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SVMI Network Meeting April 10, 2013

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Assessing and Using Prior Learning to Adapt Teaching to the Needs of Students Network Meeting, April 10, 2013 Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative www.svmimac.org Formative Assessment

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Welcome Please sign in, help yourselves to refreshments, find a seat, and introduce yourself to your tablemates.

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Agenda Welcome Announcements, Norms and Introductions Re-visiting Formative Assessment with a MAP Module Doing Collaborative Mathematics: A Problem Solving Task

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Announcements

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SVMI is … still accepting applications for the SCVMP Leadership Institute: 5 Tuesdays in May and a week in June. The application is on our website: www.svmimac.org. Each member of SVMI is entitled to one scholarship.www.svmimac.org holding two Summer Institutes: Peninsula location is Sequoia HS July 29-August 2 and East Bay is Sunset HS August 5- August 9. The application is on our website: www.svmimac.org.www.svmimac.org

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SVMI is … offering Lesson Study mini-grants again this year. The mini-grants are for teams of 5 to 7 teachers; the stipend is for $3,000. The application will be out May 1, 2013. presenting the preliminary results of the 2013 MAC assessment at our General Meeting on May 15, 2013. We encourage everyone to attend.

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SVMI Calendar for 2013/2014 Please be sure to pick one up.

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Field Testing K-3 Tasks SVMI needs at least two classes for each task. A teacher may only do one task; there is no need to do all five. If possible, the field testing should be done as soon as possible. Field testing to be done in the stated Grade Level

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Kinder Tasks Alphabet Count: Counting and Cardinality/Op. and Alg. Thinking Classroom Helpers: Op. and Alg. Thinking Kinder Measurement: Measurement/Geometry Dog Park: Counting and Cardinality Crayons: Op. and Algebraic Thinking

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First Grade Tasks Field Day: Op. and Alg. Thinking/ Number Ops. In Base 10 Number Puzzles: Op. and Alg. Thinking/Number Ops. in Base 10 Recess Equipment: Op. and Alg. Thinking Weather: Data / Op. and Alg. Thinking Shapes, Shapes, Shapes: Geometry School Garden: Measurement/Geometry

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Second Grade Tasks Seasons: Data Quilt Designs: Geometry Town Zoo: Linear Measurement Can You Tell?: Op. and Alg. Thinking/Number Ops. In Base 10 Our Gardens: Op. and Alg. Thinking – Mult. and Div. Favorite Planets: Data

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Third Grade Tasks Dinosaur Museum: Measurement - Time Tamikos Puzzles: Fractions Thats Entertainment: Op. and Alg. Thinking/Number Ops. In Base 10 using 4 operations The Queen and her Pears: Fractions Mowing for Money: Geometric Measurement Odd and Even School: Op. and Alg. Thinking

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Norms

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The Social Culture of our Network Seek to Understand Respectfully Speak your Truth Monitor your Airtime

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Getting Acquainted or Re-Acquainted

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Goals and Outcomes

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Explore Social Norms and Socio/Mathematical Norms in the context of experiencing a formative assessment problem solving lesson Strengthen and enhance participants leadership abilities by experiencing a high-quality professional development module to support teachers in their classrooms Deepen participants understanding of the effectiveness of Formative Assessment in the classroom for teachers and students

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Lenses to Consider During Professional Development Sessions Learner Lens Coach/Admin Lens

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1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematical Practice

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Socio-Mathematical Norms

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Harold Asturias Errors are gifts…they promote discussion and learning The math is important…not just the answer Ask questions…until it makes sense Think with language…use language to think Use multiple strategies…multiple representations

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Setting the Stage

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A Look at Module 4 and an Alpha FAL Network Meeting, September 5, 2012 Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative www.svmimac.org Questioning

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A Look at Module 5 and Collaborative Tasks Network Meeting, October 31, 2012 Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative www.svmimac.org Collaboration

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Exploring Cognitive Demand Network Meeting, January 9, 2013 Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative www.svmimac.org A Look at Addressing Curriculum Needs

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Assessing and Using Prior Learning to Adapt Teaching to the Needs of Students Network Meeting, April 10, 2013 Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative www.svmimac.org Formative Assessment How can I respond to students in ways that improve their learning?

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Introduction Students do not arrive in classrooms as blank slates. Students come with a wide variety of skills and conceptions. Research shows that teaching is more effective when it assess and uses prior learning so that teaching may be adapted to the needs of students.

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Assessing and Using Prior Learning to Adapt Teaching to the Needs of Students Prior learning may be uncovered through any activity that offers students opportunities to express their understanding and reasoning. It does not require testing. It can take the form of a single written question given at the beginning of a session to elicit a range of explanations that may then be discussed.

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Assessing and Using Prior Learning to Adapt Teaching to the Needs of Students Defining Formative Assessment: Black and Wiliam, 1998 …all those activities undertaken by teachers, and their students in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. Such assessment becomes formative assessment when the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching work to meet the needs.

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Assessing and Using Prior Learning to Adapt Teaching to the Needs of Students –Our Focus How can problems be used to assess performance? How can this assessment be used to promote learning? What kinds of feedback are most helpful for students and which are unhelpful? How can students become engaged in the assessment process?

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Research on Formative Assessment Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment Black and Wiliam, 1998 Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom Black and Harrison, 2002 Assessment for Learning: Putting it into Practice Black, Harrison Lee, Marshall & Wiliam 2003 Mathematics Inside the Black Box Hodgen & Wiliam, 2006

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Activity A Introducing Formative Assessment We begin with the following questions: Why does one assess students? What different purposes do assessments serve? Make a list. Protocol: Individual SOLO Think Time- 1 minute Pair/Share- 2 minutes Whole Group Sharing - 3 minutes

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Activity A Introducing Formative Assessment To summarize, there are two main purposes of assessments : Summative Assessment: to summarize and record overall achievement at the end of a course, for promotion or certification. Most high stakes tests and external examinations are designed for this purpose. It is also used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a particular course, teaching method, or even an institution. Formative Assessment: to recognize achievements and difficulties at the beginning or during a course so that teachers and students can take appropriate action. This type of assessment forms an integral part of teaching.

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Activity A Introducing Formative Assessment The potential of formative assessment to improve learning: Setting the Case: We checked many books and nine years worth of more than 160 journals, and earlier reviews of research. This process yielded 580 articles or chapters to study. We prepared a review using material from 250 of these sources. All…studies show that…strengthening…formative assessment produces significant, and often substantial, learning gains. These studies range over ages, across several school subjects, and over several countries… Black and Wiliam, 1998

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Activity B Teachers Own Experiences of Formative Assessment We begin with the following situation: Think of two students, one who is particularly strong and one who is finding the work very difficult. Using a dyad format, describe the students strengths and difficulties in as much detail as possible to your partner. Protocol: Individual Solo Think Time- 30 seconds Dyad- 1 minute per partner

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Activity B Teachers Own Experiences of Formative Assessment We begin with the following situation: How did you become aware of these strengths and difficulties? On what evidence do you base your judgments? Test results? Memories of oral responses during lessons? Observations of the student working? Written work? Protocol: Individual Solo Think Time- 1/2 minute Dyad - 1 minute per partner

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Activity B Teachers Own Experiences of Formative Assessment The third part of the situation: In what ways do assessments of these students affect lesson planning? Give examples. Protocol: Individual Solo Think Time- 1 minute Dyad- 1 minute per partner

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Activity B Teachers Own Experiences of Formative Assessment What difficulties do teachers encounter? Handout #1: Difficulties in Formative Assessment Protocol: Individual Reading Time- 1 minute Think about these questions: How far are the criticisms on the handout valid in your context as a coach/admin/teacher? If any are, then what may be done about them? We leave these questions to ponder as we explore this module in more depth.

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Activity C Principles for Formative Assessment Handout #2 Keeping in mind the difficulties discussed in Activity B, please read Principles for Formative Assessment. 1 minute Please discuss these principles with your partner. Which of these principles do you see implemented in classrooms? Which of these do you or teachers you know find most difficult to implement? Why? What other principles do you think are important? 2 minutes

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Activity C Principles for Formative Assessment Its all very well telling us to assess our students, but how can a busy teacher know what is going on inside 30 individual heads? How would you answer this teacher? What strategies do you have for finding out what students are thinking in your lessons or the ones you observe? 1 minute for individual think time Please discuss these strategies with your partner. 2 minutes Popcorn Sharing with Whole group 1 minute

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Activity C Principles for Formative Assessment Handout #3 Please read Making Reasoning Visible. 1/2 minute Please discuss these strategies with your partner. Why are these tools an indispensable resource for teachers? 1 minute Watch two Video Clips with students in action. 6 min Suggest some further strategies for making reasoning more evident. 2 minutes

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MAP http://map.mathshell.org/materials/index.php

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Activity C Principles for Formative Assessment Handout #3 Whole group sharing on the video clips. 2 minutes Comments from the module. Teachers can see at a glance with every student thinks. Allows teachers to ask new kinds of questions, e.g., Show me an example of…. Posters allow students to externalize their thinking- articulate their reasoning and justification. Posters can be used to show what they already know not necessarily what they have just worked on. Whole group sharing on additional strategies for making reasoning evident. 2 minutes

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Doing Mathematics A purposeful shift Engaging in one of three selected problem solving lessons addressed and used in this module

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Lenses to Consider During Professional Development Sessions Learner Lens Coach/Admin Lens

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PROBLEM SOLVING LESSONS

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LETS DO SOME MATHEMATICS Optimizing: Security Cameras

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Assessment Task: Solo

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Assessment Task What are the big mathematical ideas in this task? What strategies might students use in completing this task? Please anticipate what students will understand about this task. Please anticipate where students may have difficulty with this task.

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Protocol Discuss these questions and anticipations with a neighbor. 2 min Share with members in your table group. 2 min Popcorn share with whole group. 2 min

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Assessment Task What are the big mathematical ideas in this task? What strategies might students use in completing this task? Please anticipate what students will understand about this task. Please anticipate where students may have difficulty with this task.

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Feedback Questions/Prompts

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Collaborative Activity: Improving the Solution

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Sharing Work and Learning From Each Other

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Collaborative Work: Planning a Joint Solution 1. Take turns to explain your work and how you think it could be improved. 1. Listen carefully to each other and ask questions if you dont understand or agree. 1. Once everyone in the group has explained their method, plan a joint method that is better than each of your separate ideas. 1. Make sure that everyone in the group can explain the reasons for your chosen method. 1. Write a brief outline of your planned method on your large sheet of paper.

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Break

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Collaborative Analysis of Sample Responses

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Analyzing Sample Responses to Discuss P-62 1.Simon 2.Ellie 3.Rhianna

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Sample Responses to Discuss: Simon P-63

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Sample Responses to Discuss: Ellie P-64

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Sample Responses to Discuss: Rhianna P-65

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Whole Class Discussion

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Compare the different solution methods and comment on their strengths and weaknesses. How is this work similar/different to what you did? Did analyzing the responses enable anyone to see errors in their own work? Of the three sample pieces of work, which do you think has the most complete and accurate solution? Why? In what ways could it be improved further?

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Individual Reflection

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Sample Responses to Discuss: Rhianna P-69

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Returning to the Module

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Activity D Analyze Students Responses to Pb Solving Tasks The three tasks in this Activity, Counting Trees, Cats and Kittens, and Security Cameras have a variety of mathematical content, but all focus on problem solving and the modeling skills described in the SMP. Students are required to choose and combine techniques in non-routine ways. Traditional summative assessment often focus on isolated content standards and fail to test these process skills. Formative Assessment is an effective way to ensure that students are developing these practices.

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Activity D Four Phases of Problem Solving: A Useful Tool to Analyze Students Work on These Tasks Formulate questions, choose appropriate representations and techniques. Reason logically, construct hypotheses and arguments, compute accurately. Interpret and evaluate results obtained. Communicate and reflect.

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Teacher Discussion of Sample Student Responses What does each sample students response [Simon, Ellie, and Rhiana] tell you about his or her capacity to use each of the phases of problem solving: Formulate Reason Interpret and Evaluate Communicate and Reflect Discuss with your shoulder partner. 5 minutes

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Questions for Feedback H-17 and H-19 [Handout #6] If you were the teacher of these students, what feedback would you give them to help them improve their responses? Frame this help in the form of oral questions you could ask in the classroom. You may find it helpful to refer to the generic questions on Handout #6. Discuss with your shoulder partner. 5 minutes Whole group share out-Round Robin Protocol.

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Watching 3 Teachers Discuss Feedback Questions to Students Were these questions similar or different to the ones you and your partner discussed?

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MAP http://map.mathshell.org/materials/index.php

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Watching 3 Teachers Discuss Feedback Questions to Students Were these questions similar or different to the ones you and your partner discussed? What have you learned from this video clip? Popcorn Whole Group Sharing

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Activity E Observe Formative Assessment in Action In an earlier lesson, these teachers had asked students to sit in different places and attempt one of the tasks individually, with no help. They then collected their students responses, assessed the work qualitatively and prepared written feedback in the form of questions. The film clips you are about to see are taken from the follow-up lesson. Students have returned to their normal seats and most have solutions that are different than their partners.

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Activity E Observe Formative Assessment in Action As you watch the video clips, consider these questions: What different kinds of assessment can you see? What is the purpose of each kind of assessment? What do both the teachers and the students learn?

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MAP http://map.mathshell.org/materials/index.php

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Activity E Observe Formative Assessment in Action Debrief in your table groups: What different kinds of assessment can you see? What is the purpose of each kind of assessment? What do both the teachers and the students learn?

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Activity G Consider the Effects of Feedback on Student Learning So far we have focused on the teachers role in providing assessment feedback to students. In Activity G, we will consider the use students make of different types of feedback and the impact this has on their learning. As you watch the video clip consider these questions: Which of their comments strike you as particularly perceptive and important? What are the implications of their comments?

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MAP http://map.mathshell.org/materials/index.php

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Activity G Consider the Effects of Feedback on Student Learning So far we have focused on the teachers role in providing assessment feedback to students. In Activity G, we will consider the use students make of different types of feedback and the impact this has on their learning. As you watch the video clip consider these questions: Which of their comments strike you as particularly perceptive and important? What are the implications of their comments? Give yourselves ½ minute to gather your thoughts and then have a 2 minute dyad with a partner.

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Activity G Consider the Effects of Feedback on Student Learning Handout #8 Please read The Effects of Feedback on Students Learning. 1 minute Have a discussion with your table group and compare the students comments with the research quotes in this handout. 3 minutes

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Activity G Consider the Effects of Feedback on Student Learning Handout #8 Consider the following questions individually: The dangers of giving marks, levels, rewards, and rankings What are the implications of this for your practice? What would happen if you stopped giving marks or levels on your pupils work? Why are so many teachers resistant to making this change? Discuss in your table groups.

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Activity G Consider the Effects of Feedback on Student Learning Handout #8 Consider the following questions individually: The advantages of giving clear, specific, content-focused feedback What are the implications of this for your practice? Does this kind of feedback necessarily take much longer to give? Discuss in your table groups.

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Activity G Consider the Effects of Feedback on Student Learning Research shows that students benefit most from feedback that: Focuses on the task, not on grades or scores Is detailed rather than general Explains why something is right or wrong Is related to objectives Makes clear what has been achieved and what has not Suggests what the student may do next Offers specific strategies for improvement How could you involve students in improving your assessment practices?

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MAP Mathematics Assessment Project

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Lunch

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© 2013 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Selecting and Sequencing Students’ Solution Paths to Maximize Student Learning Supporting Rigorous Mathematics Teaching.

© 2013 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Selecting and Sequencing Students’ Solution Paths to Maximize Student Learning Supporting Rigorous Mathematics Teaching.

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