Presentation on theme: "Aleksandra Posarac World Bank"— Presentation transcript:
1Aleksandra Posarac World Bank World Bank Involvement in Social Welfare System Reform and Lessons LearnedAleksandra PosaracWorld Bank
2Economic growth and investment in human capital Prosperous, stable societies need healthy, educated, skilled, active citizensHuman capital has long been identified as one of the key determinants not only of individual welfare but also overall socio-economic growth and developmentEach single individual counts: demographic pressure
3Why investing in children? Children are human capitalChild development and welfare outcomes reflect investment in children.Investment determines future productivity (individual and of society as a whole)
4Investment in children: generates higher economic returnsreduces social costs (positive externalities)contributes to greater social equity and social cohesionincreases efficacy of individual social sector programscontributes to greater labor force participation of mothers
5Human development sectors EducationHealthSocial protectionEach one is present throughout the life cycleThey deliver best results when linked into a range of services (integrated approach)
6Social protectionEconomic growth is necessary but not sufficient to ensure that all members of society participate in it and benefit from itSocial protection is defined as a collection of public measures to improve and/or protect human capitalWell-designed and implemented social protection systems and policies contribute to more inclusive growth and strengthen cohesion (equity aspects), enhance efficiency and hence are growth-promoting by themselves
7Social risk management approach to social protection (1) SRM is a framework used to analyze:the sources of poverty and vulnerability,the ways how societies manages risks, andthe relative costs and benefits of various public interventions on household welfare.Poverty reflects an unacceptable level of well-being, vulnerability captures the exposure to uninsured risk leading to a socially unacceptable level of well-being currently and in the future (vulnerability to poverty but also vulnerability to other risks: death, divorce, crime, substance abuse, violence, etc.)
8Social risk management approach to social protection (2) Individuals and households face risks (insurable and non-insurable); materialized risks become shocks and have negative impact on well-being (material, physical, emotional, psychological…)SRM looks at how poor and vulnerable individuals and households can be helped to better manage risks and become less susceptible to damaging welfare losses
9Risk reduction, mitigation and coping (1) SRM comprises actions that occur before and after a shock—usually, but not necessarily an economic one—has occurredSome reduce the impact that a future event might have on a household or an individual (ex ante risk mitigation) – social insurance arrangements
10Risk reduction, mitigation and coping (2) Other help households or individuals cope with a shock once it has occurred (ex post risk coping) – mostly social safety net interventions;Finally some reduce the likelihood of a shock occurring (reduction/prevention of risk): include responsible macroeconomic policies, labor market policies which enhance skills development and job creation, etc.Some programs address several risks
11Risk coping – social safety nets The objective of the SSN is to improve welfare of chronically and transient poor and vulnerable households, including individuals and families facing difficult life circumstancesMostly risk coping, they also contribute to risk mitigation and to some extent risk reductionThey enable households to employ or benefit from other social risk management strategies, increasing their chances to become more resilient to risks and shocks and to exit poverty and overcome other life difficulties permanently.
12Social safety net programs Income support: to increase consumption (cash, in-kind, targeted, sometimes conditional, etc.)Economic empowerment programs (skills development, education catch-up, income-generation programs, business start-up, grants, micro-finance)Social care services to vulnerable individuals/families (including child welfare services)
13Social care services Integral part of the safety net system Address vulnerabilities and social problems that affect poor and non-poor population alikeThe groups in need of social care services are many (children, families and women at risk, people with disabilities; elderly, etc.)Difficult situations faced by these groups negatively affect human development, labor market participation and productivity, they lead to deprivation and exclusion, and may induce significant negative externalities and social cost, if not attended to adequately and in a timely fashionThe types of services are many and range from social work and psycho-social counseling, care and rehabilitation for disabled people, at home services for frail elderly, shelters, legal advice, etc. to family substitute services for children without parental care.
14World Bank focus so far Analytical work and lending (projects) Health EducationSocial protection: social insurance (pensions), social assistance, labor market policiesRelatively limited involvement in social care systems and policies development, reform modernization…. (in some countries more than the others)SIFs (initially infrastructure rehabilitation, increasingly involved in social welfare services (piloting)
15Involvement in social welfare/care systems reform Both analytical and investment supportEntire ECA Region; South-East Europe: Albania, Serbia, Romania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey, CroatiaA combination of institutional development (legal framework), capacity building, piloting of new initiatives
16Explaining the WB focus Biggest impact on human development(i) the size of affected population(ii) the size of the problem(iii) amount of resources involved (fiscal attention)Increasing poverty was calling for programs with immediate impact (cash transfers, Bulgaria one of first to introduce CCTs)Client interest (demand)
17Why relatively limited involvement in social care/welfare services? Although an important individual and social welfare and inclusion concern:Client demand? There should be a consensus that a particular intervention is a priority (advocacy is not our particular strength)Knowledge gap; challenging design; requires permanently new solutions;Complex for implementation with many players/interests involvedLong-term involvement (projects are typically 4-5 years, implies a series of interventions)Limited resources (links to public choice and inevitable trade-offs)
18What have we learned (1)?We need to build a constituency within our own institutionImportance of a champion (or a team of champions) and sustained strong commitment of key cabinet members (finance, in particular)Knowledge, sufficient resources and sufficient time: patience and persistencePartnership (at the national, but also international levels: speaking the same language, sharing the same vision)Political economy (no interest shall remain unaddressed)
19Lessons learned (2)There is a role for everyone to play (the state, service providers, NGOs, CBOs, beneficiaries, etc.) – the importance of a balanced approachChanging laws and rules is necessary, but not sufficient for a change: persistence in implementation and sufficient resourcesEducation of social workers, case management, standards, plan for de-institutionalization and transformation of institutionsPrevention: a range and a continuum of services
20Bringing in the “missing element” Analytical work to underpin interventions: making a case byassessing costs and benefits (direct and indirect) of child welfare interventionsPool of knowledge with examples of good practice;Working with clients, raising the child welfare questions persistently and advocate for changes and improvements (we need partners)Bring out clearly the human capital aspect of social welfare servicesWork with partners (involve them in analytical work and projects development and implementation; a challenge of brick, mortar and computers vs. TANever give up.