reach up a third or more of targeted beneficiariesAdministrative costs hover between 4 and 20%Gender considerations
24How programmes could be integrated to address the continuity of risk and vulnerability Examples:“A” type interventions: countercyclical macroeconomic policy, free basic education, immunization“B” type interventions: child/family allowances, preventative social work services“C” type interventions: intensive/emergency social work services“A - B” types together: Bolsa Familia CCT (Brazil)“B - C” types together: Solidario CCT(Chile)
25Principles of child sensitive social protection Avoid adverse impacts on children, and reduce or mitigate social and economic risks that directly affect children’s livesIntervene as early as possible where children are at risk, in order to prevent irreversible impairment or harm to childrenConsider the age and gender specific risks and vulnerabilities of children throughout the life-cycleMitigate the effects of shocks, exclusion and poverty on families, recognizing that families raising children need support to ensure equal opportunityMake special provision to reach children who are particularly vulnerable and excluded, including children without parental care, and who are marginalized within their families or communities due to their gender, disability, ethnicity, HIV/AIDS or other factorsConsider the mechanisms and intra-household dynamics that may affect how children are reached, with particular attention paid to the balance of power between men and women within the household and broader communityInclude the voices and opinions of children, their caregivers and youth in the understanding and design of social protection systems and programmes.
265. Challenges, issues Low and unequal access to SP Focus on structural versus transient povertyAffordability (% of GDP, % of public spending)Political support and public attitudesThe issue of targeting (means-tested, categorical)The issue of conditionalityTrade-offs (within SP and over education or other public programmes)Negligible positive or negative effects (work and fertility effects, crowding out, stigma, worse child outcome etc.)Gaps in attention to social are services and women in the labour forceThe culture of evaluation (missing, narrow)Administrative feasibility (corruption, capacity, costs, transparency)Local ownership and exportability of key SP tools (local context)Low awareness and/or low priority