Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Russia After the Mongols….. 1450-1750 Land based empire – Asian territory Chief power in E. Europe Selective Westernization Remained outside."— Presentation transcript:
1450-1750 Land based empire – Asian territory Chief power in E. Europe Selective Westernization Remained outside of global trade system
End of Mongols Ivan III and Ivan IV (Terrible) – lead movement to free Russia of Mongol influence (1462) – gained much territory Ivan III – Tzar (Czar) – 3 rd Rome Ivan IV (Terrible) – killed many boyars (nobility)
New lands were settled by cossacks (peasants/warriors) End of free peoples of Asia (left from various nomadic tribes)
1613 – Time of Troubles – Ivan IV left no heir; nobility regained control; Sweden and Poland invaded Russia; boyars selected Romanov dynasty to rule (ended Time of Troubles) Romanov restored order and Tzarist autocracy
Peter the Great - Westernization Attacked both Ottoman Empire and Sweden (moved capital to St. Petersburg) Army, administration and Church more firmly under his control. Economy – metals and mining Enforced Western clothing – to cut off elite from traditional backgrounds.
Schools – math, science Only Westernized elite, not peasants or commoners Did not desire to enter the global commercial system
Catherine the Great Took over retarded husband’s reign (Peter III) Continued policy of autocratic centralization Interested in Enlightenment ideas Strengthened power of nobility
Landlords gained almost absolute control over serfs. Turned against Western ideas during French Revolution Censored intellectual who spoke against autocracy. Poland – Russia partitioned Poland – ceased to be an independent state.
Economy Coercive labor system and relied entirely on serfdom 17 th and 18 th century – intensified serfdom 1800 – ½ peasants were enserfed to nobility; ½ to the state 1649 – serfdom was hereditary
E. Europe – also coercive labor system Few artisans and merchants Self-sufficient – did not depend on the West for trade Most profitable trade was with central Asia and internally Intellectual and peasant dissatisfaction on serfdom would challenge Russia’s political and social stability