Presentation on theme: "Management of MPLS-based VPNs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Management of MPLS-based VPNs Youngtak KimAdvanced Networking Technology Lab. (ANTL)Dept. of Information & Communication Engineering,Yeungnam University, Korea
2 Outline This tutorial goes through … Framework of MPLS-based VPNs: L3VPN, L2VPN, VPLSTraffic Engineering based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLSManagement Framework of MPLS Network, MPLS MIBsMPLS OAM for the Management of MPLS-based VPNsCommercial MPLS-VPN Management Systems: Cisco VPN Solution, SheerBOS, Wandl’s IP/MPLSviewExperiences in the design and implementation of a Management System for DiffServ-aware-MPLS (DoumiMan)Conclusions and DiscussionsThe tutorial will present the detailed issues of traffic engineering for next generation internet with following steps.(1) First the networking model and overall goals of traffic engineering will be introduced.(2) And, the basic concepts of DiffServ and MPLS will be covered, followed by the integrated traffic engineering concepts based on DiffServ-aware-MPLS.(3) We will discuss on the Internet traffic engineering measurements, performance monitoring and Fault restorations.(4) We will also analyze the availability of Diffserv-aware-MPLS Traffic engineering from the commercial routers, such as Cisco routers.(5) Finally, we will make conclusion, with some additional questions and discussions.If you have any questions, please fill free to make questions during the tutorial.
4 VPN (Virtual Private Network) What is VPN (Virtual Private Network) ?Definition of VPN in RFC 2764 (A Framework for IP Based Virtual Private Networks) : “VPN is an Emulation of a private wide area network (WAN) facility using IP facilities (including the public Internet or private IP backbones).”CPE-based VPNNetwork-based VPNGeneral Requirements of VPNsOpaque packet transportData SecurityQuality of Service GuaranteesTunneling Mechanism
5 VPN Types Types of IP based Virtual Private Networks (RFC 2764) Virtual Leased Lines (VLL)Virtual Private Dial Network (VPDN)Virtual Private Routed Network (VPRN)Virtual Private LAN Segment (VPLS)
6 VPN Types (1): VLL Virtual Leased Lines (VLL) Point-to-point link provided to a customer, connecting two CPE devicesthe link layer type used to connect the CPE devices to the ISP nodes can be any link layer type: e.g. ATM VCC, Frame Relay circuitISP tunnel between two edge ISP nodesCPEISPedgenodeIP TunnelIP backbonenetworkATMVCC
7 VPN Types (2): VPDN Virtual Private Dial Network (VPDN) allows a remote user to connect on demand through an ad hoc tunnel into another site; the user is connected to a public IP network via a dial-up PSTN or ISDNLayer 2 Tunneling Protocols (L2TP)PPP session on the dial-up connection and L2TP tunnelHostCorp.NetworkNAS(NetworkLACLNSIPBackbone NetworkGatewaydialupconnectionL2TP TunnelPPP Session
8 VPN Types (3): VPRN Virtual Private Routed Networks (VPRN) Emulation of a multi-site wide area routed network using IP facilitiesCPE-based VPRN or network-based VPRNpacket forwarding is carried out at the network layera mesh of IP tunnels between ISP routers with VPN-specific routing/forwarding tablesCPEISPedgenodeIP TunnelIP backbonenetworkStubLink
9 VPN Types (4): VPLS Virtual Private LAN Segment (VPLS) (1) Emulation of LAN segment over IP using Internet facilities, with a Transparent LAN Service (TLS)A case of L2VPN service distinguished by the support of L2 broadcastCan be used to interconnect multiple stub CPE nodes, either bridges or routers, in a protocol transparent mannerEssentially equivalent to a VPRN, except that each VPLS edge node implements link layer bridging rather than network layer forwardingCPE routers would peer transparently across a VPLS with each other without requiring any router peering with any nodes within the VPLSVPLS topology can bepoint-to-pointpoint-to-multipoint (hub and spoke)any-to-any (full mesh)mixed (partial mesh)hierarchical
11 MPLS-based VPNs (1): BGP/MPLS IP VPNs Multiple VRFs (VPN Routing and Forwarding tables) in PEsPE-CE attachment circuit is associated with exactly one VRFCarrier’s Carriers casea VPN provided by an SP which is offering VPN services to its customersCE routers should support MPLSPE routers should distribute , to the CE routers, labels for the routes they distribute to the CE routersRouters at the different sites should establish BGP connections among themselves for the purpose of exchanging external routesMulti-AS backbonetwo sites of a VPN are connected to different Autonomous SystemsIBGP is used to distribute routing information within an ASEBGP re-distribute routing information among (labeled VPN-IPv4 routes) from AN to neighboring ASMulti-hop EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes between source and destination ASs.VRF-to-VRF connections at the AS border routers
12 MPLS-based VPNs (2): L3PPVPN (Provider Provisioned VPN) /MPLS Provider Edge (PE) (in PE-based VPN) or Customer Edge (CE) (in CE-based VPN) determine how to route VPN traffic by looking at the IP and/or MPLS headers of the packets they receive from the customer’s edge devicesMPLS LSP is used as the tunnel among PE-PE (in PE-based VPN), or CE-CE (in CE-based VPN)CEdevicePETunnel(MPLS LSP)VPNtunnelSP Network ASP Network BSP Network CdualhomingBackdoorlink
13 MPLS-based VPNs (3): L2PPVPN (Provider Provisioned VPN) /MPLS Provides pseudo wire or emulated LAN service on provider networkVirtual Private Wire Service (VPWS): each CE device is presented with a set of Point-to-Point virtual circuitVirtual Private LAN Service (VPLS): each CE device has one or more LAN interfaces that lead to a “virtual backbone” to make multipoint-to-multipoint VPN (LAN emulation service)CE 1L2 VPN APEdeviceCE 4CE 2CE 3L2 VPN BAccessNetworkCE 5Service ProviderBackboneLogical Switching Instance(provides Pseudo wire or emulated LAN)
14 L2PPVPN Provisioning Models Overlay ModelCustomerSite A(Hub)Site BSite C(Spoke)Site DSite EService Provider NetworkPECERouting information is exchanged between customer and service provider routersService provider routers exchange customer routes through the core networkPeer-to-peer Model
15 Traffic Engineerings based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLS Network
16 NGI with IP, MPLS and WDM Optical Network GMPLS OXC-LSRGMPLS/DWDM-OXClayer NetworkMPLS, MSPPLayer networkIPRouterIP Layer networkMultimedia/VideoArchivesGbESWLSPStorage Access Network(SAN)VPNTDMSONET/SDH(Circuit SwitchedService)In the next generation, 4 major service categories will require big bandwidth pipes with guaranteed QoS: usual IP traffic, high-speed digital leased lines with TDM/SONET, Storage Access Network for Video on demand (VOD) service, and the Virtual private network (VPN) to interconnect Gigabit Ethernets among multiple site of a company.In order to provide the broad bandwidth, the core transport network will be implemented with WDM optical transport network.In order to guarantee the required bandwidth and Quality of service, an efficient traffic engineering mechanism is required; and MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) has been recommended as the promising technology.MPLS, MSPP/MSPP
17 Objectives of Traffic Engineering in NGI (1) Guaranteed Bandwidth & QoSBandwidth:Committed Data rate (CDR)/ Committed Burst Size (CBS), Excess Burst Size (EBS)Peak Date Rate (PDR)/ Peak Burst Size (PBS)End-to-end Packet Transfer Delay: Propagation delay + Queuing delayLimited Jitter (delay variation)Limited End-to-end Packet lossDifferentiated Service provisioning with Different priority/weightPremium service, controlled serviceBest effort serviceHierarchical traffic engineering with TE-Tunnels (LSPs) for extremely broadband networking with WDM optical lambda/fiber switchingMaximized utilization of available bandwidth & resources
18 Objectives of Traffic Engineering in NGI (2) Two major objectives may be conflictingGuaranteed Bandwidth & QoSMaximized resource utilizationin order to guarantee strictly bandwidth and QoS, strict bandwidth & resource reservation is requiredif bandwidth & resource are strictly reserved and not used, underutilization problem occurs => general phenomenon in current telephone networkSolution to get both objectives ?controlled bandwidth borrowing among service class-types within a TE-LSPcontrolled redistribution of extra-available bandwidth among TE-LSP
25 MPLS Traffic Engineering Fast packet switchingFast packet switching by using fixed short label, instead of long address matching in IP packet routingbased on existing fast data link layer switching technologies (e.g. ATM, FR)Traffic engineering with Connection-oriented LSP (Label Switched Path)more predictable network control and managementConstraint-based Routing; Constraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF)Forwarding Equivalent Class (FEC)source/destination IP address range : min, maxsource/destination port range : min, maxType of Service (ToS)
26 Service Level Agreement (SLA) A contract between a service provider and a customerSpecifies, usually in measurable terms, what QoS the service provider will provideTraffic Parameters: Committed Data Rate (CDR)/CBS+EBSQoS Parameters: Delay, Jitter, Packet Loss RateService Availability: Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)/Mean Time to Restoration of Service (MTRS)
27 Constraint-based Routing in MPLS Traffic parameters of the constraint-based routing for LSPbandwidth of LSP : peak data rate, committed data rateModification of Link State Database for constraint-based routingtraffic parameteravailable bandwidth at each link : number of lambda channels, bandwidth of each lambda channelsAdditional QoS parameterpropagation delayCombined cost metricModification of OSPF shortest path routingconstraint-based routing with traffic parameters: bandwidth, QoS, resource class, class of failure protectionSRLG (Shared Risk Link Group)The constraint-based routing in MPLS determines the route that can provide the required traffic parameter and the QoS parameter.As I explained in the previous slide, the traffic parameters define the bandwidth of LSP with peak data rate and committed data rate.In order to support the constraint-based routing, the Link State Database of the current IP router should be modified to handle traffic parameters and additional QoS parameters. It must modified to use the combined cost metric from the various parameters and the user’s requirement.The routing algorithm, such as OSPF should also modified to include the new parameters and the new concept, such as shared risk link group.
28 Example of Constraint-based Routing Seattle1114420M82800010MRapid city8205MMinneapolisBoston61110M565710M82040910MDetroit834 10MSalt Lake CityChicago38950M156405M211 5M19San Francisco74510M492050M28610M52100050M14New York29710M2Denver53410M237 5M686100050MSt. Louis1868810M84510M3805MWashingtonD.C.1381610M28500010M780100M63210M338110M3945MLos AngelsMemphis127106750MDallas17Atlanta454100MThis slide shows an example of constraint-based routing.Lets assume a 7-Mbps packet flow is required from Seattle to Miami.If we find the physically shortest path, the orange path on this slide will be found.But, unfortunately, this path can not support the required traffic flow, because one of the link can provide only 5 Mbps bandwidth.So, according to the constrain-based routing, this physically shortest path is not selected.Phoenix939300010M47310M2465M66110M35210M1011Physically shortest path.But can not provide the requested 7 Mbps bandwidth !!86100010MHoustonNew Orleans16Miami
29 Example of SRLG-disjoint Backup Path Routing 1236897101314152019181711161248205M114420M82800010MSeattleSan FranciscoSalt Lake CityLos AngelsDenverPhoenixHoustonDallasMinneapolisChicagoSt. LouisMemphisNew OrleansAtlantaMiamiWashingtonD.C.DetroitNew YorkBoston745380688381816106750M920861000780100M521000409297286845285000454246352393000394473661632534640834 10M211 5M237 5M5Rapid city611657389Constraint-routed shortest path that can provide 7 Mbps bandwidth !!Shared Risk Link Group (SRLG) – disjoint backup path withIn order to produce the shortest path that can support the required constraints, we produce a pruned link state database where the links which cannot provide the required QoS or traffic specification are removed from the topology.Based on this pruned (or truncated) link state database, we can use the same shortest path finding algorithm, such as Dijkstra’s algorithm to find the shortest path.The next step is to fined the next shortest path for backup traffic trunk which are not using the same physical links of the working path. By removing or increasing the cost metric of the links of the working path, we can use the same algorithm. The dotted path shows the SRLG-disjointed backup path.
30 Factors on End-to-End Transfer delay, Jitter Queuing delay in M/D/1 queueMean time in QueuePacket loss and buffer size calculated by heavy traffic approximation: : link utilization
31 Bandwidth Borrowing among LSPs within an TE-LSP LSP j (weight = y)LSP k (weight = z)Excess availablebandwidthTE-LSPBorrowing/re-allocation ofavailable/unused bandwidthLSP i (weight = x)needs more bandwidthunder utilization
32 Re-distribution of Extra Available Bandwidth among Tunnel (TE)-LSP PHY LINKLSPi(wi)LSPj(wj)LSPi1(wi1)extraAvailableBWLSPi2(wi2)LSPj1(wj1)LSPj2(wj2)Available ExcessBandwidthUser LSPInner Tunnel LSPOuter Tunnel LSP(b) Hierarchical/Recursive Redistribution ofAvailable Bandwidth(a) Controlled Bandwidth Redistribution/Borrowing
34 Example of DiffServ Class-type and Performance Objectives DelayJitterpacketLossRatioBandwidthdefinitionDSCPNCT1/NCT0Minimized error,high priorityRIP, OSPF, BGP-4100msecU10-3Peak rate/EFJitter sensitive,real-time high interactionVoIP50AF4Video conference400Committed rateAF3Transaction data,interactiveTerminal sessionCustom appAF2Transaction dataData baseWebAF1Low loss bulk dataFTP1secBEBest effortservice(Note : a) U : undefined, b) Drop precedence of AF4~AF1 : 010, 100, 110)
35 Per Hop Behavior (PHB) Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) The externally observable forwarding behavior applied at a DS-compliant node to a DS behavior aggregateThe means by which a node allocates resources to behavior aggregatesDefines hop-by-hop resource allocation mechanismExample of PHBGuarantee minimal bandwidth allocation ( x % of a link or tunnel)Guarantee minimal bandwidth allocation (x % of a link or tunnel) with proportional fair sharing of any excess link capacityBuffer allocationPriority relative to other PHBsPHBs are specified as a group (PHB group) for consistencyPHBs are implemented in nodes by means of some buffer management and packet scheduling mechanisms
36 Metering & Marking Parameters for Metering & Marking Parameters Red YellowGreenSingle RateThree Color Marker (SRTCM)CDR/CBS+EBSTE(t)-B < 0TP(t)-B 0 and TE(t)-B 0TC(t) –B 0Two RateThree Color Marker (TRTCM)PDR/PBSCIDR/CBSTP(t)-B < 0TP(t)-B 0 andTC(t) –B < 0(Note: B: arrived packet size, TE(t): token count of excess rate token bucket,TC(t): token count of committed rate token bucket, TP(t): token count of peak rate token bucket)
37 Integrated Traffic Engineering for DiffServ-aware-MPLS Guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) ProvisioningTraffic parametersPeak RateAverage rate, Sustainable rate with burst toleranceMinimum rateFrame rate with max. frame sizeQoS ParametersEnd-to-end transfer DelayDelay variance (Jitter) toleranceBit/Packet/Frame error rateMaximized bandwidth & resource utilizationBandwidth over-bookingBandwidth sharing, borrowing
38 Per Class-Type Queuing (1): RED (Random Early Detection) Queue Probabilisticpacket dropBuffer levelTH minTH maxDiscardDiscard with increasingprobability PaDo not discardDrop ProbabilityAverage Queue LengthTHminTHmax1PmaxPminThe globally synchronized traffic fluctuation can be solved by using the Random Early Detection queue which drops the packet probabilistically according the buffer level.In this case, only one TCP session is asked to reduce the traffic at a time. So, the network traffic flow can be maintained at a stable level.
39 Per Class-Type Queuing (2): WRED (Weighted Random Early Detection) Queue Drop ProbabilityAverage Queue LengthTHmax(0…7)THmin(0)THmin(7)1Pmax(0..7)(a) Default WRED Drop Probability ConfigurationPmax(0)Pmax(7)AverageQueueLength(b) WRED case 1THmax(7)THmax(0)(c) WRED case 2(Note: THmin(i) =(1/2 + i/8)*THmax
40 DiffServ Packet Scheduler Hierarchical Packet SchedulerPrioritySchedulerRate-basedscheduler(WRR or WFQ)NCT1NCT0EFAF4AF3AF2AF1BFpriorityMin rateshaping rate(PDR/PBS,CDR/CBS+EBS)Traffic ShaperThe packet scheduler determines which packet will be transferred at next available time slot.We can use priority-based or weighted-based scheduler.In the priority-based scheduling, the higher priority queue is served first without consideration of the status of the lower priority queues.In the weight-based scheduling, the available bandwidth is allocated to each queue according to the weight.Also, the hierarchical packet scheduler with priority-scheduler and the weight-based scheduler can be used as shown in this slide.
41 DiffServ-aware-MPLS Traffic Engineering IP PacketStreamPacket ClassifierAF 4Two Rate Three ColorMarker (PIR/PBS,CIR/CBS+EBS)NCT1Single Rate Three ColorMarker (CIR/CBS+EBS)NCT0EFMarker (CIR/CBS+EBS)AF 3AF 2Marker(PIR/PBS, CIR/CBS+EBS)AF 1BFdrop?Rate-based packet schedulerPriority-based packet schedulerCR-LSP(Traffic Parameters :Peak Data Rate(PDR)Peak Burst Size (PBS)Committed Data Rate (CDR)Committed Burst Size (CBS)Excess Burst Size (EBS)WeightResource Class / Color =“gold”)Multi-field PacketClassificationPer-Class-typeMetering/MarkingPacket Dropping(algorithmic drop accordingto averaged buffer depth)packetschedulingtraffic shapinguser B(Traffic Parameters,Resource class= “silver”)= “bronze”)User CAF1, 2, 3, 4EF (or AF1)NCT 0/1BE (default)TE-LSPMaximumCapacity/Aggregate BWAllocated BWUn-reserved BWPolicy-based MPLS Traffic Trunk (TE-LSP)Management, Load Balancingrt/nrt-VBR trafficCBR realtime trafficVPN control messageUser(UserGroup) A
42 Traffic Policing and Traffic Shaping ClassifyMeasureConfigured rateNomatchIncomingpacketsQueuing methodOutgoing packetsWFQ/FIFOPacketSchedulerMetering/MarkingTokenbucketAggregatedcommittedratePer-class
50 DiffServ-aware MPLS Network Distributed Traffic & Network Management System for multiple Autonomous Systems (AS)DiffServ-aware MPLS NetworkDiffServ-awareMPLSLERCPNABTransitLSRAutonomous System 1Autonomous System 2AutonomousSystem 2Constraint-basedShortest Path First(CSPF) RoutingEMSNMS
52 Management Interfaces (EMS-Agent, EMS-NMS) Command Line Interface (CLI)proprietary CLI definition by each vendormost detailed operations and management informationCORBA(Common Object Request Broker Architecture)/OMGdistributed object computing infrastructureManager-to-manager connectionXML (eXtensible Markup Language)XML-RPCSOAPSNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)SNMP MIBs for MPLS-based VPN/VPLSDelayed update compared with data access by CLI (Command Line Interface)
53 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (1) 1) MPLS Management Overview:- Related document: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management Overview, draft-ietf-mpls-mgmt-overview-08.txt, August 2003.- Overview of MPLS Network Management and Related MIB- MPLS MIB의 OID (Object Identifier) tree structure:
54 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (2) 2) TC-MIB- Related document: Definitions of Textual Conventions for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management, draft-ietf-mpls-tc-mib-05.txt, Nov- Describes textual conventions for use in definitions of management information for MPLS networks3) LSR-MIB- Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Switching Router (LSR) Management Information Bases, draft-ietf-mpls-lsr-mib-09.txt, Oct- Describes MOs for modeling MPLS LSR (Label Switch Router) LSR- interface configuration table (mplsInterfaceConfTable)- in-segment (mplsInSegmentTable), out-segment (mplsOutSegmentTable) tables- cross-connect table (mplsXCTable)- label stack table (mplsLabelStackTable)- traffic parameter table (mplsTrafficParamTable): index, MaxRate, MinRate, MaxBurstSize
55 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (3) 4) TE-MIB- Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering Management Information Base, draft-ietf-mpls-te-mib-09.txt, Nov- ping (ICMP echo request) based hop-by-hop fault localization and path tracing- in ping mode (basic connectivity check), ping packet is sent through user packet delivery LSP, the egress LSR delivers the ping packet to control plane- in traceroute mode (fault isolation), ping packet is sent to the control plane of each transit LSR node, which performs various checks and returns further information that helps check the control plane against the data plane5) LDP-MIB- Related document : Definitions of Managed Objects for the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-mib-09.txt, Oct- Defines 4 MIBs for Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishment and monitoring : MPLS-LDP-MIB, MPLS-LDP-Generic-MIB, MPLS-LDP-ATM-MIB, MPLS-LDP-Frame-Relay-MIB
56 Standards of MPLS Network Managements (4) 6) FTN-MIB- Related document : Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Forward Equivalency Class-to-Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry Management Information Base, draft-ietf-mpls-ftn-mib-05.txt, Oct- Defines MIBs of the mapping and related operations of MPLS FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) and NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry)7) Bundle MIB- Related document : Link Bundling Management Information Bases, draft-ietf-mpls-bundle-mib-04.txt, Nov- Defines MIBs for grouping TE Links into a bundled link8) VPN-MIB- Related document : MPLS/BGP Virtual Private Network Management Information Base using SMIv2, draft-ietf-ppvpn-mpls-vpn-mib-05.txt, Nov- Defines the MIB for MPLS/BGP VRF (VPN Routing and Forwarding) based VPN configuration
57 MPLS Network Configuration Management MPLS Configuration ManagementInstallation supportsupport the installation of equipment and related softwareinstallation operations, sequencing and scheduling the operation to achieve maximum efficiency and minimum interference with ongoing operationsProvisioninga set of procedures that bring already installed equipment into serviceNE configurationInitialization of Network Topology resource and activationsNetwork resource reservation and locking/unlocking for service provisioningStatus and controlStatus request & report of network resourceNetwork resource maintenanceNetwork Resource Auto-discovery (optional)dynamic resource discoveryautomatic configuration & topology mappingreal-time map generation
59 Example of MPLS Network Configuration MOs (1) Managed ObjectsAttributesExampleNodeRouter Name7204_GRouter VersionCisco 7200IOS version (Cisco Router)12.2(8)TRouting ProtocolOSPF, BGPMPLS Signaling protocolTotal number of activated slots/ports1 Fast Ethernet4 Serial network interface1 Packet_over_Sonet (POS) network interfaceFast Ethernet PortaddressstatusPort Up, line protocol upQoS class mapEF, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4QoS statusDrop ratio 0 bps, packets markedSerial PortStatusOperational-yesClass-defaultQoS queueWeighted fair queuingQoS bandwidth620 [kbps]Serial port nameSerial 1/1 (connected with xxx)Loopback address
60 Example of MPLS Network Configuration MOs (2) Managed ObjectsAttributesExamplePoS port(Packet over SONET)addressStatusShutdownQoS class mapClass-defaultQoS queueWeighted fair queueQoS bandwidth55000[kbps]Serial port namePos4/0Loopback addressNeighborsNeighbor equipmentRouter, bridge_switchNeighbor router name3620_BNeighbor router serial port name / addressSerial 0/0 (3620_B port) /Neighbor loopback address (TDP id)(3620_B의 loopback address)
61 MPLS Connection Managements MPLS Tunnel LSP (TE-LSP) Connection ManagementsMPLS Tunnel LSP Establishments and MaintenanceConstraint-based Shortest Path First (CSPF) routing for Constraint-based LSP SetupRequest MPLS LER/LSR to set up LSP: Automatic routing mode or explicit routing modeSet up LSP traffic parameter and QoS parameterUpdate of Traffic parameter and QoS parameter of MPLS Tunnel LSPModification of traffic parameter and QoS parameter of tunnel LSPEstablishment of backup LSP for MPLS Fault ManagementSRLG-disjoint backup path routingEstablishment of working LSP for backup LSP: explicit routing mode
62 Connection Management for DiffServ-over/aware-MPLS on Optical Internet IIOPConfigurationMgmtConnectionPerformanceFaultEMSNMSOXCLSRDiffServ-aware-LERfiber linkoptical path(lambda channels)traffic trunk(tunnel LSP)WDM Optical Domain NetworkMPLS Domain network
63 Example of MPLS LSP MOs (1) AttributeExampleLSPTunnel nameTunnel_0104_1Source addressDestination addressNext addresses (explicit route),Traffic param - prioritySetup priority 1Holding priority 1Traffic param – bandwidth9 [kbps]Traffic param – MTU1514 bytesTraffic param - delay500,000 usec (default) – modifiableAffinity0x0 ~ 0xFFFFFFFFAuto-bandwidth (optional)Freq, Min [kbps], Max [kbps]
64 Example of MPLS LSP MOs (2) AttributeExampleLSR and PortLSR ID (Transmitter)Link/Port IDInterface addressNeighbor LSR ID (Receiver)Link typeFast Ethernet, Serial Port, POSAdministration statusActiveOperational statusOperational-yesLink StateTotal capacityLink total capacity in [Mbps]Available bandwidthAvailable bandwidth in [Mbps]Reserved bandwidthAllocated bandwidth in [Mbps]Propagation & processing delayPropagation delay according to the physical distance, and packet processing delay including MPLS packet switching, port buffering at LSRJitterJitter at LSR with MPLS packet switchingResidual bit error rateBit error rate at Physical linkSRLG_IDShared risk link group IDPhysical backup typeProtection functions provided at Physical Layer
65 Parameters for Constraint-based LSP Establishment MOAttributeExampleTraffic ParameterBandwidthPeak data rate(PDR)/Peak Burst Size (PBS)Committed Data Rate(CDR)/Committed Burst Size (CBS),Excess Burst Size (EBS)QoS ParameterEnd-to-end delayJitter boundAllowable jitter boundaryPacket loss ratioAllowable packet loss ratioService CategoryService classPlatinum, gold, silver, bronzePrioritySetup priority, holding priorityWeightWeight for Weighted Fair SchedulerBackup_type1+1, 1:1, M:N, 1:N, on-demandSRLGSRLG-disjoint backup LSP
66 MPLS Network Performance Management Performance monitoring of MPLS Tunnel LSPMeasurement of Throughput at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS)Measurement of delay, jitter at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS)Measurement of packet loss at End-to-End LSP and Boundary of Autonomous System (AS)Performance analysis of MPLS Tunnel LSPCompare and analyze LSP’s SLA (service level agreement) performance parameters and the monitored resultsDetermine any seriously deteriorated performanceperformance control & tuning of MPLS Tunnel LSPUpdate/Reallocation of operational Parameters (Bandwidth, Link Utilization) to maintain the performance of End-to-end LSP and LSP segments of Autonomous System (AS) : Adjustment of allocated bandwidth, Queue buffer size or scheduler parameterRerouting of LSP routeOverall Network Load BalancingMPLS VPN Performance ManagementMeasurements of Aggregated Throughput, Packet Transfer Delay, Packet Loss Rate at MPLS VPN Interfaces (CE-PE, PE-PE)Measurements of Packet Mis-delivery Ratio among MPLS VPN
67 MPLS Network Fault Management (1) Establishment of Backup LSP for MPLS working tunnel LSPSRLG disjoint back LSP routing and LSP setupAllocation of Backup LSP resource for 1+1, 1:1, M:N, 1:N modeFault Detection and NotificationFault detection ad notification at Physical Layer Link, port or NodeFault detection ad notification by MPLS signaling and packet forwarding moduleNotification of Seriously deteriorated MPLS LSP PerformanceAnalysis and Localization of FaultsFault correlation and localizationFind Root Cause of the FaultsFind the location of root causeDetermine the Affected tunnel LSP and VPNFault RecoveryFault Recovery by Protection switching or restorationProtection Switching of User Traffic using Backup LSPEstablish a new back LSPRedefine the function and the route of working LSP and backup LSP at Fault restoration
68 MPLS Fault Management (2) Differentiated Backup Path Reservations (Example)Backup Path UtilizationReservation with NO TrafficReservation with Lower Priority Traffic of possible preemptionFault RestorationUse Span(segment) ProtectionRestoration is based on the Subnetwork(Segment)MPLS Service ClassBandwidth ReservationSetup PriorityPreemption PriorityApplicationPlatinum100%, 1+1HighestHigh Priority VPNGold100%, 1:1HigherVPNSilver100%, M:NNormalPremium serviceBronze100%, 1:NLowerControlled trafficBest effortLowestBest Effort3. Fault Restoration with Backup LSPOne of the classification of the restoration schemes is based on the number of working path to backup path. Currently these restoration scheme only distinguish the class of service. For example, the 1+1 restoration is used when the class of service requires highest setup/preemption priority. If the class of service requires normal priority, 1:1 scheme may be used. These schemes restore the whole traffic of each class of service.3.1 Backup LSP SetupThe proposed backup LSP setup scheme does not restore whole traffic for each class. The restoration ratio of each class are differentiated. We assume that the GMPLS-based optical Internet is a DiffServ-aware-GMPLS. If the MPLS service class is platinum(the highest service class), the whole traffics are protected by 1+1 protection mechanism. In the case of Gold class, 100 percents of the total traffic are protected by 1:1 protection mechanism. In the Silver class, 80 percents of the total traffic are protected by 1:1 protection mechanism. In the Bronze class, 50 percents of the total traffic are protected by 1:1 protection mechanism. If the service class is Best Effort, the restoration is performed not by a pre-established protection switching but by a dynamic rerouting.The selection of the protected micro traffic of each MPLS service class is based on the service class of the DiffServ. For instance its faults occur in the Silver class type LSP, only the NCT(Network Control Traffic), EF(Expedited Forwarding), AF(Assured Forwarding) DiffServ class traffic can be protected.We consider two case of bandwidth reservation of backup LSP. One is that only bandwidth is reserved and no other traffic flow is admitted until protection is performed in 1+1 protection. The other is that the bandwidth for protection is reserved in 1:1 protection, but best effort traffic flows with lower preemption priority use the bandwidth until the failure occurrence. Once a failure occurs, the best effort traffics using that bandwidth are released and the protected higher-priority traffics preemptively use the reserved bandwidth.3.2 Fault Restoration SchemeThe proposed fault restoration scheme is not a path protection but a kind of span protection. Fault restoration is performed by the unit of subnetwork(segment). The network is divided into some subnetworks. In the case of fault occurrence in a subnet, the restoration path from the ingress node of the subnetwork to its egress node that is connected to next subnetwork is selected. If the egress / ingress node of the subnetwork is in failure, a new restoration path is selected that starts from the next upstream node of ingress node and ends at the next down stream node of the egress node. If the link between the egress and ingress nodes is in failure, a new link is selected that spans from the egress node of one subnetwork to the ingress node of another subnetwork.
69 Example of Seriously Deteriorated Performance Traffic / QoS parameterThreshold of severe degradationRemarksAvailable bandwidthLess than 80% of CDR (committed data rate)End-to-end delayMore than 120% of agreed end-to-end delay limitJitterMore than 200% of agreed jitter limitPacket lossMore than 10% of transmitted data
71 MPLS Fault Recovery Objectives (Example) FunctionFault Recovery ParameterTarget ValuesFault DetectionFault Detection at Physical LayerFault Detection at LSPFault Detection at LSRPhysical Layer: 50 nsMPLS LSP: 150 msMPLS LSR: 3 secFault NotificationFault notification to ingress LER / egress LER50 msProtection Switching to Backup LSPProtection Switching of user traffic from faulty working LSP to Backup LSPTotal Fault Restoration TimeTotal allowable time from fault occurrence to complete fault restoration250 ms
72 Standards related to MPLS Fault Management IETF Draft MPLS-based fast rerouteIETF Draft MPLS recovery frameworkIETF Draft MPLS RSVP-LSP Fast rerouteMPLS OAM RequirementsRFC 2925, Remote Ping, Trace Route, LookupRFC 3479, Fault Tolerance for the LSP
74 MPLS OAM OAM (Operation, Administration, Maintenance) Layer Management Protocol for Network Layer, Data Link Layer, Physical Layer: e.g. ATM VP/VC Layer OAM, Physical Layer OAM, SONET OAMFault OAM for fault monitoring, fault notificationalarm indication signalremote defect indication (RDI)continuity check (CC)loopback testPerformance OAM for performance monitoring, performance analysisForward monitoringBackward monitoringConfiguration OAM for administrative configuration of links, operational status monitoringlink configuration and status managementneighbor discoverye.g Layer Management Protocol (LMP) of WDM Optical Link
75 Related Works on MPLS OAM Current Standardization Status of MPLS OAMGeneral frameworkMajor considerationsNo detailed implementation methodsIETF Internet Draft, “A Framework for MPLS User Plane OAM,” David Allen (ed.), February 2003.Implications for fault management: connectivity verification, etc.Implications for performance management: line quality monitoring, etc.IETF Internet Draft, “OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks,” Thomas Nadeau et. al., February 2003.service level agreement (SLA) measurement: availability, latency, packet loss, jitteralarm suppression and layer coordinationsupport for OAM interworking for fault notificationerror detection and recoveryIETF Internet Draft, “Detecting Data Plane Liveness in RSVP-TE”, OctLSP Ping
76 Requirements of MPLS OAM Functions Basic Requirements of MPLS OAM functionsFault management OAM should be able to provide fault detection, on-demand verification, fault localization, notification of LSP failure informationPerformance management OAM should be able to provide performance monitoring to check the provisioning of traffic throughput & QoS (end-to-end delay, jitter, packet loss rate) that is defined in service level agreementInteractions of MPLS signaling and User-plane OAMUser plane OAM: based on in-band OAM packets to monitor real status of user plane connectionsMPLS signaling: out-of-band signaling, separated connections from the user plane connections
77 Design of MPLS Performance Management OAM Functions Performance Monitoring OAM of User Plane Data PathThroughputtotal delivered data size / unit time intervalDelayd(n) = Tarrival(n) – Tdeparture(n)Jitter (variance of transfer delay)j(n) = |d(n) – d(n-1)|Packet loss rate(total transmitted packets – total delivered packets) / total transmitted packetsSeverely degraded performancee.g. excessive delay at realtime interactive communication, excessive packet loss, excessive jittershould be handled in the same manner of fault
78 Proposed Format of Performance Monitoring OAM Packet OAM TypeOAM FunctionPDU LengthIngress LSR IdentifierEgress LSR IdentifierLSP IdentifierSequence NumberTime StampNumber of Total Transmitted PacketsTotal Transmitted Data Size [Byte]Optional Information123456789(LSR: Label Switched Router; LSP: Label Switched Path)
79 Design of MPLS Fault Management OAM Functions Fault Detectionby fault management OAM packet: continuity checkby lower protocol layer: e.g. loss of light (LOL), loss of signal (LOS)Fault Notification by MPLS OAM packetForward Defect Indication (FDI)Backward Defect Indication (BDI)Egress LER(Label Edge Router) -to-Ingress LER notificationFault Notification by MPLS SignalingRSVP-TE notify messageCR-LDP notification messageFault notification by intermediate LSR that detected link fault by network interface card (NIC); Note) in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) network, it is very hard to insert OAM packets by intermediate node
81 Loopback Test OAM timeout (a) Node-by-node sequential loop-back test LSR120LSR140LER110150LSR130timeout(a) Node-by-node sequential loop-back test(b) Roll-call loop-back test
82 Proposed Format of Loopback Test OAM Packet OAM TypeOAM FunctionPDU LengthLoop-back start LSR IdentifierLoop-back end LSR IdentifierLSP IdentifierLoop-back operation mode (sequential or roll-call)Optional data123456789Note) Loopback test operation mode:0: node-by-node sequential loop-back test1: roll-call loopback test mode
83 Implementations and Experiments Network Simulation Environment:NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) GMPLS Simulator (GLASS: Gmpls Lightpath Agile Switching Simulator):Networking Simulator for Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)DiffServ-over-MPLSMPLS NetworkingWDM Optical SwitchingGeneral Internet Applications over TCP/UDP, IPIncluded MPLS OAM functions to monitor, analysis network operational status
84 Network Simulation for DiffServ-over-MPLS Network ConfigurationServerClientLSR120LSR 121LSR 220LSR 221LER211100110101 (EF, 1 Mbps)111210200201 (AF, 4Mbps)150151212202213203 (AF, 4 Mbps)103 (AF, 2 Mbps)105 (BF, 3 mbps)102104152154151 (EF, 1 Mbps)153 (AF, 2 Mbps)155 (BF, 3 Mbps)6.6Mbps13.2Mbps17.6 Mbps(Priority Sched)(WFQ Sched)Note : the transit link between LSR 220 and LSR 221 has been designed to be bottleneck !!
88 Notifications on Severe Performance Degradation
89 Link Failure Detection and Notification Simulation scenarioFailure detection by NIC, Continuity check OAMLSR120LSR140LER110150LSR130Physical link error at 250 sec(a) Failure Detection by NIC(b) Failure Detection by Continuity Check
92 MPLS-VPN PM Examples (a) Throughput (b) Delay (c) Jitter Customer ACustomer BCustomer C(a) Throughput(b) Delay(c) Jitter(d) Packet Loss Ratio
93 Test Network Configuration for Controlled Bandwidth Borrowing LSP between A and B (4 Mbps)LSP between A and D (4 Mbps)LSR-LSR : 20MbpsHost-LSR : 5 MbpsLER ALER BLER CLER DLSP between C and B (4 Mbps)LSR-LSR : 10 MbpsLSP between C and D (2 Mbps)LSP 1LSP 3LSP 7LSP 5LSR XLSR Y10M20MBottlenecklink
94 Dynamic Bandwidth Re-distribution ScenarioTrigger bandwidth redistribution after 170secTrigger bandwidth rollback at 400secBandwidth is not allocated to LSP 1,5 because of bottleneck linkHowever, LSP 3,7 are allowed to get extra-bandwidth.(a) Throughput of LSP1, 3(a) Throughput of LSP5,7
96 Cisco VPN Solution (1)Cisco VPN Solution Center Architecture API and Life-cycle Management
97 Cisco VPN Solution Center (2) Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2: MPLS Solution (1)provides management of IP VPN services throughout the service life cycle including service provisioning and activation on customer-edge and provider-edge routers, service auditing and service-level agreement (SLA)provides external operations support systems (OSSs) access to the full capabilities of the Cisco VPN Solution Center using well-defined CORBA APIsOperators and upstream systems can add, delete, or modify customer MPLS VPNs and define associated VPN service topology (hub-and-spoke, full-mesh and extranet)Major functions:Fault – Cisco Info CenterConfiguration – Cisco Provisioning CenterPerformance – Concord Network Health Monitor
98 Cisco VPN Solution Center (3) Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2: MPLS Solution (2)
99 Cisco VPN Solution Center (4) Key features of Cisco VPN Solution CenterRealtime provisioningflexibly service activationhigh-performance service auditingservice quality assuranceSLA monitoring and reportingQoS provisioning and measurement for service differentiationTemplates for streamlined provisioningApplication integration and flow-through provisioningOSS interface – CORBA APIs, TIBCO event bus, Java and XMLfault managementperformance and other extended management functionality
101 SheerTMBOS (2) SheerTMBOS Solutions for Network Services DSL over ATM ATM over OpticalIPIP over ATMIP Services over OpticalL2TP and MPLS VPN over Optical core over ATML2TP and MPLS IPVPNVLANVLAN and MPLS/L2TP/IP
103 SheerTMBOS (4)SheerTMBOS Auto Discovery of Topology, Inventory and ServicesDiscovery of the network elements and the corresponding layered entities that exist within them (e.g. interfaces, forwarding components)Existing modules, ports/interfacesExisting logical entitiesMPLS labelsContexts/Virtual RoutersRouting Tables, Forwarding Tables, VRF Tables, Label Swapping TablesDiscovery of the relationships that exist between the entities in each layer(VC, VP, Ethernet MAC, PPPoA, 1483, 1Q tag) => Port(IP interface) => (1483R, Ethernet, .1Q, PPPoA, PPPoE)(Vbridge) => (Group of Interfaces)(VRF/Virtual Router) => (Group of Interfaces)Discovery of the multi-layer network topologyPhysical TopologyATM (PVC, SVC, SPVC) TopologyEthernet, VLANs TopologyIP TopologyMPLS TopologyVPN Topology
104 SheerTMBOS (5)SheerTMBOS – Managing IP-VPN Services over Broadband NetworksNetwork Inventory Auto-discoveryMPLS IP-VPN logical inventoryP and PE Global Label Forwarding TablePE Interface Specific Label Forwarding TableList of VPNs (PE)VPN Properties (PE)VPN VRF TableVPN Route Target: Import/ExportVPN Router DistinguisherVPN Site list & Properties for each VPN SiteNetwork Topology Auto-discoveryService Activation OperationsCreate/Delete VPNAdd/Remove Site to VPNRequired identification parameters: VPN identifiers, connection point, site subnets (in case of static route is used between CE-to-PE)
105 Wandl’s IP/MPLSview (1) Features of Wandl’s IP/MPLSviewHardware Device Models Supported: Cisco, Juniper, Riverstone, Foundry, and generic router types.IP/MPLS-Configuration/Performance ManagementIP/MPLS-Network PlanningVPNBGPMPLS-FRRExtensive Report Generation - Aids all aspects of planning, designing, and troubleshooting IP/MPLS Core Backbones.Flexible and friendly Graphical User InterfaceFully web-enabled User Interface
106 Wandl’s IP/MPLSview (2) IP/MPLS Network Planning with Wandl’s IP/MPLSviewIP network configuration, LSP tunnel and traffic collectionDelta configuration generation for MPLS TE provisioningMulti-layer, Multi-protocol modeling according to exact equipment detailsLSP tunnel path placement and provisioningFast reroute (FRR)End-to-end path protectionMPLS LSP path generation/network groomingMulti-period traffic load analysisBasic design from scratchIncremental designDiversity/Resiliency designBottleneck analysisCapacity planning / traffic growthMulti-layered failure simulation and analysisWhat-if simulationStandard or customizable tariff databased
107 Wandl’s IP/MPLSview (3) IP/MPLS Configuration and Performance ManagementNetwork centric operation of the MPLS traffic networkAutomated data collection – automatic discovery and incremental discoveryAutomatic discovery of network topologyWeb-accessible event browser tracks changes in network statusIntelligent multi-vendor IP/MPLS parsingPhysical and logical topology viewsDynamic reconfiguration of MPLS tunnelsNear real-time network monitoring: resource utilization, global network topology and traffic information display, interface/tunnel statistics, data collection via SNMPNetwork performance management and diagnosticsHistory reports and historical traffic data replayConfiguration and version control and archivingConfiguration conformance validationNetwork inventory reports from SNMP pollingIntegrity checking
109 DoumiMan (DiffServ-over-universal mpls internet Manager) Experiences in the Design and Implementation of Management System for DiffServ-aware-MPLSDoumiMan (DiffServ-over-universal mpls internet Manager)
110 Layered Network Management in DoumiMan (DiffServ-over-universal mpls internet Manager) PhysicalLayerNetworkMPLSIP Subnetwork& VPN
112 Auto-discovery of Physical Topology Information through Telnet CLI (Command Line Interface) Pivot router7204_HNMS7204_F① show ip vrf② no VRF related information③ show cdp entry*, show cdp neighbors, show tag-switching tdp discovery④ Information about Neighbors⑤ show ip vrf⑥ Information of VRF table⑦ show ip route vrf vrf-name show ip protocols vrf vrf-name⑧ Detailed information of VRF table (IP routing table on VRF, routing protocol on VRF)
120 Concluding Remarks We discussed Framework of MPLS-based VPNs: L3VPN, L2VPN, VPLSTraffic Engineering based on DiffServ-aware-(G)MPLSManagement Framework of MPLS Network, MPLS MIBsMPLS OAM for the Management of MPLS-based VPNsCommercial MPLS-VPN Management Systems: Cisco VPN Solution, SheerBOS, Wandl’s IP/MPLSviewExperiences in the Management of DiffServ-aware-MPLS VPN
121 References RFC 2764, A Framework for IP based Virtual Private Networks, February 2000. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-rfc2547bis-00.txt, BGP/MPLS IP VPNs, May 2003. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-framework-00.txt, A Framework for Layer 3 Provider Provisioned Virtual Private Networks (PPVPNs), March 2003. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l3vpn-vpn-vr-00.txt, Network based IP VPN Architecture using Virtual Routers, May 2003. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-l2-framework-00.txt, L2VPN Framework, Feb IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-requirements-00.txt, Service Requirements for Layer 2 Provider Provisioned Virtual Private Networks, Jan IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-requirements-00.txt, Requirements for Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS), Oct IETF Draft, draft-lasserre-vkompella-ppvpn-vpls-02.txt, Virtual Private LAN Services over MPLS, June 2002. RFC 3272, Overview and Principles of Internet Traffic Engineering, May 2002. RFC 3564, Requirements for Support of Differentiated Services-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering, July 2003. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-mgmt-overview-08.txt, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management Overview, August 2003. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-te-mib-12.txt , Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering Management Information Base, August 2003. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-tc-mib-09.txt, Definitions of Textual Conventions for Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Management, August 2003. IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-oam-requirements-01.txt, OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks, June 2003.
122  ITU-T Rec. Y.1710, Requirements for MPLS OAM.  ITU-T Rec. Y.1711, OAM Mechanisms for MPLS Network. ITU-T Rec. Y.1720, Protection Switching for MPLS Networks. ITU-T Draft Rec. Y.mplsperf, MPLS Performance. IETF RFC3289, Differentiated Services MIB module IETF draft-ietf-snmpconf-diffpolicy-07.txt, Differentiated Services Configuration MIB. IETF RFC 3512, Configuring Networks and Devices With SNMP. IETF RFC 3410, "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet- Standard Management Framework ", IETF RFC 3289 Management Information Base for the Differentiated Services Architecture", , May 2002. IETF RFC3411, "An Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", Harrington, D., Presuhn, R. and B. Wijnen, December 2002. IETF draft-ietf-snmpconf-pm-13.txt, "Policy-based Management MIB", Work in Progress, Waldbusser, S., J. Saperia, and T. Hongal, March 2003. IETF draft-ietf-psamp-framework-03.txt, A Framework for Passive Packet Measurement, June 2003. IETF draft-ietf-psamp-sample-tech-02.txt, Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP Packet Selection, June 2003. Tanja Zseby, “Deployment of Sampling Methods for SLA Validation with Non-Intrusive Measurements,” Proceedings of Passive and Active Measurement Workshop (PAM 2002), Fort Collins, CO, USA, March 25-26, 2002. IETF draft-ietf-psamp-mib-00.txt, Definitions of Managed Objects for Packet Sampling, IETF draft-ietf-mpls-telink-mib-02.txt, Traffic Engineering Link Management Information Base, May 2003. IETF RFC 3209, RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels, December 2001.
123  IETF RFC 3469, Framework for Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based Recovery, February 2003. IETF draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-fastreroute-03.txt, Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels, IETF draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-ping-03.txt, Detecting MPLS Data Plane Failures. IETF draft-ietf-mpls-fastreroute-mib-01.txt, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic Engineering Management Information Base for Fast Reroute, November 2002. IETF RFC 3479, Fault Tolerance for the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), February 2003. IETF RFC 2702, Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS, September 1999. IETF draft-ietf-mpls-oam-requirements-01.txt, OAM Requirements for MPLS Networks, June 2003. IETF RFC draft-ietf-mpls-bgp-mpls-restart-02.txt, Graceful Restart Mechanism for BGP with MPLS, October 2002. IETF draft-ietf-policy-qos-device-info-model-10.txt, Information Model for Describing Network Device QoS Datapath Mechanisms, May 2003. IETF draft-ietf-policy-core-schema-16.txt, Policy Core LDAP Schema, October 2002. IETF RFC 3060, Policy Core Information Model -- Version 1 Specification, IETC RFC 3198, Terminology for Policy-Based Management, November 2001. IETF RFC 3460, Policy Core Information Model (PCIM) Extensions, January 2003. IETF draft-ietf-netconf-prot-00, NETCONF Configuration Protocol, August 11, 2003. IETF RFC 2925, Definitions of Managed Objects for Remote Ping, Traceroute, and Lookup Operations, September 2000. IETF draft-ietf-disman-alarm-mib-14.txt, Alarm MIB, June 2003. IETF draft-ietf-disman-event-mib-v2-02.txt, Event MIB, June 2003. IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-framework-02.txt , Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) Framework, June 2003.
124  IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-pdu-02  IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-pdu-02.txt, Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) Protocol Data Unit (PDU), June 2003. IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-raqmon-mib-01.txt, Real-time Application Quality of Service Monitoring (RAQMON) MIB, June 2003. IETF draft, Application Performance Measurement MIB draft-ietf-rmonmib-apm-mib-10.txt, August 6, 2003. IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-tpm-mib-09.txt, Transport Performance Metrics MIB, June 26, 2003. IETF draft-ietf-rmonmib-sspm-mib-07.txt, Definition of Managed Objects for Synthetic Sources for Performance Monitoring Algorithms, June 2003. Thomas D. Naeau, MPLS Network Management – MIBs, Tools and Techniques, Morgan Kaufmann Publishing Co., 2003. NIST GMPLS Simulator – A Scalable Discrete Event Simulator for the GMPLS-based Next Generation Optical Internet, MPLS Forum Super Demo 2002 – Test Plan & Results. Petri Aukia et al., “RATES: A Server for MPLS Traffic Engineering,” IEEE Network Magazine, Mar./Apr Wandal IP/MPLSView, Differentiated Services – Network Configuration and Management (DISCMAN), EURESCOM, 2000. Sheer Broadband Operating Supervisor (BOS), Sheer Networks, TS Choi, SH Yoon, HS Chung, CH Kim, JS Park, BJ Lee, TS Jeong, “Wise<TE>: Traffic Engineering Server for a Large-scale MPLS-based IP Networks,” NOMS2002, April 2002.pp. 251 ~ 264.
125  Cisco MPLS Tunnel Builder Pro, http://www. cisco  Cisco VPN Solution Center 2.2, Youngtak Kim, “DoumiMan (DiffServ-over-universal-MPLS Internet Manager) for Guaranteed QoS Provisioning in Next Generation Internet,” ITRC Forum 2003, June 4, 2003.
126 Thank You !!! Youngtak Kim, Ph.D., Associate Professor Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering,College of Engineering, Yeungnam University(Tel: , Fax: ,