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APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 1 Management of MPLS-based VPNs 2003. 10. 1. Youngtak.

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Presentation on theme: "APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 1 Management of MPLS-based VPNs 2003. 10. 1. Youngtak."— Presentation transcript:

1 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 1 Management of MPLS-based VPNs Youngtak Kim Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANTL) Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, Korea

2 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 2 Outline This tutorial goes through … Framework of MPLS-based VPNs: L3VPN, L2VPN, VPLS Traffic Engineering based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLS Management Framework of MPLS Network, MPLS MIBs MPLS OAM for the Management of MPLS-based VPNs Commercial MPLS-VPN Management Systems: Cisco VPN Solution, SheerBOS, Wandls IP/MPLSview Experiences in the design and implementation of a Management System for DiffServ-aware-MPLS (DoumiMan) Conclusions and Discussions

3 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 3 Framework of MPLS-based VPNs

4 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 4 VPN (Virtual Private Network) What is VPN (Virtual Private Network) ? Definition of VPN in RFC 2764 (A Framework for IP Based Virtual Private Networks) : VPN is an Emulation of a private wide area network (WAN) facility using IP facilities (including the public Internet or private IP backbones). CPE-based VPN Network-based VPN General Requirements of VPNs Opaque packet transport Data Security Quality of Service Guarantees Tunneling Mechanism

5 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 5 VPN Types Types of IP based Virtual Private Networks (RFC 2764) Virtual Leased Lines (VLL) Virtual Private Dial Network (VPDN) Virtual Private Routed Network (VPRN) Virtual Private LAN Segment (VPLS)

6 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 6 VPN Types (1): VLL Virtual Leased Lines (VLL) Point-to-point link provided to a customer, connecting two CPE devices the link layer type used to connect the CPE devices to the ISP nodes can be any link layer type: e.g. ATM VCC, Frame Relay circuit ISP tunnel between two edge ISP nodes CPE ISP edge node ISP edge node CPE IP Tunnel IP backbone network ATM VCC ATM VCC

7 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 7 VPN Types (2): VPDN Virtual Private Dial Network (VPDN) allows a remote user to connect on demand through an ad hoc tunnel into another site; the user is connected to a public IP network via a dial-up PSTN or ISDN Layer 2 Tunneling Protocols (L2TP) PPP session on the dial-up connection and L2TP tunnel Host Corp. Network NAS (Network LAC LNS IP Backbone Network Gateway dialup connection L2TP Tunnel PPP Session

8 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 8 VPN Types (3): VPRN Virtual Private Routed Networks (VPRN) Emulation of a multi-site wide area routed network using IP facilities CPE-based VPRN or network-based VPRN packet forwarding is carried out at the network layer a mesh of IP tunnels between ISP routers with VPN-specific routing/forwarding tables CPE ISP edge node ISP edge node CPE IP Tunnel IP backbone network Stub Link Stub Link ISP edge node IP Tunnel CPE Stub Link Stub Link

9 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 9 VPN Types (4): VPLS Virtual Private LAN Segment (VPLS) (1) Emulation of LAN segment over IP using Internet facilities, with a Transparent LAN Service (TLS) A case of L2VPN service distinguished by the support of L2 broadcast Can be used to interconnect multiple stub CPE nodes, either bridges or routers, in a protocol transparent manner Essentially equivalent to a VPRN, except that each VPLS edge node implements link layer bridging rather than network layer forwarding CPE routers would peer transparently across a VPLS with each other without requiring any router peering with any nodes within the VPLS VPLS topology can be point-to-point point-to-multipoint (hub and spoke) any-to-any (full mesh) mixed (partial mesh) hierarchical

10 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 10 Virtual Private LAN Segment (VPLS) (2) CPE ISP edge node ISP edge node CPE IP Tunnel IP backbone network (Service Provider backbone) Stub Link Stub Link ISP edge node IP Tunnel CPE Stub Link Stub Link Access Network CPE VPLS A VPLS B VPLS B VPLS B VPLS B Logical Bridge

11 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 11 MPLS-based VPNs (1): BGP/MPLS IP VPNs Multiple VRFs (VPN Routing and Forwarding tables) in PEs PE-CE attachment circuit is associated with exactly one VRF Carriers Carriers case a VPN provided by an SP which is offering VPN services to its customers CE routers should support MPLS PE routers should distribute, to the CE routers, labels for the routes they distribute to the CE routers Routers at the different sites should establish BGP connections among themselves for the purpose of exchanging external routes Multi-AS backbone two sites of a VPN are connected to different Autonomous Systems IBGP is used to distribute routing information within an AS EBGP re-distribute routing information among (labeled VPN-IPv4 routes) from AN to neighboring AS Multi-hop EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes between source and destination ASs. VRF-to-VRF connections at the AS border routers

12 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 12 MPLS-based VPNs (2): L3PPVPN (Provider Provisioned VPN) /MPLS Provider Edge (PE) (in PE-based VPN) or Customer Edge (CE) (in CE-based VPN) determine how to route VPN traffic by looking at the IP and/or MPLS headers of the packets they receive from the customers edge devices MPLS LSP is used as the tunnel among PE-PE (in PE-based VPN), or CE-CE (in CE- based VPN) CE device PE device PE device PE device PE device CE device CE device PE device PE device Tunnel (MPLS LSP) PE device PE device Tunnel (MPLS LSP) VPN tunnel VPN tunnel VPN tunnel VPN tunnel SP Network A SP Network B SP Network C dual homing dual homing Backdoor link

13 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 13 MPLS-based VPNs (3): L2PPVPN (Provider Provisioned VPN) /MPLS Provides pseudo wire or emulated LAN service on provider network Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS): each CE device is presented with a set of Point-to-Point virtual circuit Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS): each CE device has one or more LAN interfaces that lead to a virtual backbone to make multipoint-to-multipoint VPN (LAN emulation service) CE 1 L2 VPN A PE device CE 4 PE device CE 2 L2 VPN A PE device CE 3 L2 VPN A L2 VPN B Access Network CE 5 L2 VPN B Service Provider Backbone Logical Switching Instance (provides Pseudo wire or emulated LAN)

14 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 14 L2PPVPN Provisioning Models Overlay Model Customer Site A (Hub) Customer Site B (Hub) Customer Site C (Spoke) Customer Site D (Spoke) Customer Site E (Spoke) Service Provider Network PE CE Customer Site A Customer Site B Customer Site C Customer Site D Customer Site E Service Provider Network PE CE Routing information is exchanged between customer and service provider routers Service provider routers exchange customer routes through the core network Peer-to-peer Model

15 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 15 Traffic Engineerings based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLS Network

16 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 16 NGI with IP, MPLS and WDM Optical Network MPLS, MSPP/MSPP TDM SONET/SDH (Circuit Switched Service)

17 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 17 Guaranteed Bandwidth & QoS Bandwidth: Committed Data rate (CDR)/ Committed Burst Size (CBS), Excess Burst Size (EBS) Peak Date Rate (PDR)/ Peak Burst Size (PBS) End-to-end Packet Transfer Delay: Propagation delay + Queuing delay Limited Jitter (delay variation) Limited End-to-end Packet loss Differentiated Service provisioning with Different priority/weight Premium service, controlled service Best effort service Hierarchical traffic engineering with TE-Tunnels (LSPs) for extremely broadband networking with WDM optical lambda/fiber switching Maximized utilization of available bandwidth & resources Objectives of Traffic Engineering in NGI (1)

18 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 18 Objectives of Traffic Engineering in NGI (2) Two major objectives may be conflicting Guaranteed Bandwidth & QoS Maximized resource utilization in order to guarantee strictly bandwidth and QoS, strict bandwidth & resource reservation is required if bandwidth & resource are strictly reserved and not used, underutilization problem occurs => general phenomenon in current telephone network Solution to get both objectives ? controlled bandwidth borrowing among service class-types within a TE-LSP controlled redistribution of extra-available bandwidth among TE-LSP

19 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 19 MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) source (IP address A) destination (IP address B) Ingress Node Egress Node IP datagram MPLS Domain Network LER 11 LER 12 LER 21 LSR 10 LSR 20 LSR 30 LSR 40 LER 31 LER 41 LER 42 IP header (destAddr=B, srcAddr=A) IP payload label i i label j j label k k label m m

20 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 20 MPLS Label Label: Label Value, 20 bits (0-16 reserved) Exp.: Experimental, 3 bits (was Class of Service) S: Bottom of Stack, 1 bit (1 = last entry in label stack) TTL: Time to Live, 8 bits Layer 2 Header (eg. ATM VC/VP, PPP, MAC) MPLS Shim Headers (Label Stacking) LabelExpSTTL bit (4-bytes) IP Header IP Payload label stack n (s=1) label stack 1 (s=0) Shim Header

21 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 21 Traffic grouping with Label Stacking LSP 121 LSP 111 LSP level (k-1) Packet Flow P1 P2 LSP 120 LSP 110 LSP 100 LSP 110 LSP 120 LSP 111 Packet Flow P1 P2 LSP level (k) LSP level (k) LSP level (k+1) LSP level (k-1) LSP 121 R1R1 R1R1 R2R2 R2R2 R n-1 RnRn RnRn LSP 111 ingress (push a label) swapping RiRi RiRi LSP 100 ingress (push a label) LSP 111 egress (pop a label) LSP 110 ingress (push a label) LSP 110 egress (pop a label) R i+1 LSP 100 egress (pop a label)

22 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 22 GMPLS-based Optical Transport Networking GMPLS-Signaling + OAM/LMP NIC IP TCP/UDP Application Host A LSP PSC-LSR (Optional Core) O-NIC (WDM) MPLS NIC IP IP Router O-NIC (WDM) PSC-LSR (Edge) IP MPLS O-NIC (WDM) O-NIC (WDM) GMPLS-Signaling for optical network Internet control & management protocols (RIP, OSPF, BGP, DVMRP, MOSPF) Traffic engineering with fault management & performance management for Internet Transit Network fiber bundle O-NIC (WDM) OXC-LSR (Core) OXC O-NIC (WDM) OXC-LSR (Core) OXC SDH/ SONET MainFrame GbE SW Metro-GbE Net PSTN HDN MSPP GFP-F GFP-T O-NIC (WDM) LCAS GMPLS Signaling

23 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 23 QoS-guaranteed Service Provisioning in NGN QoS-guaranteed VPN/VPLS Service QoS-guaranteed Broadband Multimedia Service QoS-guaranteed Broadband Content Distribution Network / Storage Access Network Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) MPLS LSR OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM MPLS LSR OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM MPLS LSR OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM MPLS LSR MPLS LSR MPLS LSR GMPLS Core Network GMPLS/Broadband Transport Network (All Optical, O-O-O) (DiffServ-aware-GMPLS) PE (VPLS-aware MPLS LER) Customer Premises Network A (IP Router) CE PE (VPLS-aware MPLS LER) Customer Premises Network B (IP Router) CE Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) TGW AGW Narrowband Multimedia/ PSTN Narrowband Multimedia/ Cellular/ Mobile TGW AGW Narrowband Multimedia / PSTN Narrowband Multimedia / Cellular/ Mobile Broadband Content Distribution Network (CDN/SAN) Broadband Content Distribution Network (CDN/SAN)

24 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 24 Control Plane and Management Plane of QoS-guaranteed NGN/(G)MPLS Autonomous System (AS) 1 EN Autonomous System (AS) 3 EN Autonomous System (AS) 2 EN NNI QoS-guaranteed NGN Backbone Network DiffServ-aware-GMPLS/OXC End-to-End QoS NGN Backbone Network Performance/QoS CE UNI Customer Premises Network (CPN) A CE UNI Customer Premises Network (CPN) B Access Network QoS Control Plane End-user application platform Admission control & Connection Control agent End-user application platform QoS/call Request QoS Request (GMPLS Signaling) QoS Request & Resource Allocation Notification Resource Allocation (GMPLS Signaling) Resource Allocation Management Plane Resource Manager & GMPLS OAM/NMS Resource Manager & GMPLS OAM/NMS Admission control & Connection Control agent Resource Manager & GMPLS OAM/NMS Inter-AS QoS Negotiation BGP-TE Inter-AS QoS Negotiation/ BGP-TE Wireless Access Network Wireless/ Mobile PSTN, SAN/CDN Broadband Access Network EN Wireless Access Network Wireless/ Mobile PSTN, SAN/CDN Broadband Access Network EN

25 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 25 MPLS Traffic Engineering Fast packet switching Fast packet switching by using fixed short label, instead of long address matching in IP packet routing based on existing fast data link layer switching technologies (e.g. ATM, FR) Traffic engineering with Connection-oriented LSP (Label Switched Path) more predictable network control and management Constraint-based Routing; Constraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF) Forwarding Equivalent Class (FEC) source/destination IP address range : min, max source/destination port range : min, max Type of Service (ToS)

26 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 26 Service Level Agreement (SLA) A contract between a service provider and a customer Specifies, usually in measurable terms, what QoS the service provider will provide Traffic Parameters: Committed Data Rate (CDR)/CBS+EBS QoS Parameters: Delay, Jitter, Packet Loss Rate Service Availability: Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)/Mean Time to Restoration of Service (MTRS)

27 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 27 Constraint-based Routing in MPLS Traffic parameters of the constraint-based routing for LSP bandwidth of LSP : peak data rate, committed data rate Modification of Link State Database for constraint-based routing traffic parameter available bandwidth at each link : number of lambda channels, bandwidth of each lambda channels Additional QoS parameter propagation delay Combined cost metric Modification of OSPF shortest path routing constraint-based routing with traffic parameters: bandwidth, QoS, resource class, class of failure protection SRLG (Shared Risk Link Group)

28 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 28 Example of Constraint-based Routing M M M Seattle San Francisco Salt Lake City Los Angels Denver Phoenix Houston Dallas Minneapolis Chicago St. Louis Memphis New Orleans Atlanta Miami Washington D.C. Detroit New York Boston M 380 5M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 246 5M M M 394 5M M M M M M 640 5M M 211 5M 237 5M 5 Rapid city M M M Physically shortest path. But can not provide the requested 7 Mbps bandwidth !!

29 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 29 Example of SRLG-disjoint Backup Path Routing M M M Seattle San Francisco Salt Lake City Los Angels Denver Phoenix Houston Dallas Minneapolis Chicago St. Louis Memphis New Orleans Atlanta Miami Washington D.C. Detroit New York Boston M 380 5M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 246 5M M M 394 5M M M M M M 640 5M M 211 5M 237 5M 5 Rapid city M M M Constraint-routed shortest path that can provide 7 Mbps bandwidth !! Shared Risk Link Group (SRLG) – disjoint backup path with

30 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 30 Factors on End-to-End Transfer delay, Jitter Queuing delay in M/D/1 queue Mean time in Queue Packet loss and buffer size calculated by heavy traffic approximation: : link utilization

31 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 31 Bandwidth Borrowing among LSPs within an TE-LSP LSP j (weight = y) LSP k (weight = z) Excess available bandwidth TE-LSP Borrowing/re-allocation of available/unused bandwidth LSP i (weight = x) needs more bandwidth under utilization

32 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 32 Re-distribution of Extra Available Bandwidth among Tunnel (TE)-LSP Available Excess Bandwidth User LSPInner Tunnel LSP Outer Tunnel LSP PHY LINK LSP i (w i ) LSP j (w j ) LSP i1 (w i1 ) extraAvailableBW LSP i2 (w i2 ) LSP j1 (w j1 ) LSP j2 (w j2 ) (a) Controlled Bandwidth Redistribution/Borrowing (b) Hierarchical/Recursive Redistribution of Available Bandwidth

33 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 33 Differentiated Service (DiffServ) NCT (Network Control Traffic) Packet Transmission with Link Speed X (LSP : PDR/PBS, CDR/CBS+EBS) Packet Scheduling Expedited Forwarding (EF) Assured Forwarding (AF) Best Effort Forwarding (BEF) Traffic Shaping Packet Discarding (algorithmic dropping) Packet Classifier Smoothing (averaging) Buffer depth IP Packet flow input Metering, Action, Algorithmic Dropping DiffServ Packet Processing Model

34 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 34 Example of DiffServ Class-type and Performance Objectives Class- type ObjectiveExampleDelayJitter packet Loss Ratio Bandwidth definition DSCP NCT1/ NCT0 Minimized error, high priority RIP, OSPF, BGP msec U10 -3 Peak rate / EF Jitter sensitive, real-time high interaction VoIP 100 msec 50 msec Peak rate AF4 Jitter sensitive, real-time high interaction Video conference 400 msec 50 msec Committed rate AF3 Transaction data, interactive Terminal session Custom app 400 msec U10 -3 Committed rate AF2 Transaction data Data base Web 400 msec U10 -3 Committed rate AF1 Low loss bulk data FTP 1 sec U10 -3 Committed rate BEBest effort service UU10 -3 U000 (Note : a) U : undefined, b) Drop precedence of AF4~AF1 : 010, 100, 110)

35 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 35 Per Hop Behavior (PHB) Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) The externally observable forwarding behavior applied at a DS-compliant node to a DS behavior aggregate The means by which a node allocates resources to behavior aggregates Defines hop-by-hop resource allocation mechanism Example of PHB Guarantee minimal bandwidth allocation ( x % of a link or tunnel) Guarantee minimal bandwidth allocation (x % of a link or tunnel) with proportional fair sharing of any excess link capacity Buffer allocation Priority relative to other PHBs PHBs are specified as a group (PHB group) for consistency PHBs are implemented in nodes by means of some buffer management and packet scheduling mechanisms

36 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 36 Metering & Marking Parameters for Metering & Marking ParametersRedYellowGreen Single Rate Three Color Marker (SRTCM) CDR/CBS+E BS T E (t)-B < 0 T P (t)-B 0 and T E (t)-B 0 T C (t) –B 0 Two Rate Three Color Marker (TRTCM) PDR/PBS CIDR/CBS T P (t)-B < 0 T P (t)-B 0 and T C (t) –B < 0 T C (t) –B 0 (Note: B: arrived packet size, T E (t): token count of excess rate token bucket, T C (t): token count of committed rate token bucket, T P (t): token count of peak rate token bucket)

37 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 37 Guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) Provisioning Traffic parameters Peak Rate Average rate, Sustainable rate with burst tolerance Minimum rate Frame rate with max. frame size QoS Parameters End-to-end transfer Delay Delay variance (Jitter) tolerance Bit/Packet/Frame error rate Maximized bandwidth & resource utilization Bandwidth over-booking Bandwidth sharing, borrowing Integrated Traffic Engineering for DiffServ-aware-MPLS

38 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 38 Per Class-Type Queuing (1): RED (Random Early Detection) Queue Drop Probability Average Queue Length THmin THmax 1 Pmax Pmin Probabilistic packet drop Buffer level TH min TH max Discard Discard with increasing probability P a Do not discard 0

39 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 39 Per Class-Type Queuing (2): WRED (Weighted Random Early Detection) Queue Drop Probability Average Queue Length THmax(0…7) THmin(0) THmin(7) 1 Pmax (0..7) (a) Default WRED Drop Probability Configuration Drop Probability THmax(0…7) THmin(0)THmin(7) 1 Pmax(0) Pmax(7) Average Queue Length (b) WRED case 1 Average Queue Length Drop Probability THmax(7) THmin(0) THmin(7) 1 Pmax(0) Pmax(7) THmax(0) (c) WRED case 2 (Note: THmin(i) = (1/2 + i/8)*THmax

40 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 40 DiffServ Packet Scheduler Hierarchical Packet Scheduler Priority Scheduler Priority Scheduler Rate-based scheduler (WRR or WFQ) Rate-based scheduler (WRR or WFQ) NCT1 NCT0 EF AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 BF priority Min rate shaping rate (PDR/PBS, CDR/CBS+EBS) Traffic Shaper priority

41 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 41 DiffServ-aware-MPLS Traffic Engineering

42 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 42 Traffic Policing and Traffic Shaping Classify Measure Configured rate No match Incoming packets Queuing method Outgoing packets WFQ/FIFO Packet Scheduler Metering/Marking Token bucket Aggregated committed rate Token bucket Per-class committed rate

43 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 43 Management Framework of MPLS Network

44 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 44 DiffServ-aware-MPLS Traffic Engineering for QoS- guaranteed Service Provisioning Collection & Analysis of Performance Measurement results DiffServ-aware-G/MPLS Router parameter setting (Bandwidth allocation, Queuing, packet scheduling) Network Planning & Provisioning (Re-) configuration of logical topology, Network load balancing GMPLS/OXC TE-LSP (traffic trunk) Real-time per-flow optimization Mid-term optimization Long-term optimization End-to-end QoS & performance measurement Node & Link, DiffServ-aware-ELSP QoS performance monitoring QoS-guaranteed GMPLS/OXC Backbone Network Service Level Agreement (SLA) - QoS parameter - Traffic Parameter (QoS/SLA Standards) QoS-guaranteed Realtime Multimedia Service Request/ Subscription O-NNI Access Net QoS Access Net QoS O-UNI CE Customer Premises Network (CPN) A Intra -net O-UNI CE Customer Premises Network (CPN) B Intra -net DiffServ-aware- GMPLS/OXC Network (AS 1) DiffServ-aware- GMPLS/OXC Network (AS 2) PE

45 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 45 ITU-T I.371 Traffic Management Framework UPC: Usage Parameter Control CAC: Connection Admission Control PC: Priority Control NPC: Network Parameter Control RM: Resource Management Others: Spacing, Framing, Shaping, etc Inter-Network (NNI) NPC - CAC - RM - PC - Others Network B User-Network Interface (UNI) Optional Traffic Shaping UPC - CAC - RM - PC - Others Network A CPN

46 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 46 Network Performance related Standards (1) I.356 ATM Bearer Service QoS Standard CTD2-pt.CDVCLR0+1CLR0CER Class 1 (stringent class) 400msec3msecnonedefault Class 2 (tolerant class) UUnonedefault Class 3 (stringent class) UUUdefault Class 4 (stringent class) 400msec6msecnonedefault U ClassUUUUU

47 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 47 Network Performance related Standards (2) ITU-T Y.1540/1541 IP QoS Standards Network Performance Parameter QoS Class Service ClassClass 0Class 1Class 2Class 3Class 4 Class 5 un-specified Packet Transfer Delay 100ms400ms100ms400ms1sU Packet Delay Variance 50ms UUUU Packet Loss Rate 1×10 -3 U Packet Error Rate 1 × U

48 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 48 OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM GMPLS Core Network Provider Network (NG-SDH/SONET Network) NG-SDH/SONET (GFP, Virtual Concatenation) CPN B (SONET/SDH, Highspeed Leased Line, GbE) NG-SDH/SONET (GFP, Virtual Concatenation) CPN A (SONET/SDH, Highspeed Leased Line, GbE) SDH OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM DiffServ-aware MPLS LER CPN A (IP Router) CE PE (VPLS-aware MPLS LER) VPN A (GbE) CE DiffServ-aware MPLS LER CPN B (IP Router) CE PE (VPLS-aware MPLS LER) VPN B (GbE) CE NG-SDH/SONET (GFP-T) SAN A (Fiber Channel, ESCON, FICON, DVI) SDH NG-SDH/SONET (GFP, Virtual Concatenation) SDH Video/Multimedia Database Archive SML NML EML Performance management EML-PM SML-PM NML-PM NML-Monitoring NML-Analysis & Control NML-Tuning Fault management NML-FM NML-FC NML-AMNML-TDS EML-FM EML-FC EML-AM EML-TDS SML-FM Connection management EML-CP NML-CP LNC CC CSM SSM Configuration management SML-ConfM LNTC NML-TC EML-TC Management Interface: CLI, CORBA, XML, SNMP, TMN/CMIP Network Management System(NMS) for NGN

49 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 49 QoS-guaranteed NGN Networking Model Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) MPLS LSR OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM MPLS LSR OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM MPLS LSR OXC/ OADM OXC/ OADM MPLS LSR MPLS LSR MPLS LSR GMPLS Core Network GMPLS/ (All Optical, O-O-O) (DiffServ-aware-GMPLS) Provider Edge (VPLS-aware MPLS LER) Customer Premises Network A (IP Router) CE Provider Edge (VPLS-aware MPLS LER) Customer Premises Network B (IP Router) CE Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) Edge Node (DiffServ-aware MPLS LER) TGW AGW Narrowband Multimedia/ PSTN Narrowband Multimedia/ Cellular/ Mobile TGW AGW Narrowband Multimedia / PSTN Narrowband Multimedia / Cellular/ Mobile (CDN/SAN) (CDN/SAN) QoS-guaranteed IP networking System (CPN) QoS-guaranteed IP networking System (ISP) QoS-guaranteed IP networking System (ISP) QoS-guaranteed IP networking System (CPN) SNMP/CLI SNMP/ CLI SNMP/ CLI IIOP/ CORBA SNMP/ CLI QoS-guaranteed IP networking System (ISP) IIOP/ CORBA IIOP/ CORBA IIOP/ CORBA SNMP/ CLI AS 1 AS 2

50 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 50 Distributed Traffic & Network Management System for multiple Autonomous Systems (AS) DiffServ-aware MPLS Network DiffServ -aware MPLS LER DiffServ -aware MPLS LER CPN A CPN B MPLS Transit LSR MPLS Transit LSR MPLS Transit LSR Autonomous System 1 Autonomous System 2 Autonomous System 2 Constraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF) Routing EMS NMS Constraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF) Routing

51 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 51 Interactions among MPLS Management Modules IIOP Configuration Mgmt Configuration Mgmt Connection Mgmt Connection Mgmt Performance Mgmt Performance Mgmt Fault Mgmt Fault Mgmt EMS Configuration Mgmt Configuration Mgmt Connection Mgmt Connection Mgmt Performance Mgmt Performance Mgmt Fault Mgmt Fault Mgmt NMS Customer Premise Network CPN(Intranet) Customer Premise Network CPN(Intranet) Generic Adapter Service Object Service Object Service Object Service Object SNMP interface SNMP interface RMA interface RMA interface CLI interface CLI interface NE interface RMA DNS MPLS Transit Network (AS 1) IIOP SNMPSocket TELNET MPLS Transit Network (AS 2) Generic Adapter

52 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 52 Management Interfaces (EMS-Agent, EMS-NMS) Command Line Interface (CLI) proprietary CLI definition by each vendor most detailed operations and management information CORBA(Common Object Request Broker Architecture)/OMG distributed object computing infrastructure Manager-to-manager connection XML (eXtensible Markup Language) XML-RPC SOAP SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) SNMP MIBs for MPLS-based VPN/VPLS Delayed update compared with data access by CLI (Command Line Interface)

53 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 53 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (1) 1) MPLS Management Overview: - Related document: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management Overview, draft-ietf-mpls- mgmt-overview-08.txt, August Overview of MPLS Network Management and Related MIB - MPLS MIB OID (Object Identifier) tree structure:

54 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 54 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (2) 2) TC-MIB - Related document: Definitions of Textual Conventions for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management, draft-ietf-mpls-tc-mib-05.txt, Nov Describes textual conventions for use in definitions of management information for MPLS networks 3) LSR-MIB - Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switching Router (LSR) Management Information Bases, draft-ietf-mpls-lsr-mib-09.txt, Oct Describes MOs for modeling MPLS LSR (Label Switch Router) LSR - interface configuration table (mplsInterfaceConfTable) - in-segment (mplsInSegmentTable), out-segment (mplsOutSegmentTable) tables - cross-connect table (mplsXCTable) - label stack table (mplsLabelStackTable) - traffic parameter table (mplsTrafficParamTable): index, MaxRate, MinRate, MaxBurstSize

55 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 55 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (3) 4) TE-MIB - Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering Management Information Base, draft-ietf-mpls-te-mib-09.txt, Nov ping (ICMP echo request) based hop-by-hop fault localization and path tracing - in ping mode (basic connectivity check), ping packet is sent through user packet delivery LSP, the egress LSR delivers the ping packet to control plane - in traceroute mode (fault isolation), ping packet is sent to the control plane of each transit LSR node, which performs various checks and returns further information that helps check the control plane against the data plane 5) LDP-MIB - Related document : Definitions of Managed Objects for the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-mib-09.txt, Oct Defines 4 MIBs for Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishment and monitoring : MPLS-LDP-MIB, MPLS-LDP-Generic-MIB, MPLS-LDP-ATM-MIB, MPLS-LDP- Frame-Relay-MIB

56 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 56 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (4) 6) FTN-MIB - Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Forward Equivalency Class-to-Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry Management Information Base, draft-ietf- mpls-ftn-mib-05.txt, Oct Defines MIBs of the mapping and related operations of MPLS FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) and NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry) 7) Bundle MIB - Related document : Link Bundling Management Information Bases, draft-ietf-mpls- bundle-mib-04.txt, Nov Defines MIBs for grouping TE Links into a bundled link 8) VPN-MIB - Related document : MPLS/BGP Virtual Private Network Management Information Base using SMIv2, draft-ietf-ppvpn-mpls-vpn-mib-05.txt, Nov Defines the MIB for MPLS/BGP VRF (VPN Routing and Forwarding) based VPN configuration

57 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 57 MPLS Network Configuration Management MPLS Configuration Management Installation support support the installation of equipment and related software installation operations, sequencing and scheduling the operation to achieve maximum efficiency and minimum interference with ongoing operations Provisioning a set of procedures that bring already installed equipment into service NE configuration Initialization of Network Topology resource and activations Network resource reservation and locking/unlocking for service provisioning Status and control Status request & report of network resource Network resource maintenance Network Resource Auto-discovery (optional) dynamic resource discovery automatic configuration & topology mapping real-time map generation

58 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 58 MIBs for Configuration Managements MPLS LSR MIB mplsInterfaceConfTable, PerfTable mplsInSegmentTable, PerfTable mplsOutSegmentTable mplsXCTable mplsLabelStackTable mplsTrafficParamTable MPLS TE MIB mplsTunnelTable, ResourceTable, HopTable, ARHopTable, CHopTable mplsTunnelPerfTable, CRLSPResTable MPLS TE-Link MIB teLinkTable, DescriptorTable,SrlgTable, BandwidthTable componentLinkTable, DescriptorTable,SrlgTable, BandwidthTable MPLS LDP MIB MPLS LDP Generic MIB MPLS LDP ATM MIB, FrameRelay MIB

59 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 59 Example of MPLS Network Configuration MOs (1) Managed ObjectsAttributesExample Node Router Name7204_G Router VersionCisco 7200 IOS version (Cisco Router)12.2(8)T Routing ProtocolOSPF, BGP MPLS Signaling protocol Total number of activated slots/ports 1 Fast Ethernet 4 Serial network interface 1 Packet_over_Sonet (POS) network interface Fast Ethernet Port address statusPort Up, line protocol up QoS class mapEF, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4 QoS statusDrop ratio 0 bps, packets marked Serial Port address StatusOperational-yes QoS class mapClass-default QoS queueWeighted fair queuing QoS bandwidth620 [kbps] Serial port nameSerial 1/1 (connected with xxx) Loopback address

60 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 60 Example of MPLS Network Configuration MOs (2) Managed ObjectsAttributesExample PoS port (Packet over SONET) address StatusShutdown QoS class mapClass-default QoS queueWeighted fair queue QoS bandwidth55000[kbps] Serial port namePos4/0 Loopback address Neighbors Neighbor equipmentRouter, bridge_switch Neighbor router name3620_B Neighbor router serial port name / address Serial 0/0 (3620_B port) / Neighbor loopback address (TDP id) (3620_B loopback address)

61 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 61 MPLS Connection Managements MPLS Tunnel LSP (TE-LSP) Connection Managements MPLS Tunnel LSP Establishments and Maintenance Constraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF) routing for Constraint-based LSP Setup Request MPLS LER/LSR to set up LSP: Automatic routing mode or explicit routing mode Set up LSP traffic parameter and QoS parameter Update of Traffic parameter and QoS parameter of MPLS Tunnel LSP Modification of traffic parameter and QoS parameter of tunnel LSP Establishment of backup LSP for MPLS Fault Management SRLG-disjoint backup path routing Establishment of working LSP for backup LSP: explicit routing mode

62 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 62 Connection Management for DiffServ-over/aware-MPLS on Optical Internet IIOP Configuration Mgmt Configuration Mgmt Connection Mgmt Connection Mgmt Performance Mgmt Performance Mgmt Fault Mgmt Fault Mgmt EMS Configuration Mgmt Configuration Mgmt Connection Mgmt Connection Mgmt Performance Mgmt Performance Mgmt Fault Mgmt Fault Mgmt NMS IIOP OXC LSR DiffServ- aware- LER DiffServ- aware- LER fiber link LSR DiffServ- aware- LER DiffServ- aware- LER fiber link LSR DiffServ- aware- LER DiffServ- aware- LER fiber link LSR DiffServ- aware- LER DiffServ- aware- LER optical path (lambda channels) fiber link traffic trunk (tunnel LSP) WDM Optical Domain Network MPLS Domain network

63 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 63 Example of MPLS LSP MOs (1) MOAttributeExample LSP Tunnel nameTunnel_0104_1 Source address Destination address Next addresses (explicit route) , Traffic param - priority Setup priority 1 Holding priority 1 Traffic param – bandwidth9 [kbps] Traffic param – MTU1514 bytes Traffic param - delay500,000 usec (default) – modifiable Affinity0x0 ~ 0xFFFFFFFF Auto-bandwidth (optional)Freq, Min [kbps], Max [kbps]

64 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 64 Example of MPLS LSP MOs (2) MOAttributeExample LSR and Port LSR ID (Transmitter) Link/Port ID Interface address Neighbor LSR ID (Receiver) Link typeFast Ethernet, Serial Port, POS Administration statusActive Operational statusOperational-yes Link State Total capacityLink total capacity in [Mbps] Available bandwidthAvailable bandwidth in [Mbps] Reserved bandwidthAllocated bandwidth in [Mbps] Propagation & processing delay Propagation delay according to the physical distance, and packet processing delay including MPLS packet switching, port buffering at LSR JitterJitter at LSR with MPLS packet switching Residual bit error rateBit error rate at Physical link SRLG_IDShared risk link group ID Physical backup typeProtection functions provided at Physical Layer

65 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 65 Parameters for Constraint-based LSP Establishment MOAttributeExample Traffic Parameter Bandwidth Peak data rate(PDR)/Peak Burst Size (PBS) Committed Data Rate(CDR)/Committed Burst Size (CBS), Excess Burst Size (EBS) QoS Parameter End-to-end delay Jitter boundAllowable jitter boundary Packet loss ratioAllowable packet loss ratio Service Category Service classPlatinum, gold, silver, bronze PrioritySetup priority, holding priority WeightWeight for Weighted Fair Scheduler Backup_type1+1, 1:1, M:N, 1:N, on-demand SRLGSRLG-disjoint backup LSP

66 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 66 MPLS Network Performance Management Performance monitoring of MPLS Tunnel LSP Measurement of Throughput at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS) Measurement of delay, jitter at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS) Measurement of packet loss at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS) Performance analysis of MPLS Tunnel LSP Compare and analyze LSPs SLA (service level agreement) performance parameters and the monitored results Determine any seriously deteriorated performance performance control & tuning of MPLS Tunnel LSP Update/Reallocation of operational Parameters (Bandwidth, Link Utilization) to maintain the performance of End-to-end LSP and LSP segments of Autonomous System (AS) : Adjustment of allocated bandwidth, Queue buffer size or scheduler parameter Rerouting of LSP route Overall Network Load Balancing MPLS VPN Performance Management Measurements of Aggregated Throughput, Packet Transfer Delay, Packet Loss Rate at MPLS VPN Interfaces (CE-PE, PE-PE) Measurements of Packet Mis-delivery Ratio among MPLS VPN

67 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 67 MPLS Network Fault Management (1) Establishment of Backup LSP for MPLS working tunnel LSP SRLG disjoint back LSP routing and LSP setup Allocation of Backup LSP resource for 1+1, 1:1, M:N, 1:N mode Fault Detection and Notification Fault detection ad notification at Physical Layer Link, port or Node Fault detection ad notification by MPLS signaling and packet forwarding module Notification of Seriously deteriorated MPLS LSP Performance Analysis and Localization of Faults Fault correlation and localization Find Root Cause of the Faults Find the location of root cause Determine the Affected tunnel LSP and VPN Fault Recovery Fault Recovery by Protection switching or restoration Protection Switching of User Traffic using Backup LSP Establish a new back LSP Redefine the function and the route of working LSP and backup LSP at Fault restoration

68 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 68 MPLS Fault Management (2) Differentiated Backup Path Reservations (Example) Backup Path Utilization Reservation with NO Traffic Reservation with Lower Priority Traffic of possible preemption Fault Restoration Use Span(segment) Protection Restoration is based on the Subnetwork(Segment) MPLS Service Class Bandwidth Reservation Setup Priority Preemption Priority Application Platinum100%, 1+1Highest High Priority VPN Gold100%, 1:1Higher VPN Silver100%, M:NNormal Premium service Bronze100%, 1:NLower Controlled traffic Best effort0Lowest Best Effort

69 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 69 Example of Seriously Deteriorated Performance Traffic / QoS parameterThreshold of severe degradationRemarks Available bandwidthLess than 80% of CDR (committed data rate) End-to-end delayMore than 120% of agreed end-to-end delay limit JitterMore than 200% of agreed jitter limit Packet lossMore than 10% of transmitted data

70 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 70 Fault Detection Functions of LSR Node ModuleFault TypeFault Detection (Example) MPLS Switching Module Faults in Switching Elements Faults in packet/ label processing MPLS signaling module (CR-LDP, RSVP) hello message Packet mis-delivery Port/Link Loss of Light Fiber cut Lambda channel fault Network Interface Card (NIC) fault monitoring Node failure Power degradation Switching capability loss Malfunctioning components Excessive temperature MPLS signaling module hello message Degraded packet throughput, increased packet loss rate

71 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 71 MPLS Fault Recovery Objectives (Example) FunctionFault Recovery ParameterTarget Values Fault Detection Fault Detection at Physical Layer Fault Detection at LSP Fault Detection at LSR Physical Layer: 50 ns MPLS LSP: 150 ms MPLS LSR: 3 sec Fault NotificationFault notification to ingress LER / egress LER50 ms Protection Switching to Backup LSP Protection Switching of user traffic from faulty working LSP to Backup LSP 50 ms Total Fault Restoration Time Total allowable time from fault occurrence to complete fault restoration 250 ms

72 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 72 Standards related to MPLS Fault Management IETF Draft MPLS-based fast reroute IETF Draft MPLS recovery framework IETF Draft MPLS RSVP-LSP Fast reroute MPLS OAM Requirements RFC 2925, Remote Ping, Trace Route, Lookup RFC 3479, Fault Tolerance for the LSP

73 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 73 MPLS OAM for the Management of MPLS-based VPNs

74 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 74 MPLS OAM OAM (Operation, Administration, Maintenance) Layer Management Protocol for Network Layer, Data Link Layer, Physical Layer: e.g. ATM VP/VC Layer OAM, Physical Layer OAM, SONET OAM Fault OAM for fault monitoring, fault notification alarm indication signal remote defect indication (RDI) continuity check (CC) loopback test Performance OAM for performance monitoring, performance analysis Forward monitoring Backward monitoring Configuration OAM for administrative configuration of links, operational status monitoring link configuration and status management neighbor discovery e.g Layer Management Protocol (LMP) of WDM Optical Link

75 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 75 Related Works on MPLS OAM Current Standardization Status of MPLS OAM General framework Major considerations No detailed implementation methods IETF Internet Draft, A Framework for MPLS User Plane OAM, David Allen (ed.), February Implications for fault management: connectivity verification, etc. Implications for performance management: line quality monitoring, etc. IETF Internet Draft, OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks, Thomas Nadeau et. al., February service level agreement (SLA) measurement: availability, latency, packet loss, jitter alarm suppression and layer coordination support for OAM interworking for fault notification error detection and recovery IETF Internet Draft, Detecting Data Plane Liveness in RSVP-TE, Oct LSP Ping

76 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 76 Requirements of MPLS OAM Functions Basic Requirements of MPLS OAM functions Fault management OAM should be able to provide fault detection, on- demand verification, fault localization, notification of LSP failure information Performance management OAM should be able to provide performance monitoring to check the provisioning of traffic throughput & QoS (end-to- end delay, jitter, packet loss rate) that is defined in service level agreement Interactions of MPLS signaling and User-plane OAM User plane OAM: based on in-band OAM packets to monitor real status of user plane connections MPLS signaling: out-of-band signaling, separated connections from the user plane connections

77 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 77 Design of MPLS Performance Management OAM Functions Performance Monitoring OAM of User Plane Data Path Throughput total delivered data size / unit time interval Delay d(n) = T arrival (n) – T departure (n) Jitter (variance of transfer delay) j(n) = |d(n) – d(n-1)| Packet loss rate (total transmitted packets – total delivered packets) / total transmitted packets Severely degraded performance e.g. excessive delay at realtime interactive communication, excessive packet loss, excessive jitter should be handled in the same manner of fault

78 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 78 Proposed Format of Performance Monitoring OAM Packet OAM TypeOAM Function PDU Length Ingress LSR Identifier Egress LSR Identifier LSP Identifier Sequence Number Time Stamp Number of Total Transmitted Packets Total Transmitted Data Size [Byte] Optional Information (LSR: Label Switched Router; LSP: Label Switched Path)

79 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 79 Design of MPLS Fault Management OAM Functions Fault Detection by fault management OAM packet: continuity check by lower protocol layer: e.g. loss of light (LOL), loss of signal (LOS) Fault Notification by MPLS OAM packet Forward Defect Indication (FDI) Backward Defect Indication (BDI) Egress LER(Label Edge Router) -to-Ingress LER notification Fault Notification by MPLS Signaling RSVP-TE notify message CR-LDP notification message Fault notification by intermediate LSR that detected link fault by network interface card (NIC); Note) in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) network, it is very hard to insert OAM packets by intermediate node

80 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 80 Scenario of Fault Notification by MPLS signaling PHY TCP/UDP CR-LDP MPLS IP OSPF-TE/ BGP TE Agent LSR 120 PHY TCP/UDP CR-LDP MPLS IP OSPF-TE/ BGP TE Agent LSR 121 PHY TCP/UDP CR-LDP MPLS IP OSPF-TE/ BGP TE Agent LER 110 (ingress node) PHY TCP/UDP CR-LDP MPLS IP OSPF-TE/ BGP TE Agent LSR 220 PHY TCP/UDP CR-LDP MPLS IP OSPF-TE/ BGP TE Agent LSR 221 PHY TCP/UDP CR-LDP MPLS IP OSPF-TE/ BGP TE Agent LER 211 (egress node) working LSP backup LSP link failure detection link failure notification TE agent controls the rerouting

81 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 81 Loopback Test OAM LSR120LSR140 LER 110 LER 150 LSR130 timeout (a) Node-by-node sequential loop-back test (b) Roll-call loop-back test

82 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 82 OAM TypeOAM Function PDU Length Loop-back start LSR Identifier Loop-back end LSR Identifier LSP Identifier Loop-back operation mode (sequential or roll-call) Optional data Note) Loopback test operation mode: 0: node-by-node sequential loop-back test 1: roll-call loopback test mode Proposed Format of Loopback Test OAM Packet

83 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 83 Implementations and Experiments Network Simulation Environment: NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) GMPLS Simulator ( GLASS : Gmpls Lightpath Agile Switching Simulator): Networking Simulator for Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) DiffServ-over-MPLS MPLS Networking WDM Optical Switching General Internet Applications over TCP/UDP, IP Included MPLS OAM functions to monitor, analysis network operational status

84 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 84 Network Simulation for DiffServ-over-MPLS Note : the transit link between LSR 220 and LSR 221 has been designed to be bottleneck !! Network Configuration Server Client LSR120LSR 121 LSR 220LSR 221 LER LER (EF, 1 Mbps) LER 111 LER (AF, 4Mbps) LER 150 LER 151 LER LER (AF, 4 Mbps) 103 (AF, 2 Mbps) 105 (BF, 3 mbps) (EF, 1 Mbps) 153 (AF, 2 Mbps) 155 (BF, 3 Mbps) 6.6Mbps 13.2Mbps 17.6 Mbps (Priority Sched) (WFQ Sched)

85 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 85 Traffic Generation Src - Dest Traffic type Traffic Parameters (LSP) [kbps] Priority/Weight (DiffServ) Packet Scheduling (DiffServ) Traffic Generation duration [simulation time in sec] 100 – 101EF PDR = 1,500 CDR = 1,000 P=5Priority50 ~ – 103AF PDR = 3,000 CDR = 2,000 P=3 Priority 50 ~ – 105BE PDR = 4,500 CDR = 3,000 P=1 Priority 50 ~ EF PDR = 1,500 CDR = 1,000 W=1WFQ100 ~ – 153AF PDR = 3,000 CDR = 2,000 W=2WFQ100 ~ – 155BE PDR = 4,500 CDR = 3,000 W=3WFQ100 ~ – 201AF PDR = 6,000 CDR = 4,000 W=4WFQ100 ~ AF PDR = 6,000 CDR = 4,000 W=4WFQ200 ~ 350 (EF: Expedited Forwarding, AF: Assured Forwarding, BE: Best Effort Forwarding)

86 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 86 (a) Priority Scheduling(b) WFQ scheduling Bandwidth Monitoring of DiffServ Traffic

87 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 87 (a) E-to-E Delay, Priority Scheduling(b) E-to-E Delay, WFQ scheduling (a) Jitter, Priority Scheduling (b) Jitter, WFQ scheduling End-to-end delay, Jitter

88 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 88 Notifications on Severe Performance Degradation

89 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 89 Link Failure Detection and Notification Simulation scenario Failure detection by NIC, Continuity check OAM LSR120LSR140 LER 110 LER 150 LSR130 Physical link error at 250 sec (a) Failure Detection by NIC (b) Failure Detection by Continuity Check

90 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 90 Loop-back Test Link Error at 250sec 10ms15ms 10ms15ms5ms

91 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 91 SPNs MPLS Backbone CE PE Penultimate Hop LSR PE Tunneled LSP VLAN/EthernetVC(Virtual Circuit) LSP LSR Intranet Management (EMS/NMS) Intranet Management (EMS/NMS) SPN(Backbone) Management (EMS/NMS) Penultimate Hop LSR TE Agent MPLS-VPN Performance Management

92 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 92 MPLS-VPN PM Examples Customer A Customer B Customer C (a) Throughput Customer A Customer B Customer C Customer A Customer B Customer C Customer A Customer B Customer C (b) Delay (c) Jitter (d) Packet Loss Ratio

93 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 93 Test Network Configuration for Controlled Bandwidth Borrowing LSP between A and B (4 Mbps) LSP between A and D (4 Mbps) LSR-LSR : 20MbpsHost-LSR : 5 Mbps LER A LER B LER C LER D LSP between C and B (4 Mbps) LSR-LSR : 10 Mbps LSP between C and D (2 Mbps) LSP 1 LSP 3 LSP 7 LSP 5 LSR XLSR Y 10M 20M Bottleneck link

94 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 94 Dynamic Bandwidth Re-distribution Scenario Trigger bandwidth redistribution after 170sec Trigger bandwidth rollback at 400sec Bandwidth is not allocated to LSP 1,5 because of bottleneck link However, LSP 3,7 are allowed to get extra-bandwidth. (a) Throughput of LSP1, 3 (a) Throughput of LSP5,7

95 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 95 Commercial MPLS-VPN Management Systems: Cisco VPN Solution, SheerBOS, Wandl s IP/MPLSview

96 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 96 Cisco VPN Solution (1) Cisco VPN Solution Center Architecture API and Life-cycle Management

97 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 97 Cisco VPN Solution Center (2) Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2: MPLS Solution (1) provides management of IP VPN services throughout the service life cycle including service provisioning and activation on customer-edge and provider-edge routers, service auditing and service-level agreement (SLA) provides external operations support systems (OSSs) access to the full capabilities of the Cisco VPN Solution Center using well-defined CORBA APIs Operators and upstream systems can add, delete, or modify customer MPLS VPNs and define associated VPN service topology (hub-and-spoke, full- mesh and extranet) Major functions: Fault – Cisco Info Center Configuration – Cisco Provisioning Center Performance – Concord Network Health Monitor

98 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 98 Cisco VPN Solution Center (3) Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2: MPLS Solution (2)

99 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 99 Cisco VPN Solution Center (4) Key features of Cisco VPN Solution Center Realtime provisioning flexibly service activation high-performance service auditing service quality assurance SLA monitoring and reporting QoS provisioning and measurement for service differentiation Templates for streamlined provisioning Application integration and flow-through provisioning OSS interface – CORBA APIs, TIBCO event bus, Java and XML fault management performance and other extended management functionality

100 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 100 Sheer TM BOS (1) Sheer TM Broadband Operating Supervisor (Sheer TM BOS)

101 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 101 Sheer TM BOS (2) Sheer TM BOS Solutions for Network Services DSL over ATM ATM over Optical IP IP over ATM IP Services over Optical L2TP and MPLS VPN over Optical core over ATM L2TP and MPLS IPVPN VLAN VLAN and MPLS/L2TP/IP

102 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 102 Sheer TM BOS (3) Sheer TM BOS Supported NEs ManufacturerNetwork Element (NE) Alcatel36170(Newbridge) ATM Switch, ASAM DSLAM, MiniRam DSLAM Cisco 6400 SSG, UBR 7200 CMTS, 7x00 Router, GSR 1200 Router, Catalyst, Tdsoft Hunt8200 Router, BPX ATM Switch, 6100 DSLAM, 6160 DSLAM Copper MountainCE150 DSLAM, CE200 DSLAM ECLHiFocus DSLAM LucentCBX500 ATM Switch, GX550 ATM Switch Marconi200 ATM Switch, 1000/4000 ATM Switch Motorola2000 CMTS NortelShasta SSG, IMAS DSLAM, Passport ATM Switch NokiaD50 DSLAM RedbackSMS 500 SSG, SMS 1800 SSG SiemensUnisphere SSG

103 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 103 Sheer TM BOS (4) Sheer TM BOS Auto Discovery of Topology, Inventory and Services Discovery of the network elements and the corresponding layered entities that exist within them (e.g. interfaces, forwarding components) Existing modules, ports/interfaces Existing logical entities MPLS labels Contexts/Virtual Routers Routing Tables, Forwarding Tables, VRF Tables, Label Swapping Tables Discovery of the relationships that exist between the entities in each layer (VC, VP, Ethernet MAC, PPPoA, 1483, 1Q tag) => Port (IP interface) => (1483R, Ethernet,.1Q, PPPoA, PPPoE) (Vbridge) => (Group of Interfaces) (VRF/Virtual Router) => (Group of Interfaces) Discovery of the multi-layer network topology Physical Topology ATM (PVC, SVC, SPVC) Topology Ethernet, VLANs Topology IP Topology MPLS Topology VPN Topology

104 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 104 Sheer TM BOS (5) Sheer TM BOS – Managing IP-VPN Services over Broadband Networks Network Inventory Auto-discovery MPLS IP-VPN logical inventory P and PE Global Label Forwarding Table PE Interface Specific Label Forwarding Table List of VPNs (PE) VPN Properties (PE) –VPN VRF Table –VPN Route Target: Import/Export –VPN Router Distinguisher –VPN Site list & Properties for each VPN Site Network Topology Auto-discovery Service Activation Operations Create/Delete VPN Add/Remove Site to VPN Required identification parameters: VPN identifiers, connection point, site subnets (in case of static route is used between CE-to-PE)

105 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 105 Wandl s IP/MPLSview (1) Features of Wandls IP/MPLSview Hardware Device Models Supported: Cisco, Juniper, Riverstone, Foundry, and generic router types. IP/MPLS-Configuration/Performance Management IP/MPLS-Network Planning VPN BGP MPLS-FRR Extensive Report Generation - Aids all aspects of planning, designing, and troubleshooting IP/MPLS Core Backbones. Flexible and friendly Graphical User Interface Fully web-enabled User Interface

106 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 106 Wandl s IP/MPLSview (2) IP/MPLS Network Planning with Wandls IP/MPLSview IP network configuration, LSP tunnel and traffic collection Delta configuration generation for MPLS TE provisioning Multi-layer, Multi-protocol modeling according to exact equipment details LSP tunnel path placement and provisioning Fast reroute (FRR) End-to-end path protection MPLS LSP path generation/network grooming Multi-period traffic load analysis Basic design from scratch Incremental design Diversity/Resiliency design Bottleneck analysis Capacity planning / traffic growth Multi-layered failure simulation and analysis What-if simulation Standard or customizable tariff databased

107 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 107 Wandl s IP/MPLSview (3) IP/MPLS Configuration and Performance Management Network centric operation of the MPLS traffic network Automated data collection – automatic discovery and incremental discovery Automatic discovery of network topology Web-accessible event browser tracks changes in network status Intelligent multi-vendor IP/MPLS parsing Physical and logical topology views Dynamic reconfiguration of MPLS tunnels Near real-time network monitoring: resource utilization, global network topology and traffic information display, interface/tunnel statistics, data collection via SNMP Network performance management and diagnostics History reports and historical traffic data replay Configuration and version control and archiving Configuration conformance validation Network inventory reports from SNMP polling Integrity checking

108 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 108 Wandl s IP/MPLSview (3) Additional Features Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) model Differentiated Services VPN Model State-of-Art Network Graphics Fully Web-enabled User Interface Wep reports Extensive report generations

109 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 109 Experiences in the Design and Implementation of Management System for DiffServ-aware-MPLS DoumiMan (DiffServ-over-universal mpls internet Manager)

110 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 110 Layered Network Management in DoumiMan (DiffServ- over-universal mpls internet Manager) Physical Layer Network MPLS Layer Network IP Subnetwork & VPN Network

111 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 111 O-O Design & Implementation for Extensibility

112 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 112 Auto-discovery of Physical Topology Information through Telnet CLI (Command Line Interface) 7204_F7204_H NMS show ip vrf Pivot router no VRF related information show cdp entry*, show cdp neighbors, show tag-switching tdp discovery Information about Neighbors show ip vrf Information of VRF table show ip route vrf vrf-name show ip protocols vrf vrf-name Detailed information of VRF table (IP routing table on VRF, routing protocol on VRF)

113 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 113 Configuration Management GUI

114 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 114 DiffServ-aware-ELSP Connection Management

115 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 115 DiffServ-aware-ELSP Performance Management

116 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 116 MPLS Fault Managements with NMS Service Provider Backbone ( AS: 100 ) AS: 200 AS: 300 CE (Customer Edge) AS: 500 AS: 400 NMS/EMS CE (Customer Edge) PE (Provider Edge) Fault Notification (notification) Establish Backup LSP (Rerouting) Link Failure

117 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 117 Example of Fast Reroute in Cisco Routers

118 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 118 VPN GUIs

119 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 119 DiffServ-aware-MPLS VPN GUIs

120 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 120 Concluding Remarks We discussed Framework of MPLS-based VPNs: L3VPN, L2VPN, VPLS Traffic Engineering based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLS Management Framework of MPLS Network, MPLS MIBs MPLS OAM for the Management of MPLS-based VPNs Commercial MPLS-VPN Management Systems: Cisco VPN Solution, SheerBOS, Wandls IP/MPLSview Experiences in the Management of DiffServ-aware-MPLS VPN

121 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 121 References [1] RFC 2764, A Framework for IP based Virtual Private Networks, February [2] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-rfc2547bis-00.txt, BGP/MPLS IP VPNs, May [3] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-framework-00.txt, A Framework for Layer 3 Provider Provisioned Virtual Private Networks (PPVPNs), March [4] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-vpn-vr-00.txt, Network based IP VPN Architecture using Virtual Routers, May [5] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-l2-framework-00.txt, L2VPN Framework, Feb [6] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-requirements-00.txt, Service Requirements for Layer 2 Provider Provisioned Virtual Private Networks, Jan [7] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-requirements-00.txt, Requirements for Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS), Oct [8] IETF Draft, draft-lasserre-vkompella-ppvpn-vpls-02.txt, Virtual Private LAN Services over MPLS, June [9] RFC 3272, Overview and Principles of Internet Traffic Engineering, May [10] RFC 3564, Requirements for Support of Differentiated Services-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering, July [11] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-mgmt-overview-08.txt, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management Overview, August [12] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-te-mib-12.txt, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering Management Information Base, August [13] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-tc-mib-09.txt, Definitions of Textual Conventions for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management, August [14] IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-oam-requirements-01.txt, OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks, June 2003.

122 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 122 [15] ITU-T Rec. Y.1710, Requirements for MPLS OAM. [16] ITU-T Rec. Y.1711, OAM Mechanisms for MPLS Network. [17] ITU-T Rec. Y.1720, Protection Switching for MPLS Networks. [18] ITU-T Draft Rec. Y.mplsperf, MPLS Performance. [19] IETF RFC3289, Differentiated Services MIB module [20] IETF draft-ietf-snmpconf-diffpolicy-07.txt, Differentiated Services Configuration MIB. [21] IETF RFC 3512, Configuring Networks and Devices With SNMP. [22] IETF RFC 3410, "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet- Standard Management Framework ", [23] IETF RFC 3289 Management Information Base for the Differentiated Services Architecture",, May [24] IETF RFC3411, "An Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", Harrington, D., Presuhn, R. and B. Wijnen, December [25] IETF draft-ietf-snmpconf-pm-13.txt, "Policy-based Management MIB", Work in Progress, Waldbusser, S., J. Saperia, and T. Hongal, March [26] IETF draft-ietf-psamp-framework-03.txt, A Framework for Passive Packet Measurement, June [27] IETF draft-ietf-psamp-sample-tech-02.txt, Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP Packet Selection, June [28] Tanja Zseby, Deployment of Sampling Methods for SLA Validation with Non-Intrusive Measurements, Proceedings of Passive and Active Measurement Workshop (PAM 2002), Fort Collins, CO, USA, March 25-26, [29] IETF draft-ietf-psamp-mib-00.txt, Definitions of Managed Objects for Packet Sampling, [30] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-telink-mib-02.txt, Traffic Engineering Link Management Information Base, May [31] IETF RFC 3209, RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels, December 2001.

123 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 123 [32] IETF RFC 3469, Framework for Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based Recovery, February [33] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-fastreroute-03.txt, Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels, [34] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-ping-03.txt, Detecting MPLS Data Plane Failures. [35] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-fastreroute-mib-01.txt, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering Management Information Base for Fast Reroute, November [36] IETF RFC 3479, Fault Tolerance for the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), February [37] IETF RFC 2702, Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS, September [38] IETF draft-ietf-mpls-oam-requirements-01.txt, OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks, June [39] IETF RFC draft-ietf-mpls-bgp-mpls-restart-02.txt, Graceful Restart Mechanism for BGP with MPLS, October [40] IETF draft-ietf-policy-qos-device-info-model-10.txt, Information Model for Describing Network Device QoS Datapath Mechanisms, May [41] IETF draft-ietf-policy-core-schema-16.txt, Policy Core LDAP Schema, October [42] IETF RFC 3060, Policy Core Information Model -- Version 1 Specification, [43] IETC RFC 3198, Terminology for Policy-Based Management, November [44] IETF RFC 3460, Policy Core Information Model (PCIM) Extensions, January [45] IETF draft-ietf-netconf-prot-00, NETCONF Configuration Protocol, August 11, [46] IETF RFC 2925, Definitions of Managed Objects for Remote Ping, Traceroute, and Lookup Operations, September [47] IETF draft-ietf-disman-alarm-mib-14.txt, Alarm MIB, June [48] IETF draft-ietf-disman-event-mib-v2-02.txt, Event MIB, June [49] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-framework-02.txt, Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) Framework, June 2003.

124 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 124 [50] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-pdu-02.txt, Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) Protocol Data Unit (PDU), June [51] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-mib-01.txt, Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) MIB, June [52] IETF draft, Application Performance Measurement MIB draft-ietf-rmonmib-apm-mib-10.txt, August 6, [53] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-tpm-mib-09.txt, Transport Performance Metrics MIB, June 26, [54] IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-sspm-mib-07.txt, Definition of Managed Objects for Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring Algorithms, June [55] Thomas D. Naeau, MPLS Network Management – MIBs, Tools and Techniques, Morgan Kaufmann Publishing Co., [56] NIST GMPLS Simulator – A Scalable Discrete Event Simulator for the GMPLS-based Next Generation Optical Internet, [57] MPLS Forum Super Demo 2002 – Test Plan & Results. [58] Petri Aukia et al., RATES: A Server for MPLS Traffic Engineering, IEEE Network Magazine, Mar./Apr [59] Wandal IP/MPLSView, [60] Differentiated Services – Network Configuration and Management (DISCMAN), EURESCOM, [61] Sheer Broadband Operating Supervisor (BOS), Sheer Networks, [62] TS Choi, SH Yoon, HS Chung, CH Kim, JS Park, BJ Lee, TS Jeong, Wise : Traffic Engineering Server for a Large-scale MPLS-based IP Networks, NOMS2002, April 2002.pp. 251 ~ 264.

125 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 125 [63] Cisco MPLS Tunnel Builder Pro, a.html. a.html [64] Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2, [65] Youngtak Kim, DoumiMan (DiffServ-over-universal-MPLS Internet Manager) for Guaranteed QoS Provisioning in Next Generation Internet, ITRC Forum 2003, June 4, 2003.

126 APNOMS2003 Tutorial, Youngtak Kim, Advanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANT Lab.), YeungNam Univ. 126 Thank You !!! Youngtak Kim, Ph.D., Associate Professor Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering, College of Engineering, Yeungnam University (Tel: , Fax: ,


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