Michael Holland Program Examiner Office of Management & Budget June 2, 2009 Buying Science Wholesale
The White House The Agency Bureau R&D Congress Approps Committees Auth. Committees Complicated Decision-making Process Research Community National Academy of Science OSTP NSC NEC OMB
Political Level (President, Congress) How does the science benefit society? (jobs, economy, defense,…) How does this alleviate/placate constituent concerns? (budget growth!) How has the program been managing and performing? What have we gotten for our investment to date? Agency Head/Department Secretary Level How does the agency mission address administration priorities? How does the science further the mission of the agency? How does the science impact or strengthen other programs or related activities across the Government? How has the program been managing and performing? What have we gotten for our investment to date? Program Level How does the program further agency mission and administration priorities? How does science advance the programs objectives? How does the science impact or strengthen other programs or related activities across the Government? How has the program been managing and performing? What have we gotten for our investment to date? Project Level: Quality & Relevance More than preparing for Obvious Questions
Research Program (Competitive) Agency (Corporate) Political (Macro) Society Disciplines Societal Demands Defense Energy Economic Security Health Environment Food/Water Discovery VALUE Scientific Opportunities AMO, bio, nano, NP, EPP, Astro cosmology MERIT Context, Context, Context
Colleagues in your field –includes program managers Scientists outside your field –includes other agency staff Science policy shops –OMB, OSTP, Authorizing Committee staff, Appropriations Committee Staff Non-scientists –most policy officials, politicians, personal office staff, and the public Know Your Audience: Know Your Role: Technical Expert Science Policy Expert/Community Leader Constituent of a Member or Constituent of a Program
White House Office (Homeland Security Council, Energy & Climate Change, Health Reform, Urban Policy) Office of Management & Budget (OMB) Office of the Vice President National Security Council (NSC) Presidents Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board Council of Economic Advisors (CEA) Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) US Trade Representative (USTR) Office of Administration Office of National Drug Control Policy Office of Science & Technology Policy (OSTP) Mix of detailees, career, political Primarily political staff Primarily career staff Domestic Policy Council Natl Economic Council Natl AIDS Policy Council on Women & Girls Know Your Audiences Role
Chemical Sciences u Analytical Chemistry u Atomic, Molecular & Optical u Chemical Kinetics u Chemical Physics u Catalysis u Combustion Dynamics u Electrochemistry u Heavy Element Chemistry u Interfacial Chemistry u Organometallic Chemistry u Photochemistry u Photosynthetic Mechanisms u Radiation Chemistry u Separations Science u Solar Energy Conversion u Theory, Modeling, & Simulation u Thermophysical Properties Particle & Nuclear Physics u High Energy and Particle Physics u Heavy Ion & Medium Energy Nuclear Physics u Accelerator and Detector R&D u Particle Astrophysics u Physics Theory Fusion Sciences Experimental Plasma Physics Theory, modeling, and simulation Accelerator Physics Plasma Diagnostics R&D Specialized Materials Science Tritium Science Microwave Systems R&D Integrated Fusion Systems Materials Sciences and Engineering u Catalysis u Ceramics u Condensed Matter Physics u Corrosion u Electronic Properties of Materials u Experimental Techniques & Instrument Devel. u Fluid Dynamics and Heat Flow u Intermetallic Alloys u Magnetism and Magnetic Materials u Materials Physics and Chemistry u Mechanical, Physical, and Structural Properties u Metallic Glasses u Metallurgy, Metal Forming, Welding & Joining u Nano- and Microsystems Engineering u Neutron and Photon Scattering u Nondestructive Evaluation u Photovoltaics u Polymer Science u Radiation Effects u Superconductivity u Surface Science u Synthesis and Processing Science u Theory, Modeling, & Computer SimulationGeosciences u Geochemistry of Mineral-fluid Interactions u Geophysical Interrogation of Earths Crust u Rock-fluid Dynamics u BiogeochemistryBiosciences u Natural Photosynthetic Mechanisms u Complex Hydrocarbons and Carbohydrates u Carbon Fixation and Carbon Energy Storage u Biochemistry, Biocatalysis, Bioenergetics, Biomolecular Materials, and Biophysics Life Sciences u Human Genome u Structural Biology u Microbial Genome u Low Dose Radiation Research u Functional Genomics u Human Subjects in Research u Structural Biology Facilities u Genome Instrumentation u Computational & Structural Biology Medical Sciences u Radiopharmaceutical Development u Boron Neutron Capture Therapy u Molecular Nuclear Medical Imaging u Imaging Gene Expression u Biomedical Engineering Environmental Sciences u Decade to Century Climate Modeling u Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) u Atmospheric Science & Chemistry u Carbon Cycle Research u Ocean Sciences u Ecosystem Function and Response u Information & Integration u Integrated Assessment of Climate Change u Bioremediation of Metals & Radionuclides u Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab Mathematics and Advanced Computing u Linear Algebra Libraries u Scientific Computing & Network Testbeds u Advanced Computer Science u Applied Mathematics u Advanced Computing Facilities u Advanced Computing Software My degree Now that Im back at OMB…
Fundamentally, your goal is to tell a compelling story
This is not a data slide. Nor, is it just a pretty picture!
FESAC Priorities & Balance Fusion Energy Development ITER Performance Extension Proof of Principle Concept Exploration Advanced Stellarator Advanced Tokamak Spherical Torus Spheromak Cost
Macroscopic plasma behavior Multi-scale transport behavior Plasma boundary interfaces Waves and energetic particles Fusion engineering science High-energy density implosion physics FESAC Priorities Panel: A scientific and technical presentation of the program These questions now form the basis for a discussion of priorities, e.g., emphasize fusion engineering science after burning plasmas have been created and controlled You can explain how any machine will address these central challenges
So, how do we approach making a case for investment?
Presidential Priorities w/ Direct S&T Coupling Winning the War on Terrorism Securing the Homeland Strengthening the Economy A National Energy Strategy Improving Government: Presidents Management Agenda ( R&D Investment Criteria, PART Analysis)
Federal R&D Priorities (obligations, in 1996 constant dollars) Source: National Science Foundation -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 1962 - 19681973 - 19791979 - 19851995 - 2001 Average Annual Increases Space Energy Health Defense All Others All Others All Others All Others
1.) American Competitiveness Initiative 2.) Homeland Security 3.) Energy Security / Advanced Energy Initiative 4.) Advanced Networking and High End Computing 5.) National Nanotechnology Initiative 6.) Understanding Complex Biology non-biomedical biology: plant genomics, animal genomics 7.) Environment Climate Change Science and Technology Earth Observation Systems FY 2008 OSTP/OMB Priorities Memo
Examples Facilities for Materials Science All the right pieces Computing Providing a science-driven program concept Physics of the Universe Knitting diverse programs together Quantum Universe Making connections
Seitz-Eastman, 1984 Putting It in the Agency Context NAS Study called for: –A 6 GeV synchrotron light source –An advanced steady state neutron source –A 1-2 GeV synchrotron light source –A high-intensity pulsed neutron source
The Trivelpiece Plan In 1986, Director of Energy Research crafts a solution: –Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) –A 1-2 GeV synchrotron light source (ALS) –A 6 GeV synchrotron light source (APS) –An advanced steady state neutron source (ANS) A high-intensity pulsed neutron source (SNS) was eventually substituted
Highly Productive Suite of DOE Light Sources SSRL, NSLS: pre-existing APS, ALS: Trivelpiece Plan
Birgeneau-Shen, 1997 ALS in trouble …With Systematic Evaluation Petroff report, 2000 ALS fixed
ScaLeS What could you do with 100X more computing power? Making the Wrong Point HECRTF What does high-end computing need?
Making the Right Point SciDAC How can high-end software be most effectively developed to deliver scientific results?
1.What is the Dark Matter? 2.What is Dark Energy? 3.How did the Universe Begin? 4.Did Einstein have the last word on gravity? 5.What are the masses of the neutrinos and how have they shaped our universe? 6.How do cosmic accelerators work and what are they accelerating? 7. Are protons unstable? 8.What are new states of matter at exceedingly high density and temperature? (HED) 9.Are there additional space-time dimensions? 10.How were elements from iron to uranium made? 11.Is a new theory of matter and light needed at the highest energies? NRCs Quarks to the Cosmos Report
Co-chairs Anne Kinney, Joe Dehmer, Robin Staffin (Peter Rosen) Participation NASA Space Science NSF Astronomy, Physics and Office of Polar Programs DOE High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, Fusion Energy Science, and NNSA OSTP OMB NSTC IWG on The Physics of the Universe
HEPAP Long Range Plan: A Post – Mortem from Chairman Barry Barishs presentation to the NAS EPP2010 Committee
DOE/NSF HEPAP Quantum Universe Report Asks for precisely the same things as The Science Ahead: The Way to Discovery. Ties EPP to the broader effort in discovery-oriented physical sciences, yet does not subordinate EPP to any other field Strong connection to Physics of the Universe and Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC) activities Very well received in DC
Do Your Homework AAAS for R&D Budget Analysis www.aaas.org/spp/rd/ OSTP for Policy Direction www.ostp.gov OMB for Budget & PART Analyses www.whitehouse.gov/omb Authorizing Committees: Hearings, Press Releases e.g., science.house.gov THOMAS for Bills & Reports: Approps & Authorizations thomas.loc.gov Your professional societies FYI for the AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News http://www.aip.org/gov/
4 Resource Management Offices (RMOs) DOE, NSF NASA, USDA USGS, EPA Smithsonian Natural Resource Programs 6.1, 6.2, NNSA, VA National Security Programs NIST, NOAA DOT, DHS General Government Programs OMBs Competitive Environment * OMB DIRECTOR vs. National Parks, Forest Service, Army Corps, crop insurance vs. Justice, HUD, Treasury, FDIC, Transportation, GSA vs. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Intel, State Dept., USAID, VA $27B/$107B=26%$5B/$487=1%$86B/$598B=14% *includes mandatory and discretionary spending
12 Appropriation Subcommittees each DOE (SC, FE, EERE, NE, NNSA) Energy & Water 6.1, 6.2 Defense NIH, Ed Labor/HHS/Ed NASA, NSF, NIST, NOAA Commerce, Justice, Science House & Senate Appropriations Committees Appropriations Competitive Environment vs. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Weapons Systems Procurement, Intelligence vs. US Attorneys, FBI, DEA, State & Local Law Enforcement, Prisons, PTO vs. Pell Grants, JobCorps, Vocational Rehab, Foster Care, Head Start, CDC, Ryan White & Block Grants vs. NNSA, Army Corps, Bureau of Reclamation, Yucca Mtn, NRC, Environmental Mgmt. $10B/$31B=34% $30B/$145B=21% $19B/$54B=35%$81B/$492B=16%