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The Nature of Matter Intro to Chemistry (Matter & energy)

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Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Matter Intro to Chemistry (Matter & energy)"— Presentation transcript:


2 The Nature of Matter Intro to Chemistry (Matter & energy)

3 What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of the ___________ and __________ of ______ and the ________ it undergoes. compositionproperties matterchanges Matter is all of the stuff around you!

4 What’s Matter? Matter is anything that has _____ and takes up ______ mass Space (has volume!) Mass is the amount of ______ that a substance possesses. matter Weight is the effect of _______ on that mass. gravity

5 Mass vs. Weight Say you weigh ____ pounds on Earth and you travel to the moon. 150 You will only weigh ___ pounds, because the moon has ____ the ________. 25 1/6 Your _______ changes, but you still have the same _____ and take up the same amount of ______. weight mass space gravity

6 Types of Matter Matter is made of either ______________ or ________. pure substancesmixtures A pure substance is made of only ____ type of particle that cannot be separated easily. one A mixture is made of _____ or _____ types of particles that can be easily separated. twomore

7 Heterogeneous Mixture Matter Can it be physically separated? NOYES Mixture Can it be chemically decomposed? Pure Substance Is the composition uniform? YesNo Homogeneous Mixture YesNo CompoundElement

8 Pure Substances A pure substance can be ___________ into smaller and smaller particles – but every piece still has the same _________ as the whole. subdivided properties A pure substance that is made of only one type of ______ is called an _______. atom element

9 Pure Substances –contain only ONE kind of atom – #1-93 occur naturally, the rest are synthetic (#94-118) –Ex - coppergold ELEMENTS ELEMENTS

10 Atoms & Elements Atoms are considered the ________ blocks of all ______, and cannot be _________ or __________. building matter createddestroyed There are approximately ____ different types of atoms, each with its own unique ___________. 109 Composition (#p, #e, #n) If two or more atoms are ________ together, this substance is called a _________. (It’s still a “pure substance”) joined compound


12 Pure Substances COMPOUND composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio –New properties different from individual elements The compound has completely different properties than the element! NaCl Na Cl 2

13 Compounds moleculecompound Compounds are made by forming chemical ______ between ______. bondsatoms The smallest naturally-occurring unit of a __________ is called a ________. If substances are combined but they do ____ form chemical ______, the substance is called a _________. (it is no longer a “pure substance”) NOT bonds MIXTURE **A Chemical Bond occurs when Atoms Transfer or Share Valence Electrons**

14 MIXTURES Made of two or more separate compounds and or elements in variable amounts Weak or Strong Kool –Aid is still Kool-Aid but I can’t have weak or strong Water HomogeneousHeterogeneous Solutions

15 Made of two or more separate compounds In chemistry, this is usually a solid and a liquid A. Types of mixtures Largest particles If left alone, particles will settle Can also filter the mixture to remove particles 2. Colloid Smaller particles, may be invisible Mixture is not transparent Particles do not settle. Cannot be filtered Heterogeneous Heterogeneous Over 1 µm Between 0.001 - 1 µm 1. Suspension

16 Medium/ Phases Dispersed Phase GasLiquidSolid Continuous Medium Gas NONE Liquid Aerosols [fog, mist] Solid Aerosols [smog, clouds] Liquid Foam [whipped cream, shaving cream] Emulsion [milk, mayo] Solution [blood, ink] Solid Solid Foam [Styrofoam, pumice] Gel [gelatin, agar, jelly] Solid Solution [colored glass]

17 3. Solution Smallest particles Invisible - solution appears transparent Particles cannot be filtered Must distill the solution to remove solids B. Solutions 1. Parts Solute -Smaller of the two materials – usually solid Solvent - Larger quantity of the two – usually water or liquid Solutions are labeled(aq) CaCl 2(aq) Calcium chloride dissolved in water 2. Solubility How much solute can go into a solvent Under 0.001 µm Homogeneous

18 Tyndall Effect Used to identify a solution, light is reflected by the dissolved particles

19 Tyndall Effect

20 Matter Flow Chart

21 A mixture that has the same ___________ throughout the substance is called a _____________ mixture. composition homogeneous Examples of homogeneous mixtures: salt water air vanilla pudding Gatorade

22 Mixtures A mixture that does not have the same ___________ throughout the substance is called a _____________ mixture. You can usually see the components of this mixture! composition heterogeneous Examples of heterogeneous mixtures: soil Rocky Road ice cream fruit salad mixed nuts


24 Which is it? Element Compound Mixture

25 Flowchart of Matter Matter Mixture Pure Substance Homo- geneous Hetero- geneous CompoundElement

26 Properties of Matter ___________ properties are those characteristics that can be _________ using our senses without changing the _______ of the substance. Physical observed Common physical properties include: colorcolor odor density physical state melting point boiling point identity mass

27 Properties of Matter ________ properties describe a substance’s ability to undergo _________ in ________. They become something entirely new!!! Chemical changesidentity Examples: _____ reacts with ____ and _____ to form ____ Ironairwater Rust (also known as Iron Oxide) ______, ____ and _____ become _____ in the presence of _____. Floureggsugar cakeheat

28 Changes in Matter The changes that matter undergoes can be classified as either ________ or _________ changes. physical chemical Physical changes alter the _________ properties of the substance, but not its basic ___________. (still the same stuff!) physical composition *A physical change: changes what you ______ like, but not ____ you ____. look whoare

29 Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Change -  changes the form of a substance without changing its identity  properties remain the same  Examples  dissolving, changes of phase (solid, liquid, or gas) ie: melting, boiling, freezing!)

30 Changes in Matter A chemical change alters the __________ and _________ of a substance. compositionstructure Chemical changes are always accompanied by changes in _______. energy *A chemical change: changes ____________ about you! everything The __________ of a chemical change have _________ properties! products different

31 Physical vs. Chemical  Chemical Change -  changes the identity of a substance  products have different properties  ID by color change, bubbles, heat change, precipitate  Examples  rust, burning paper, ice pack

32 Chemical Changes Signs of a Chemical Change  change in color or odor  formation of a gas  formation of a precipitate (solid)  change in light or heat

33  Chemical Changes - Physical vs. Chemical

34 Examples: –rusting iron –dissolving in water –burning a log –melting ice –grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical

35 Physical vs. Chemical Physical Chemical

36 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Qualitative analysis deals with the _________ of a substance: qualities color odor State of matter ** These can be _________ without regard for the ________ of the substance. observed amount

37 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Quantitative analysis deals with __________ the substance. measuring THINK!!! Quantitative = QUANTITY temperature mass volume

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