Presentation on theme: "Standards-Based Science Instruction. Ohio’s Science Cognitive Demands Science is more than a body of knowledge. It must not be misperceived as lists of."— Presentation transcript:
Ohio’s Science Cognitive Demands Science is more than a body of knowledge. It must not be misperceived as lists of topics to be covered in the six standards in Ohio’s Academic Content Standards, K-12 Science. Holistically, science is a way of studying the natural world.
Cognitive Demand Every Ohio achievement test item for science is classified on the basis of what the item asks of the student in terms of reasoning, evaluating investigative procedures, understanding science concepts or analyzing scientific information and technological solutions
Types of Cognitive Demand Recall / Identify Accurate Science Communicate Understanding / Analyze Science Information Demonstrate Investigative Processes of Science Apply Concepts / Make Relevant Connections with Science
Types of Cognitive Demand Recall / Identify Accurate Science Students provide and identify accurate statements about previously learned, scientifically valid facts, concepts and relationships Teachers use a variety of motivators to engage students’ thinking to help them access previously learned science knowledge and skills
Types of Cognitive Demand Communicate Understanding / Analyze Science Information Students analyze scientific information and communicate scientifically, given rich investigative scenarios and valid scientific data and information Teachers use questioning and science content knowledge and content-pedagogy to facilitate exploration of standards-based questions, challenge misconceptions and help students develop scientifically valid conceptions and explanations
Types of Cognitive Demand Demonstrate Investigative Processes of Science Students use scientific inquiry skills, grounded in standards-based science content Teachers integrate the teaching of standards for Scientific Inquiry and Scientific Ways of Knowing into opportunities for students to conduct investigations aligned with the content standards
Types of Cognitive Demand Apply Concepts / Make Relevant Connections with Science Students apply science in the context of individuals and society and scientifically analyze consequences and alternatives, given real-world situations and technological problem-solving scenarios Teachers integrate the teaching of standards for Science and Technology, Scientific Inquiry and Scientific Ways of Knowing into opportunities to help students contextualize and expand understandings of science content standards
Cognitive Demand Distributing items across the types of cognitive demand ensures a balance of ways for students to demonstrate science skills and understandings
Implications for Instruction Employing instructional strategies that allow students a variety of ways to demonstrate their science skills and understanding can improve student learning
Implications for Instruction Appropriate use of the cognitive demands focuses on standards-based, learning-cycle driven science instruction. This focus is intended to help support teachers’ efforts to foster and monitor inquiry-based student learning opportunities ranging from engagement and exploration, to analysis and explanation, to application and extension.
Cognitive Demand How can the student science rubric help inform classroom instruction to improve student performance?
Standards-based Instruction Research suggests that student achievement is positively impacted by: Teaching for transfer by providing students with a variety of tasks Varying the complexity of tasks and emphasizing higher-order thinking skills Teaching for mastery and helping students reflect on their learning D. W. Tileston. ( 2000.) Ten Best Teaching Practices R. J. Marzano. (2003.) What Works in Schools
Standards-based Instruction Research suggests that student achievement is positively impacted by: Ensuring multiple exposure to, and complex interactions with knowledge Comparing classroom or individual student data to statewide data to reveal gaps in instruction or student experience D. W. Tileston. ( 2000.) Ten Best Teaching Practices R. J. Marzano. (2003.) What Works in Schools
Implications for Instruction “Dialogue between pupils and a teacher should be thoughtful, reflective, focused to evoke and explore understanding, and conducted so that all pupils have an opportunity to think and express their ideas.” Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment by Paul Black and Dylan William
Implications for Instruction Reflection Feedback provided without evaluations or grades helps to avoid feelings of failure but comments help to identify both strengths and weaknesses and promote self-awareness and reflection. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment by Paul Black and Dylan William
Implications for Instruction Homework “Feedback on tests, seatwork* and homework should give each pupil guidance on how to improve, and each pupil must be given help and an opportunity to work on the improvement.” *[e.g., conducting and analyzing science investigations] Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment by Paul Black and Dylan William
Aligning to the Standards Click on the following links to learn more about: The Learning Cycle and Classroom Inquiry Standards-based Science Instruction Standards-based Science Assessment Teacher Tools for Reflecting on Teaching Science Student Tools for Reflecting on Learning Science