Presentation on theme: "Margaryta Aradzhyoni, Oleg Smirnov, Ukraine Integration and Development Center for Information and Research Second Annual Conference on Conflict Resolution."— Presentation transcript:
Margaryta Aradzhyoni, Oleg Smirnov, Ukraine Integration and Development Center for Information and Research Second Annual Conference on Conflict Resolution Education (Columbus, Ohio) Intercultural education as a method of early conflict prevention in multicultural societies
CR IN UKRAINE (1997-2005) Odessa mediation group – one of the leading organizations in Ukraine (jointly realizes projects with Tavrida Mediation group, Integration and Development Center, Search for Common Ground (Crimean office) and other) Activities: Trainings for trainers in CR, PM and mediation CR and PM as parts of the facultative course on Civic Education for higher grades of Ukrainian schools 3 –hour course on CR and SM in oblast teacher training institutes for school psychologists and other Experiment in Odessa and Nikolaev oblast schools on PM Implementation of justice and reconciliation programs Courses on CR and PM in police schools
Autonomous Republic of Crimea: Context/Challenges uneasy process of adaptation of mainly Russian-speaking population of Crimea to new Ukrainian reality the return of a big amount of the former deportees (Crimean Tatars, Armenians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks) during a short period of time – about 300 thousand the incapability of the state to meet the deportees economical, social and cultural needs to the full extend - a factor of tension in the region the necessity for development of education, culture, civic activities of the deportees as elements of social equality and prevention of the feeling of being discriminated in the social-cultural area raise of Muslim population during last 15 years up to 13 % - raise of islamophobia (society doesnt have an experience of joint coexistence) high level of migration and lack of experience of joint co-existence in poly-ethnic and poly-confessional environment lack of joint vision and manipulation in ethnic area by political elites, struggle for resources
Crimean NGOs strategic approach (1997-2002) Creating a climate of socially and culturally "equal opportunities. Taking into account state and regional factors. Contributing to the maintenance of the peace, mutual understanding, and democratic principles of societal development in Ukraine. Involving the general public in the development of the strategy and management of initiatives. Stimulating by donor organizations numerous local initiatives, resolving common global problems by way of local transformation.
Main areas of NGOs activities (1997-2002) rebirth of primary and secondary education for repatriates popularization of ethnic cultures as a means to set up dialogue between them development of education on native languages promotion of the multicultural education in Crimea
Education for repatriates (minorities) 1997-2002 Development and publication of textbooks and teaching manuals for secondary schools, Sunday schools and higher educational institutions (88 publications) Technical and informational support of educational institutions (schools with the Crimean Tatar language of instruction, Sunday schools of other ethnic groups) Teacher training and retraining Promoting dissemination of the native language in every-day life (Home Library books, bilingual magazines, etc.) (25 publications) Development of non-traditional childrens educational-leisure centers and schools at home
Popularization of ethnic cultures – Dialogue of cultures ( 1997-2002) organizing seminars and scientific conferences publishing of core books of outstanding scholars, philosophers and writers whose works contribute to furthering a dialogue between different ethnic groups in the Crimea (32 publications) spreading the best samples of Crimean Tatar literature through translation and publication in Ukrainian and Russian languages (12 publications)
Multicultural education in Crimea ( 1997-2002) Series of publications In the Crimean Home, Crimean Cradle, Fairytale Echo and others Supplementary materials for existing courses on history, language and literature. Design of special courses for studying ethnic history, traditional cultures of Crimean ethnic communities, intercultural management and basics of conflict prevention and resolution (school mediation). Summer schools of peace for schoolchildren, students and community leaders (We are Crimeans, Renewed sources and others) Empowering education program spreading in the Crimean schools.
Population/Schools in the Crimea (2005-2006): Russian population – 63% (1260000 persons)- 635 schools with the Russian language of instruction Ukrainian population – 23% (460000 persons) - 7 schools with the Ukrainian language of instruction, 544 classes in Russian schools Crimean Tatars – 12 % (240000 persons)- 14 schools with the Crimean Tatar language of instruction + 183 classes in the Russian schools Armenian, Bulgarian, Byelorussian, Czech, Greek, Lithuanian languages are taught in secondary and Sunday schools
Problems (level of education): Intolerance toward the Other seems to be on the rise nowadays (cases of xenophobia and religious intolerance have been reported). The infrastructure of school education is ill-prepared for multicultural environment. The teacher training system does not prepare teachers to deal with diverse classrooms with children from diverse ethnic backgrounds and/or learning abilities. Dominated ideology of ethnocentric nation-building (esp. in curriculum and textbooks).
Social and Ethnic Distance (2005, 2002) 10-11 th grades students
Multicultural (intercultural) approach Multiculturalism in education – is neither teaching the native languages to ethnic minority children (or even opening of the national schools), nor total introduction of the school subject multiculturalism. It is a perspective revision of the whole educational system and methods of teaching. What is new in the intercultural approach is the priority it gives to interaction, reciprocal relations and mutual influence. It is characterized by a transition from hierarchic systems to networks: cultures interact and enrich each other within a web of interdependence. The long-term goal of promoting active tolerance and early conflict prevention
Multicultural approach to education creation of equal opportunities for children of ethnic communities education of mutual cultural understanding and tolerance among representatives of different ethnic (linguistic, religious, cultural) groups
CHANGES IN ACTIVITIES OF NGOs (2003) Shift from education for ethnic minorities to multicultural initiatives Need for a systemic approach Joint activities of NGOs, teachers, scholars, public State involvement
Systemic approach and state involvement Monitoring of situation in school environment and school textbooks Round tables for all stakeholders Publication of materials and documents Negotiations with the Ministry of Education and Science Creation and approval of the Concept of Teaching Social Skills in the Crimean schools Culture of Neighborhood course design for all levels of education system, Monitoring Commission activities, Center for Multicultural Education and Tolerance and other
Activities in 2003-2005 independent monitoring of textbooks and manuals on issues of ethnic intolerance toward different ethnic groups of Ukraine (school level) the integrative course Culture of Neighborhood for all levels of education system, activities for the creation a program for kindergartens Crimean wreath (pre-school level) special course including knowledge of ethnic history and conflict resolution for government officials and parliament members research project on Historical experience of neighborhood – learning and popularization through TV programs Informational methodological center for multicultural education and tolerance with resource library established at the premises of the Crimean Ethnographic Museum special educational programs and placements for students and pupils based on the potential of cultural ethno-centers of Crimea Stimulation of the state policy transformation
Stimulation of the state policy transformation: ways of NGOs influence Involvement of representatives of the local authorities (Ministry of Education) from the early stages of any initiative (contacts, letters, round tables, personal participation). Activities should be based on the results of monitoring, research, analysis of a situation. Coalition building (the more NGOs involved the more any initiative is trusted). Raising broader public awareness. Special training courses for representatives of authorities. NGOs demonstrate readiness to be responsible. NGOs demonstrate that they can attract additional money from different sources.
Leading group of the Culture of Neighborhood course authors: Andryuschenko Irina – Department of Cultural Studies, Tavrida National University Aradzhyoni Margaryta – candidate of history, Ethno-confessional research department, Crimean branch of the Institute of oriental studies (National Academy of science of Ukraine), Integration and development center for information and research (Head of the Group) Bykova Elizaveta – Crimean branch of the Scientific and methodological center for secondary education, Ministry of education and science of Ukraine Cherny Eugeny – Candidate of psychology, Department of psychology, Tavrida National University Kravtsova Lyudmila – Department of pre-school education and pedagogy of the Crimean state engineering and pedagogical university Mukhomorina Lyudmila – Department of pre-school education, Crimean teacher training institute Openko Natalia - Department of psyhcology, Crimean teacher training institute Smirnov Oleg – candidate of philology, Integration and development center for information and research, Department of Inter-language communication and journalism, Tavrida National University (Head of the Project) Utikas Lyudmila - Crimean branch of the Scientific and methodological center for secondary education, Ministry of education and science of Ukraine Yakovleva Tatyana – Ministry of education and science of Crimea
Integrative course Culture of Neighborhood (35 hours per year in primary, secondary and high school (1-12) Main purpose: Up-bringing and education of socially competent, critically thinking and tolerant citizens of Crimea and Ukraine
Integrated course Culture of Neighborhood Main principles: Equality of all people despite their status, gender, number of population, ethnic origin, religion and period of living on the territory of the Crimea Priority of common human values Rebirth, preservation and development of ethno-cultural identity and dialogue of cultures Pluralism of opinions on the issues of ethno-genesis and ethnic history Priority of up-bringing tasks Creative organization of educational activities (unity of the curriculum, extra- curriculum and extra-class activities) Links with other courses
Integrated course Culture of Neighborhood Main principles (continuation): Possibilities to modify the course into a subject of the invariant part of the curriculum, or a special or facultative course depending on the availability of teaching hours in the school curriculum Continuation of the course on all the levels of education process: from kindergartens through schools to institutions of higher learning Maximum involvement of students into practical activities aimed at getting know the home land through participation in every-day life of the Crimean autonomy, their town, village, community, school Involvement of a family and a community as a source of information and active participant of the education process Using no less than one third of the education time for practical activities, inter- active educational forms (e.g. trainings) and excursions
«Friendship vocabulary» - vocabulary of interaction «Friendship vocabulary» - vocabulary of interaction (one of the components of the course) Any class includes children of at least 3 ethnic groups. Elementary contacts and mutual understanding through acquaintance with everyday words and phrases (greetings, etiquette, etc). The philologists of 26 national cultural communities united for its compiling. The teacher can choose a language according to national content of a class.
Integrated course Culture of Neighborhood: Activities 2003 – approval of the Concept 2004 – 2005 – approval of the program 2005 – 2006 - didactic materials designed Approbation of the course in 23 schools (1 st,2 nd, 5 th, 5 th, 10 th, 11th grades) and 20 kindergartens Trainings for teachers and administration conducted Involvement of parents System of psychological monitoring developed
Psychological criteria of the program effectiveness : Main goals and criteria: Forming social competence Criteria: high level of communication culture and adaptability critical thinking history, culture knowledge behavioral skills Forming high level of tolerance Criteria:social (ethnic) distance reduction negative stereotypes minimization status deprivation reduction non-ethnic, non-confessional component prevailing in communication emotional comfort level positive change Identities correspondence optimization Criteria:ego-identity distinctness ethnic, religious, regional and other identities moulding priority of personal identity over any other social identities
INFORMATIONAL METHODOLOGICAL CENTER FOR MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION AND TOLERANCE Aim: to popularize the ideas of tolerance, intercultural education, mutual respect and collaboration of the diverse ethnical and confessional groups in the Crimean society. Objectives: establishment of the resource base for informational and methodological assistance for development of a multicultural and ethnic education of the Crimean peoples; popularization of the cultures and religions of the peninsular, the ideas of the peaceful coexistence of the diverse confessions and ethnical groups of the Crimea; exchange of the innovational educational projects centered around inter- ethnical dialogue and polilogue proficiency development; informational and methodological support of revival, preservation and development of the national languages and dialects; development and distribution of the special school educational programs, involving the potential of the Crimean Ethnographic museum and the cultural- ethnographic centers of Crimea; wide distribution of the practical experience in conflict prevention and resolution (peer mediation, trainings for NGOs and others).
Monitoring Commission Created in 2003 at the Integration and Development Center, includes 11 members – teachers, officials, independent experts, scholars, civic leaders Tasks: -Independent monitoring of textbooks and manuals on issues of ethnic intolerance toward different ethnic groups of Ukraine -Independent monitoring of educational environment (opinion educators, school children, parents, etc.) -Monitoring of regional educational materials -Creation of special expert groups Activities: -Questionnaire developed -13 manuals monitored and results sent to the Ministry of Education and Science -Research of the schoolchildren attitudes toward textbooks conducted -Research of school administration attitudes to tolerance issues in schools conducted Research of schoolchildren attitudes to tolerance issues in schools conducted
Results: State support for educational institutions and to textbooks and manuals publication. Established procedures of curriculum and new courses development and approval. Stimulation of civic initiatives. The shift in the approaches towards activities of the "national" NGOs in the Crimea. What we expect? Cultural focus functions as a preventive approach (prevents ethnic conflicts). Interventions associated to cultural differences involve building cultural competency, tolerance and respect for diversity
CONTACTS Oleg Smirnov email@example.com Margaryta Aradzhyoni firstname.lastname@example.org Integration and Development Center for Information and Research www.integration.org.ua THANK YOU!