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Plant Evolution & Diversity Overview LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 01 Dr. Donald P. Althoff LEC 01.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Evolution & Diversity Overview LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 01 Dr. Donald P. Althoff LEC 01."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Evolution & Diversity Overview LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 01 Dr. Donald P. Althoff LEC 01



4 SEEDS & FRUITS (not ___________) ANGIOSPERMS

5 Algae-to-Plants: Land Conquered _______ or rootlike structures Conducting _________ Stiffening substance __________ Waxy ___________ Pores called ____________

6 protista *Algae—plant-like _________ organisms mossesfernsconifers Flowering plants _______________ _____________ ______ ________

7 Reproduction on land “key” Needed to have new method to transport sperm to eggs Accomplished by having sex cells carried by _____…or ____…or ________ And, _______ of developing embryos from __________...

8 Evolutionary process…con’t First, ________ Followed by _______… Then, in the most advanced plants, ________________

9 ALTERNATING GENERATIONS Gametophyte = (n) produces gametes Sporophyte = (2n) production of spores by meiosis

10 Think 4 Major Divisions  Bryophyta  Pteridophyta  Coniferophyta  Anthrophyta

11 Division: Bryophytes LIVERWORTS & MOSSES ~16,000 species _____ true roots, leaves & stems root equivalent -- RHIZOIDS ____________ plants rely on diffusion or poorly developed conducting tissues to distribute water & nutrients NON-vascular plants

12 LIVERWORTS & MOSSES…con’t most are _______ (2cm) max height main adaptation to land: _____________ REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES archegonia (egg develops) antheridia (sperm formed)

13 LIVERWORTS & MOSSES…con’t sperm must swim to egg through a ____ ___________ egg emits a _______________ to aid in location by the sperm timing of reproduction MUST coincide with _________________…this is very __________ in dry environments

14 VASCULAR PLANTS (3 MAJOR CATEGORIES) Seedless:Club mosses, horsetails, & ferns Seed-bearing:Conifers (pines) flowering plants vascular plants

15 Vascular, ___________ bearing plants FERNS & CLUB MOSSES PTERIDOPHYTA—ferns most successful (~12,000 species) LYCOPHYTA--club mosses (ground pine) (~1,000 species) SPENOPHYTA--horsetails (~15 species)

16 FERNS & CLUB MOSSES…con’t Distribution and dominance-wise, these plant divisions _____ seen better days… Life cycles, again, tied to moist conditions… ex: dominant plant body for ferns is the sporophyte (frond)

17 Non-flowering, seed bearing plants Plants PINES, GINKGOS, & CYCADS Pines (~500 species) (Conifers) Ginkgos (1 species: Ginkgo biloba … can you remember this one?) -- male & female trees -- extinct in wild -- resistant to air pollution Cycads (~160 species)

18 Conifers = EVERGREENS (Division: Coniferophyta) Gymnosperm = “____________” in Latin Pines, spruces, firs, hemlocks, & cypresses Once more ______________ and dominant on land Most are extremely well-adapted to _____(cold), ____ conditions….

19 Conifers…con’t Dry & cold environment adaptations: a) thin needles with ______ cuticle b) _____ contains “antifreeze” (what gives it a “piney” fragrance) How do these adaptations help????

20 Conifers…reproductive cycle Dominant form: _____ = diploid sporophyte Male & female cones Pollen (from male cones) dispersed by wind Pollen landing on scale of female cone produces pollen tube that burrows into female gametophyte

21 Flowering Seed Plants ANGIOSPERMS Division: ANTHROPHYTA (“anthro” is Greek for “_______”) “Angiosperm” is Greek for “________ ___________________” ….angiosperms produce their seeds enclosed within a fruit Diverse group….corn, oaks, water lilies, cacti, and buttercups

22 Angiosperms…con’t ~230,000 species “the” ________ plant division for over 100 million years 3 major adaptations: a) flowers b) fruits c) broad leaves 1 2 3

23 Flowers Produced by sporophyte Males & females generally in same flower _______ formed in anther (male) _______ formed in ovary (female) Fertilization accomplished with pollen tube through the stigma 1

24 All in!

25 Fruit Contains the ovary which contains a ______________ This adaptation greatly enhanced __________.most seeds pass through digestive tracts of animals unharmed. Some attached to fur. 2

26 Seeds Important source of food for humans….including prehistoric times a) easy storage (if kept dry) b) source of protein, oils, carbohydrates, & vitamins …same goes for germinating seed

27 Broad Leaves During favorable conditions…particularly in tropical and temperate zones…_____ ______________ available to collect sunlight for photosynthesis. Excess production allows for storage…and subsequent dormant period 3

28 Broad Leaves…liabilities Broad, ________ leaves are more appealing to herbivores than conifer leaves (needles) To __________….some have developed defenses: a) thorns, spines, & resins b) chemical compounds that may be toxic or distasteful

29 protista *Algae—plant-like single-cell organisms mossesfernsconifers Flowering plants All multicelluar Vascular tissue Seeds Flowers

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