Presentation on theme: "I. Whats new? current events: primary sources II. Do words matter? debate III. How we got here? (start here?) in-depth group projects on specific countries."— Presentation transcript:
I. Whats new? current events: primary sources II. Do words matter? debate III. How we got here? (start here?) in-depth group projects on specific countries simulations; documentaries and feature films IV. Who does what and how? the reconstruction stimulation role playing V. To what end? progress reports on countries; utube
Since early 1990s, statebuilding has become centerpiece of international efforts to stabilize violent conflicts US involved in Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq International community involved in numerous other war torn countries US domestic and foreign policy Important countries and ongoing events World Affairs
Post-WWII history Germany/Japan nationbuilding The Cold War US-Soviet stalemate The post-Cold War Western mission
The development and changes in the UN Agenda for Peace (1992)shift from peacekeeping to peace operations Contemporary cases Foreign Affairs
EU since 2000: leading efforts in the Balkans Other international actors: World Bank, IMF International nongovernmental organizations
Statebuilding = reconstruction of polities and economies (McMahon & Western) Nationbuilding = the use of armed forces in the aftermath of conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy (Dobbins) Empire building =tendency of a country to acquire land/resources to increase own power
Peacebuilding Post-conflict reconstruction and development Stabilization Neocolonialism Debate: What should it be called and why it matters?
1. Surge in demand: The Cold Wars end 1989/91 and then post 9/11 idealism : 111 conflicts, 104 internal conflicts : 26 deadly conflicts The role of the media:Robert Kaplan, Coming Anarchy (1994)
2. The Cases Former Yugoslavia, ethnic nature Surprising number of killings No superpower or institution to respond Not again: European genocide
3. The Failed State Phenomenon During the 1990s, the rise of failed states or states which cannot or will not safeguard minimal civil conditions Why might states fail? Why is the US not considered the most stable of states? Foreign Policy index 12 social, economic, political and military indicators Rank states, compare different areas and to note changes. Weakest states: Africa, Asia, EE and Latin America
4. Changes in Global Institutions and Norms New structure: bipolar to multipolar Changes and developments in UN New norms about humanitarian intervention New ideas about security, peace and new world order How has the world changed? Is it a good thing for the US and Americans?
5. The Events of 9/11 After 9/11: foreign policy shift to idealism: missionary role of U.S. Link made between need for nation building and terrorism, failed states and terrorists, WMD Post CW period: US involved in ( roughly ) about one new NB every other year
Reconstructing North Korea When to act? Who should act? Role playing How should it be done? What should be first? Who is in charge? What are the outcomes sought? What are the 4 central tasks?
1. Security Prevent violence Take guns out of the hands of individuals Create transparency Reintegration strategy: golden parachutes Law and Order
2. Political Transition/Institutional Development Deciding the rules of the game Interim administration: temporary governance, often shared with the international community (UN) Elections: quickly or wait? Emphasis on being inclusive and representative Help to create institutions
If so, how should these ideals be promoted ?
Civil society = public space that allows a variety of actors to mediate (stand between) relations between citizens and state authorities How to promote/encourage this space? How to promote a free but also responsible media?
3. (Economic) Development Overcome the legacy of war economy Need for civil service to help Establish economic priorities Community development Development of state functions: public good
Refugee/displaced persons: Kosovo 1998: almost ½ Albanian population became refugees (population of 1.7 m)
4. Reconciliation and Rehabilitation/Justice Strengthening/renewing social networks Empowering individuals and rebuilding socially and psychologically What should the goals be? Justice? Forgiveness? Reconciliation? Can we expect that individuals will ever heal and move forward?
How much force is necessary? Does money make a difference? What kinds of external involvement matters the most? How do you evaluate outcomes?
The Agents The UN system (4) The US NATO EU Non-government Organizations: NGOs Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Certain actors more than others? Recent research by Rand: UN better at learning/statebuilding than the US
Defining success Stable country Human security: are people better off No relapse w/in 5 years Democratic Pro US How to pick and choose cases The problem of civil war/failed states No exact formula/blueprint One interested country matters the most Key to success: domestic (rather than external) actors, conditions, will
Benchmarks for success? Develop a bill for the cost of statebuilding and debate its worth What are the alternatives to statebuilding or helping rebuild war torn countries? When should the US be involved? When – if ever – should it lead these international effort?
Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy The New York Times, International Herald Tribune, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) U.S. Department of State European Union Country website UN websites: UNMIK. Org NGO networks
Invite serviceman/woman to talk Watch a movie: Welcome to Sarajevo No Mans Land Hotel Rwanda Triumph of Evil (great documentary) The Hurt Locker Kandahar Invite member of the community from one of these countries