Presentation on theme: "CARBON COMPOUNDS The Chemistry of Life. OBJECTIVES Define organic compound and name three elements often found in organic compounds. Explain why Carbon."— Presentation transcript:
OBJECTIVES Define organic compound and name three elements often found in organic compounds. Explain why Carbon forms so many different compounds. Define functional group and explain its significance. Compare a condensation reaction with hydrolysis.
CARBON BONDING Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer energy level. A Carbon atom readily forms 4 covalent bonds with other elements. Commonly hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
CARBON BONDING Carbon also readily forms bonds with other Carbon atoms, forming straight chains, branched chains, or rings.
When atoms share one pair of electrons it is a single bond. When they share two pairs it is a double bond. Three pairs is a triple.
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Clusters of atoms that influence the properties of the molecules they compose The structural building block that determines the characteristics of the compound. Hydroxyl group (-OH) An alcohol is an organic molecule with a hydroxyl group. Makes alcohol polar!
LARGE CARBON MOLECULES Many carbon molecules are built up from smaller, simpler molecules called monomers. These monomers bond together to form complex molecules called polymers. Polymers consist of repeated, linked units. Large polymers are called macromolecules.
MAKING AND BREAKING POLYMERS Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called a condensation reaction. Two monomers become linked by a C-O-C bridge One molecule releases a OH-, and the other an H+. These combine to form a water molecule
MAKING AND BREAKING POLYMERS The breakdown of some polymers occurs through a process called hydrolysis. The addition of water under certain circumstances can break the bonds that hold polymers together. The reversal of a condensation reaction.