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Big Business & Industrial Cities

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Presentation on theme: "Big Business & Industrial Cities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Big Business & Industrial Cities
Chapter 5 Sherry Woods, Caywood Elementary School Lexington, TN

2 Introduction Machines started to replace hand tools.
Inventors developed new technologies. Important time for FREE ENTERPRISE An economic system in which businesses have the freedom to offer for sale many kinds of goods and services.

3 Railroads Transcontinental railroad – from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Lincoln’s election promise 1862 Union Pacific Railroad Central Pacific Railroad Met at Promontory, Utah Others also built tracks

4 Growth of Railroads George Westinghouse
Air brake….made train travel safer Granville T. Woods…improved the air brake and developed telegraph system to help trains and stations communicate.

5 Growth Problems Needed more locomotives, cars, and tracks
Had to pay workers to lay tracks Needed capital resources…money $$$ Got some money from the government Some from investors – invest to buy shares in the hope of making money. Shares are called stocks. Corporations – businesses that sell shares Railroad was the 1st business to become corporations!

6 Telegraph Samuel Morse developed the Morse Code Dots and dashes
Used electricity along iron wires

7 Railroads Improved transportation
Expanded businesses across the entire country.

8 The Steel Industry Locomotives became too heavy for iron
Used steel, but was more expensive Inventors found a new way to make steel more cheaply Henry Bessemer Melted iron ore and other metals together Blast furnace made steel stronger


10 Andrew Carnegie Entrepreneur (set up new business and takes risks with money) Built a steel mill in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania Very successful Built many more Bought coal and iron mines, ships, so he could lower cost of his steel

11 Carnegie Steel Company
Biggest steel business in United States He became one of the richest people in the world

12 The Oil Industry John D. Rockerfeller 24 years old
Built an oil refinery in Ohio Refinery is a factory that makes crude oil into grease, kerosene, gasoline and other USABLE products. Bought other refineries Monopoly – almost complete control

13 New Industrial Cities Inland cities
Close to resources needed by mills and refineries Pittsburgh, Chicago, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan Railroad hubs…cities where trains make stops on their way to other places.

14 Time Zones 24 time zones worldwide 6 time zones in the United States

15 Growing Pains Chapter 5: Lesson 2

16 Building Railroads Needed 1000’s of workers
Most immigrants were from Ireland and China Civil War Veterans African Americans Mexican Americans

17 Dangerous Work 400 rails per mile Pickaxes, shovels, and dynamite
Built bridges across canyons Blasted through rock for tunnels Chinese usually did the explosives Lowered by basket Drilled hole Lit dynamite Pulled up…in time…USUALLY!!!! Worked year round in all kinds of weather Avalanches, snowdrifts, and attacks

18 Work in Factories So many workers….low wages
Didn’t make enough to support family Kids had to work, too 1910 made up 1/5 of all workers 60 cents for 8 hrs. work Walked 22 miles a day carrying glass Unsafe machines so many accidents happened

19 Owners against Workers
Workers spoke out about problems Some went on strike Usually just got FIRED! Formed labor union – group of workers who join together

20 Samuel Gompers Early labor union leader
13 years old worked as a cigar maker Federation – made up of many member groups AFL American Federation of Labor Wanted 8 hr. days Better working conditions End to child labor Accident insurance

21 Labor Unions and Strikes
Going on strike was the most important way unions had to get the owners’ attention Sometimes became violent Harvesting Machine Company strike Bomb killed seven police

22 Homestead Strike Carnegie steel mill Announced a pay cut
Workers went on strike to protest Detectives hired to protect the mill Angry union workers and detectives got in a fight killing people from both sides

23 Government and Business
Wanted government to help improve working conditions Factory owners did not want the government to get involved. Government did not want to get involved. Thought businesses would grow best if they left them alone to make decisions.

24 New Immigrants Chapter 5. Lesson 3

25 Asian Immigrants Chinese immigrants came to United States after the California gold rush in 1849. Faced prejudice from some Americans. Had to pay a special tax. Some were beaten and even killed. When gold mines dried up, looked for other work. Worked for low wages on the railroad so they could stay in the United States.

26 Stopping the Chinese Many Americans wanted to stop other Chinese from coming to America. Wanted the others to go back to China. Americans were worried the immigrants would take away their jobs.

27 Unfair Laws Chinese had to pay higher taxes.
Could not work for the states. Not allow to sue in state courts. Congress passed a law stopping all immigration by Chinese people.

28 Japanese and other Asians
Still allowed to move to the U.S. Found jobs in agriculture (farming) Some bought small farms in California and the southwest. Later, they too, were mistreated. U.S. convinced Japan to stop Japanese from leaving Japan

29 Mexican Immigrants Lived mostly in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California Few spoke English Barrios, or neighborhoods of Mexicans helped Mexican immigrants feel at home. They helped each other find jobs picking lettuce, tomatoes, and grapes.

30 Mexicans Mistreated Like other immigrants, they were treated unfairly.
Some were beaten and killed.

31 European Immigrants LARGEST GROUP of immigrants.
Nearly 16 million came between 1890 and 1920 Britain, Ireland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden Italy, Greece, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Armenia, and Russia

32 A Better Life in America
Poor and unhappy in their homelands. Wanted a better life. Came on ships Ellis Island in New York Most had to live with relatives or lived in crowded apartment houses called tenements. Very low wages; everyone had to work.

33 Same Prejudice Like other immigrants, Europeans were sometimes treated badly. Sometimes even other immigrants who were already here were unkind to them because they didn’t want them to get their jobs.

34 Becoming a Citizen No matter how bad it might be, most immigrants wanted to become a U.S. citizen. They could then take part and vote and serve on juries in court.

35 Naturalization Process for becoming a citizen
Had to live in U.S. for five years Had to pass a test about the government and history of the United States. Had to answer in English. Had to take an oath of allegiance, or loyalty to U.S.

36 Migration by African Americans
Many African Americans moved west after the Civil War. Later, however many moved to the North. Settled in industrial cities to work in the factories.

37 The Great Migration Why did they move North?
Farm workers in south suffering from floods, and an insect called the boll weevil. Cotton crops had been destroyed. Children had to work all day in the field so they often got very little education. Many factory jobs available in the North.

38 Life in the North Better than the south for most GOOD PART
Living conditions were still poor Lived in crowded neighborhoods Faced prejudice just like in the south GOOD PART Children went to school Parents could vote Nearly half still live in the North and West

39 The Growth of Cities Chapter 5 Lesson 4

40 City Problems Overcrowded tenemants Disease spread rapidly
Insects and rates everywhere because garbage pick up was awful Fire Danger Wood buildings Few full-time fire departments. Chicago fire of 1871


42 City Problems (con’t) Crime More than police could handle
Gangs sometimes took over neighborhoods

43 Help for the Cities’ Poor
People tried to help fix problems Jane Addams Hull House settlement house (Community Center) Provided kindergarten for children Classes on sewing, cooking, and English Helped try to do away with child labor Tried to improve health and safety conditions in mills and factories

44 Hull House

45 More Help for the Poor Janie Porter Barrett African American teacher Settlement house in Virginia Lillian Wald Henry Street Settlement in New York City By 1900, over 100 Settlement Houses were open in American cities!!!

46 The Changing City The Good Stuff Cities Offered Parks Theaters Schools
Zoos Railroad stations Tall office Buildings

47 William Jenney’s Skyscraper
Used steel frames instead of bricks Like a steel skeleton Built the first skyscraper in 1885 in Chicago

48 Elevators: Going Up? 1st electric elevator put into a skyscraper in New York City in 1889

49 Transportation Needed
Needed a way to get to work faster Had been using streetcars pulled by horses Andrew S. Hallidie invented the CABLE CAR…steam powered Frank Sprague built electric cable car…called a trolley


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