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Rhetorical Triangle, SOAPSTone, and Appeals

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1 Rhetorical Triangle, SOAPSTone, and Appeals

2 Rhetoric “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” The art of finding ways to persuade an audience Can be in a variety of forms: text, pictures, films, etc.

3 The Rhetorical Situation
Occasion, Exigence, Context, and Purpose Occasion-the time and place the text was written or spoken. (Like a setting in literature). Exigence-an issue, problem, or situation that causes or prompts someone to write or speak Context-the circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding the text. Purpose-the goal the speaker wants to achieve

4 Rhetorical Triangle (Aristotelian Triangle)
Relationship among the speaker, audience, and subject Speaker--the person or group who creates a text Persona- “mask,” the role the speaker plays when delivering a text or speech Was a persona used in your memoirs? How do you know? Who did the narrator/speaker sound like to you? Audience—listener, viewer, or reader of the text or performance Multiple audiences Primary--those who immediately are influenced and act, persuaded by the rhetor’s persuasion. They are the mediators of change. Secondary--persuaded by the primary audience either via direct persuasion or osmossis. Tertiary audience--general public who receive the information whether they will respond or not. Subject-the topic, not the goal (purpose) Secondary Example, high school students are the primary audience for driving school ads in the school newspaper, but given they have no disposable income, they then take the ad home to their parents, who then become the secondary audience. Seeing the benefit of a coupon, the parents (secondary audience) enable the primary audience by financing their driver’s education. Tertiary example: Citizens with no children driving by a DART bus bearing a driver’s education ad comprise the tertiary audience. They receive the discourse by happenstance and may or may not act as an agent. Perhaps they remember the ad and tell a friend who has a teenager needing to learn to drive.

5 Speaker Text Audience Subject

6 SOAPSTone Subject Occasion Audience Purpose Speaker Tone

7 Tone The speaker’s attitude toward his/her subject matter

8 Rhetorical Appeals Aristotle
Techniques used to persuade an audience by emphasizing what they find most important or compelling. Ethos (character) Logos (reason) Pathos (emotion)

9 Ethos (Character) Credibility and trustworthiness
Emphasize shared values between the speaker and audience Reputation Building ethos Explaining background or emphasizing shared values

10 Logos (Reason) Clear, ration ideas
Counterarguments—anticipating objections or opposing views Concession/refutation

11 Pathos (Emotion) Emotions, values, desires, hopes, fears, and prejudices Figurative language, personal anecdotes, and vivid images “Two Ways of Seeing a River”—What methods does Twain use to evoke pathos? Also largely created through diction (word choice).

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