4 Life in the English Colonies 1. types of colonial governmenta. charter – colony given permission to piece ofground with self-government overseen by theking- more freedomb. proprietorship- colony created by a grantof land by a monarch to an individual or familyc. royal- colony controlled directly by the king2. English coloniesa. English settlers in Virginia1. Roanoke Island –near North Carolina
6 a. sent by Sir Walter Raleigh- returned after 1 yr b. Lost Colony of Roanoke- second colony 1587expedition returns in all colonists gone2. Virginia Companies- merchants form 2 companiesa. Virginia Company of Plymouth and VirginiaCompany of London1. companies received a charter to trade2. London group settled-called it Virginiaa. Jamestown –settlement established for tradeexpansion-had problems:1. swampy land=malaria/and typhoid fever2. colonists were unprepared for wilderness3. John Smith –takes charge-makes it thrivea. saved by Pocohantas (Indian princess)
7 JAMESTOWN Pocahontas -freed John Smith -married John Rolfe -Malaria and typhoid killed colonists-colonists unprepared for wildernessJohn SmithTakes charge, had colonistsfarm, clear land, trade-captured by Native Americans-freed by PocahontasPocahontas-freed John Smith-married John Rolfe
8 3. John Rolfe –planted new crop called tobacco on plantations-worked by indentured servants/slaves a. indentured servants- people who worked for years (3-7) in exchange for passage to New World 4. Self-Government beginnings a. burgesses – representatives to House of Burgesses- elected by adult freemen- made laws (representative government- voters elect people to make laws for them) b. King James I unhappy- turns Virginia into a royal colony- but did not abolish House of Burgesses
9 B. New England Colonies (MA, NH, CT, RI) 1 B. New England Colonies (MA, NH, CT, RI) 1. Massachusetts William Bradford, Gov a. Plymouth Colony 1. Religious problems in England after Catholic Church split in England a. Puritans-new Anglican Church wanted to purify the new church from any Catholic rituals b. Separatists –group of Puritans who disagreed with these methods, so they separated
10 1. attacked- called themselves Pilgrims-term for travelers with a religious goal c. Pilgrims set sail for America on the Mayflower, 1. landed outside Cape Cod, (Massachusetts) Nov d. Mayflower Compact –document setting up a form of self-government- agreed to obey laws passed by majority of men 1. first document in which American colonists claimed a right to govern themselves.
11 PILGRIMS COME TO NEW WORLD -escape religious persecution
13 Pilgrims sign Mayflower Compact and celebrate first Thanksgiving
14 e. Plymouth – where they first land- hard winter 1. Samoset – Native American- speaks Englisha. introduced them to Massasoit, chief ofWampanoags, who helps themb. Squanto, teaches them hunting, planting,fishing2. Thanksgiving –feast from Pilgrims’ bountyb. Massachusetts Bay Colony- Puritans1. John Winthrop, founder/leader2. religious freedom- Puritans- wanted toreform or change the Church of Englanda. irony- they had no tolerance for other religions
15 1. toleration – recognition that other people have the right to different opinions 3. turn Mass BC into a commonwealth – a self- governing political unit 2. Rhode Island Roger Williams- founder a. founded for religious freedom 1. Williams felt Puritan church had too much power 2. He suggested separation of church and state – a principle our country is based on now 3. he was banished –founded Providence –new town that accepted all faiths 4. Anne Hutchinson – also challenged Puritan church; made her own community in R.I. b. Rhode Island became a charter colony in 1644
16 WILLIAM BRADFORDPlymouthJOHN WINTHROPMassachusetts Bay Colony
17 Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony had no tolerance for otherreligions. Depicted here are two Quakers who were executed for their religious beliefs.
19 Roger Williamswas the first to suggest a separation of church and state. This angered the Puritans of the MBC, so he was banished from Massachusetts. He founded Providence, Rhode Island, a safe haven for all religions.
20 Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Company due to her preachingabout the separation of church andstate.
21 3. New Hampshire John Mason and Ferdinando Gorges, founder/leaders a. became a royal colony in 1680 after split from Massachusetts 4. Connecticut Thomas Hooker (minister)- founder/leader- disagreed with Puritan leaders a. reason for founding –religious freedom/trade b. founded Hartford c. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut –first American constitution (plan of government) d. Became a charter colony in 1662
22 New Hampshire John Mason Ferdinando Gorges Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason study their 1622 grant.
23 Thomas Hooker, founder of Connecticut, is called the “Father of AmericanDemocracy” because heauthored “TheFundamental Orders ofConnecticut, which wasthe first form of aconstitution in theUnited States.
24 C. Middle Atlantic Colonies (New York, PA, New Jersey, Delaware) 1 C. Middle Atlantic Colonies (New York, PA, New Jersey, Delaware) 1. New York Peter Minuet-Dutch a. New Netherland becomes New York when James, Duke of York, seizes it. b. Reason for founding –expansion of trade c. Government- James, Duke of York was named proprietor, or owner of the colony 2. Pennsylvania William Penn- founder a. proprietorship –land given by King to Penn’s father
25 a. named it Pennsylvania which meant “Penn’s Woods” b. founded for religious/political freedom1. Quakers – Penn’s religious group-believed allpeople were equala. pacifists – believed in peace/not war- known asthe Society of Friendsb. Penn’s Holy Experiment- all religions together2. Pennsylvania Dutch –German-settled on the rivers3. New Jersey 1682a. John Berkelely and George Carteret- foundersb. Reason: money/religious freedomc. royal colony
26 WILLIAM PENN His rule His Beliefs Religious freedom WHY HE GOT PENNSYLVANIARECEIVED LAND GRANT BECAUSE HIS DAD LENT KING CHARLES MONEYBrought his religious community, the Quakers, with him.His BeliefsReligious freedomPopular support of the governmentHis ruleTreated Native Americans wellBelieved all people were equal
27 The Quakers, or Society of Friends, were a religious group that believed that all people, regardless of color, race or creed, were equal. They were the first group to protest slavery. They were also pacifists- people who believed in peace rather than war.
28 4. Delaware 1664 a. Swedish settlers –founders D 4. Delaware 1664 a. Swedish settlers –founders D. Southern Colonies (VA, MD, SC, NC, GA) 1. Virginia (Jamestown) Maryland 1632 a. George Calvert and Lord Baltimore –founders b. Reasons- religious freedom/profit from land sale 1. religious refuge for Catholics after split in England 2. Toleration Act- Lord Baltimore passed this act a. guaranteed all Christians the right to worship
29 George Calvert Lord Baltimore Both men were Catholic. They wanted to have a colony in the New World that would allow Catholics’ religious freedom. They provided this in the colony called Maryland.
30 3. South Carolina 1663 and North Carolina 1663 a 3. South Carolina 1663 and North Carolina 1663 a. Eight proprietors- founded for profit from trade (tobacco crops) 1. North –mainly Virginia farmers 2. South – mainly West Indies, British, and other settlers a. Charles Town – major port city 4. Georgia 1732 a. James Oglethorpe –founder/leader 1. brought over people from debtor’s prison to work off their debts (debtors-people who owe money) b. Colony created to keep Spanish within Florida’s borders
31 James Oglethorpe wanted to help those in England’s debtors’ prison, so he suggested they be sent to Georgia to work off their debts and fight the Spanish encroachment.King George II supported this idea, so he allowed the debtors to leave England. However, not all the debtors wanted to go to fight the Spanish.