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N ERVOUS & E NDOCRINE S YSTEM. R ECEPTOR C ELLS Specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy into action potentials.

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Presentation on theme: "N ERVOUS & E NDOCRINE S YSTEM. R ECEPTOR C ELLS Specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy into action potentials."— Presentation transcript:

1 N ERVOUS & E NDOCRINE S YSTEM

2 R ECEPTOR C ELLS Specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy into action potentials that the nervous system can process Receptor cells in the eye turn light into a neural impulse the brain understands.

3 S ENSORY N EURONS Nerves that carry information to the central nervous system Connect the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord

4 M OTOR N EURONS Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system Carries messages from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of your body

5 I NTERNEURONS Nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord responsible for processing information related to sensory input and motor output

6 A N EURAL C HAIN

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11 Most information travels from the body, up the spinal cord, is processed by the brain, sent back down the spinal cord, and then back to the body with behavior instructions. The exception to this general pathway is reflexes.

12 Reflexes are controlled by the spinal cord without any conscious effort on behalf of the brain. Reflexes serve as primitive responses that protect our bodies from danger and help us adjust to our surroundings.

13 R EFLEXES

14 T HE N ERVOUS S YSTEM

15 N ERVOUS S YSTEM The brain and spinal cord The brain is the location of most information processing. The spinal cord is the main pathway to and from the brain.

16 S PLIT OF THE N ERVOUS S YSTEM

17 C ENTRAL N ERVOUS S YSTEM The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

18 P ERIPHERAL N ERVOUS S YSTEM Consists of Sensory and Motor Nerves connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body Peripheral means “outer region” The system is subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

19 PNS

20 S OMATIC The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles Contains the motor nerves needed for the voluntary muscles

21 A UTONOMIC Monitors the autonomic functions Controls breathing, blood pressure, and digestive processes Divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

22 A UTONOMIC

23 S YMPATHETIC The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats Fight or flight response

24 P ARASYMPATHETIC The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body Brings the body back down to a relaxed state

25 T O REMEMBER THE DIFFERENCE … What does a para chute do?

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31 The Endocrine System

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33 T WO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Nervous Endocrine They both communicate to the body.

34 ENDOCRINE The endocrine system communicates by secreting hormones into the bloodstream

35 HORMONES What are hormones? The things adults say teenagers have too much of… Chemical messengers circulated in the bloodstream.

36 H YPOTHALAMUS : ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

37 HYPOTHALAMUS The hypothalamus is the brain region that controls the pituitary gland, or the MASTER GLAND of the endocrine system. It controls homeostasis

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39 P ITUITARY GLAND MASTER GLAND (kind of like how Brad Pit t is a master hottie…) Controls all other glands.

40 P ITUITARY GLAND Thirst, metabolism Blood pressure, temperature Sex organs, mammary glands Growth - dwarfism and gigantism May control grooming habits, companionship, and sexual behavior

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42 A DRENAL GLAND Located just above the kidneys Arouses the body in times of stress Increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar Releases epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline )

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44 P INEAL GLAND Located in the center of the brain Hormone “Melatonin” Increased levels: sleep Decreased: wakefulness

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46 T HYROID GLAND Located in the neck Energy level, metabolism Body temp Hypo (underactive): sleepiness, reduced muscle tone, overweight Hyper (overactive): excitability, insomnia, ADD, agitation, difficulty focusing

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48 PANCREAS Located behind the stomach Regulates the level of blood sugar (insulin) in the blood Too much: sluggishness and inattentiveness Too little: dehydration, overworked kidneys, infections

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50 S EX GLANDS Located in the pelvis (f), in and out of pelvis (m) Ovaries and testes influence emotion, physical development, reproductive characteristics Androgens – primary male hormone Estrogen – primary female hormone Males and females have both hormones

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