Presentation on theme: "Big Business & Industrial Cities"— Presentation transcript:
1Big Business & Industrial Cities Chapter 5Sherry Woods,Caywood Elementary School Lexington, TN
2Introduction Machines started to replace hand tools. Inventors developed new technologies.Important time for FREE ENTERPRISEAn economic system in which businesses have the freedom to offer for sale many kinds of goods and services.
3Railroads Transcontinental railroad – from the Atlantic to the Pacific Lincoln’s election promise1862 Union Pacific RailroadCentral Pacific RailroadMet at Promontory, UtahOthers also built tracks
4Growth of Railroads George Westinghouse Air brake….made train travel saferGranville T. Woods…improved the air brake and developed telegraph system to help trains and stations communicate.
5Growth Problems Needed more locomotives, cars, and tracks Had to pay workers to lay tracksNeeded capital resources…money $$$Got some money from the governmentSome from investors – invest to buy shares in the hope of making money. Shares are called stocks.Corporations – businesses that sell sharesRailroad was the 1st business to become corporations!
6Telegraph Samuel Morse developed the Morse Code Dots and dashes Used electricity along iron wires
7Railroads Improved transportation Expanded businesses across the entire country.
8The Steel Industry Locomotives became too heavy for iron Used steel, but was more expensiveInventors found a new way to make steel more cheaplyHenry BessemerMelted iron ore and other metals togetherBlast furnace made steel stronger
10Andrew CarnegieEntrepreneur (set up new business and takes risks with money)Built a steel mill in Pittsburg, PennsylvaniaVery successfulBuilt many moreBought coal and iron mines, ships, so he could lower cost of his steel
11Carnegie Steel Company Biggest steel business in United StatesHe became one of the richest people in the world
12The Oil Industry John D. Rockerfeller 24 years old Built an oil refinery in OhioRefinery is a factory that makes crude oil into grease, kerosene, gasoline and other USABLE products.Bought other refineriesMonopoly – almost complete control
13New Industrial Cities Inland cities Close to resources needed by mills and refineriesPittsburgh, Chicago, Indiana, Ohio, MichiganRailroad hubs…cities where trains make stops on their way to other places.
14Time Zones24 time zones worldwide6 time zones in the United States
16Building Railroads Needed 1000’s of workers Most immigrants were from Ireland and ChinaCivil War VeteransAfrican AmericansMexican Americans
17Dangerous Work 400 rails per mile Pickaxes, shovels, and dynamite Built bridges across canyonsBlasted through rock for tunnelsChinese usually did the explosivesLowered by basketDrilled holeLit dynamitePulled up…in time…USUALLY!!!!Worked year round in all kinds of weatherAvalanches, snowdrifts, and attacks
18Work in Factories So many workers….low wages Didn’t make enough to support familyKids had to work, too1910 made up 1/5 of all workers60 cents for 8 hrs. workWalked 22 miles a day carrying glassUnsafe machines so many accidents happened
19Owners against Workers Workers spoke out about problemsSome went on strikeUsually just got FIRED!Formed labor union – group of workers who join together
20Samuel Gompers Early labor union leader 13 years old worked as a cigar makerFederation – made up of many member groupsAFL American Federation of LaborWanted 8 hr. daysBetter working conditionsEnd to child laborAccident insurance
21Labor Unions and Strikes Going on strike was the most important way unions had to get the owners’ attentionSometimes became violentHarvesting Machine Company strikeBomb killed seven police
22Homestead Strike Carnegie steel mill Announced a pay cut Workers went on strike to protestDetectives hired to protect the millAngry union workers and detectives got in a fight killing people from both sides
23Government and Business Wanted government to help improve working conditionsFactory owners did not want the government to get involved.Government did not want to get involved.Thought businesses would grow best if they left them alone to make decisions.
25Asian ImmigrantsChinese immigrants came to United States after the California gold rush in 1849.Faced prejudice from some Americans.Had to pay a special tax.Some were beaten and even killed.When gold mines dried up, looked for other work.Worked for low wages on the railroad so they could stay in the United States.
26Stopping the ChineseMany Americans wanted to stop other Chinese from coming to America.Wanted the others to go back to China.Americans were worried the immigrants would take away their jobs.
27Unfair Laws Chinese had to pay higher taxes. Could not work for the states.Not allow to sue in state courts.Congress passed a law stopping all immigration by Chinese people.
28Japanese and other Asians Still allowed to move to the U.S.Found jobs in agriculture (farming)Some bought small farms in California and the southwest.Later, they too, were mistreated.U.S. convinced Japan to stop Japanese from leaving Japan
29Mexican ImmigrantsLived mostly in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and southern CaliforniaFew spoke EnglishBarrios, or neighborhoods of Mexicans helped Mexican immigrants feel at home.They helped each other find jobs picking lettuce, tomatoes, and grapes.
30Mexicans Mistreated Like other immigrants, they were treated unfairly. Some were beaten and killed.
31European Immigrants LARGEST GROUP of immigrants. Nearly 16 million came between 1890 and 1920Britain, Ireland, Germany, Norway, and SwedenItaly, Greece, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Armenia, and Russia
32A Better Life in America Poor and unhappy in their homelands.Wanted a better life.Came on shipsEllis Island in New YorkMost had to live with relatives or lived in crowded apartment houses called tenements.Very low wages; everyone had to work.
33Same PrejudiceLike other immigrants, Europeans were sometimes treated badly.Sometimes even other immigrants who were already here were unkind to them because they didn’t want them to get their jobs.
34Becoming a CitizenNo matter how bad it might be, most immigrants wanted to become a U.S. citizen.They could then take part and vote and serve on juries in court.
35Naturalization Process for becoming a citizen Had to live in U.S. for five yearsHad to pass a test about the government and history of the United States.Had to answer in English.Had to take an oath of allegiance, or loyalty to U.S.
36Migration by African Americans Many African Americans moved west after the Civil War.Later, however many moved to the North.Settled in industrial cities to work in the factories.
37The Great Migration Why did they move North? Farm workers in south suffering from floods, and an insect called the boll weevil. Cotton crops had been destroyed.Children had to work all day in the field so they often got very little education.Many factory jobs available in the North.
38Life in the North Better than the south for most GOOD PART Living conditions were still poorLived in crowded neighborhoodsFaced prejudice just like in the southGOOD PARTChildren went to schoolParents could voteNearly half still live in the North and West
42City Problems (con’t) Crime More than police could handle Gangs sometimes took over neighborhoods
43Help for the Cities’ Poor People tried to help fix problemsJane AddamsHull House settlement house (Community Center)Provided kindergarten for childrenClasses on sewing, cooking, and EnglishHelped try to do away with child laborTried to improve health and safety conditions in mills and factories
45More Help for the PoorJanie Porter BarrettAfrican American teacherSettlement house in VirginiaLillian WaldHenry Street Settlement in New York CityBy 1900, over 100 Settlement Houses were open in American cities!!!
46The Changing City The Good Stuff Cities Offered Parks Theaters Schools ZoosRailroad stationsTall office Buildings
47William Jenney’s Skyscraper Used steel frames instead of bricksLike a steel skeletonBuilt the first skyscraper in 1885 in Chicago
48Elevators: Going Up?1st electric elevator put into a skyscraper in New York City in 1889
49Transportation Needed Needed a way to get to work fasterHad been using streetcars pulled by horsesAndrew S. Hallidie invented the CABLE CAR…steam poweredFrank Sprague built electric cable car…called a trolley