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Principles of Government

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Government"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Government
Systems, Forms, and Types

2 Standard: Essential Question SSCG 19 : Compare and contrast governments that are unitary, confederal, federal, autocratic, oligarchic, democratic, presidential and parliamentary. What are the similarities and differences between the many forms of government including; unitary, confederal, federal, autocratic, oligarchic, democratic, parliamentary and presidential?

3 Objectives Learn the four essential features of a “state” (not a “State”). Learn the four theories about the origination of states Understand the difference between unitary, confederal and federal systems of government Learn about the three major forms of government Identify key characteristics of democratic government

4 “State” or “state?” “State” (capitalized) refers to a political subdivision of the United States, such as the State of Montana “state” (lower case) refers to a nation-state or country, such as France or the United States

5 Theories on Origin of states
Divine right (God given right to rule) Social contract (Society’s need for order) Force theory (organize to resist enemies) Evolutionary theory (extended family rule became government)

6 Systems and Types of Government
In order to study government, we first need to look at the following: Systems: How is the Power distributed Types: Who rules and who participates

7 Systems of government are based on one question…
…How is the power distributed? There are three ways governments distribute power: Unitary Confederation Federal

8 Unitary One central government controls everything
Power is NOT shared between states, counties, or provinces. Examples: The United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Spain

9 Unitary Governments

10 Confederal A voluntary association of independent states that agrees to follow a central government. States can choose to follow or not follow the lead of the central government Examples: CSA, Russian Federation

11 Federal Power is shared by a central government
States or Provinces are given considerable self-rule, usually through their own legislatures. Examples, the United States and Germany

12 Federal Governments

13 Systems of Government


15 Types of government are based on one question…
…Who governs and what is the citizenship participation? There are three types of government: Autocracy Oligarchy Democracy

16 Autocracy Government in which the power to govern is held by one person Generally the power to rule is inherited or by military force There are three types of autocracy Example: Iraq, and Great Britain Dictatorship- absolute rule generally by force Absolute Monarchy-absolute rule inherited through family ties Constitutional Monarchy-share power with elected officials, seen for as figurehead with limited to no power

17 Oligarchy A government in which a few people such as a dominate clan or clique hold all the power The group gets their power through either military, wealth, or social status Elections may be held but offer only one candidate Examples: Greek-City states, Russian Federation.

18 Democracy Two forms of democracy Ruled by the people
Individual freedom and equality is valued Free elections are held Decisions are based on majority rule Citizens vote by secret ballot Example: the United States Two forms of democracy Direct Democracy- People vote on all issues Representative Democracy (Republic)- citizens elect representatives and give them the power to vote on the issues


20 Two Major Types of Democratic Governments
Parliamentary Presidential Voters elect members to Parliament House of Commons-the Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister, the government’s leader with no set length of term House of Lords: little power with most members being nobles having inherited their titles Voters elect legislatures Voter elect (indirectly) the president Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government Legislative Executive


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