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Matter- Properties and Changes

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Presentation on theme: "Matter- Properties and Changes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter- Properties and Changes
By: Ms. Buroker Scott High School

2 Just to Review…. Matter Video What is Matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space. In this unit we will discuss: Mixtures of Matter Properties of Matter Changes in Matter Elements and Compounds

3 Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition
Pure Substances Elements Can not be broken down any further One kind of atom (gold, silver, lead) Compounds Two or more kinds of atoms joined together chemically (NaCl, H2O) Properties are entirely different than the elements that compose them Pure Substance: Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition

4 Impure Substances Mixtures:
Homogenous Mixtures Completely uniform in its composition Heterogeneous A mixture which is not uniform in its composition Mixtures: Contains two or more pure substances that are NOT chemically joined together!

5 Examples of Homogenous and Heterogeneous Mixtures

6 Homogenous Mixtures Solutions Solute: dissolved material Solvent: dissolving material Alloy: Mixture of metals Examples: bronze (copper and tin), brass (copper and zinc), stainless steel

7 Heterogeneous Mixtures
Colloid: A mixture which falls midway between homogeneous and heterogeneous. It looks uniform without magnification but different phases can be seen under a microscope Examples: fog, gelatin

8 Separating Mixtures Filtration: A technique using a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid Distillation: A technique based on the different boiling points of the substances involved. Crystallization: A technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance. Chromatography: A technique that separates based on the tendency of one material to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material. Evaporation, Decanting

9 Intensive Properties are those that do NOT depend on the amount of substance present.
Examples: color, oder, and density Extensive Properties are those that depend on the amount of substance present. Examples: mass, length, and volume Matter Physical A characteristic that can be observed without changing the sample’s composition Chemical The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances (Give my def. as well) Extensive Intensive Properties of Matter

10 Physical Properties Metals Ductile: They can be drawn into wire Malleable: The can be hammered into sheets Luster: They shine in a way typical of metals

11 Properties of Copper Physical Properties Chemical Properties
*Reddish brown, shiny *Easily shaped into sheets (malleable) and drawn into wires (ductile) *Good conductor of heat and electricity *Density = 8.92g/cm3 *Melting Point = 1085○C *Boiling Point = 2570○C *Forms green copper carbonate compound when in contact with moist air *Forms new substances when combined with nitric acid and sulfuric acid *Forms a deep blue solution when in contact with ammonia

12 Physical vs. Chemical Changes
Physical Changes: Alter a substance with out changing its composition … there are no changes to its chemical properties or composition Chemical Changes: Involves one or more substances into a new substance “chemical reaction.”

13 Please Answer The Following Questions ….
1.) Give me three examples of an extensive physical property. 2.) If I had a sample of contaminated water, and I needed to clean it up for analysis; what is a way I could separate the components? 3.) If I take sugar and dissolve it completely in a glass of ice tea, have I created a homogenous or a heterogeneous mixture?

14 4.) In the glass of ice tea from the previous question, name the solute and the solvent. 5.) What is an alloy? 6.) When I place a nail outside and leave it there, over time, it will rust … is this a physical or a chemical property?

15 Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass can neither be created or destroyed during chemical reactions. Antoine Lavoisier

16 1.) Particles are packed tightly
States of Matter Solid: a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume. 1.) Particles are packed tightly 2.) When heated, particles expand slightly 3.) Incompressible Liquid: a form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container. 1.) Particles are able to move past each other allowing a liquid to flow. 2.) Liquids tend to expand when heated 3.) Virtually incompressible Gas: a form of matter that flows to conform to the shape to its container and fills the entire volume of its container. 1.) particles are very far apart 2.) easily compressible due to the large amount of space between the particles 3.) Note: Gas and Vapor are NOT the same thing!


18 Elements Elements are substances that are composed of one … and only one … type of atom (our smallest building block of matter). The periodic table is our way of organizing the elements in a way that makes sense. Groups or Families  vertical columns of elements that share properties Periods  horizontal rows that are arranged in increasing atomic number

19 Compounds Law of Definite Proportions Regardless of amounts, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass. Percent by mass % = mass of element X 100 mass of compound

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