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Prologue- Rise of Democratic Ideas

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1 Prologue- Rise of Democratic Ideas
Section 1 Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome Standard 10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles In ancient Greek and Roman philosophy to the development of Western Political thought Standard Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo- Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties Of the individual Standard Trace the development of the Western political ideas Of the rule of laws and illegitimacy of tyranny from Plato’s Republic And Aristotle’s Politics

2 Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
City-States Democracy – “rule of the people”

3 How did each of these Athenian leaders contribute to the development of democracy?
Solon Cleisthenes Pericles Outlawed slavery based on debt All citizens submit laws for debate Increased # of paid public officials All free male adults are citizens Council of 500 – members chosen randomly. Why? Paid jurors – why is this important? Council of 400

4 Types of Government Chart p. 6
Monarchy- king, hereditary, “divine right” Aristocracy- nobility, hereditary, wealth Oligarchy- small group rules

5 Solon and Cleisthenes How did Solon expand democracy?
Who was not allowed to become a citizen in Athens? Why was Cleisthenes considered the founder of democracy? Supreme Court Building – Washington D.C. This is Solon!

6 Pericles How did Pericles strengthen democracy?
What is the difference between a direct and indirect democracy? Why did democracy end in Athens?

7 Why did democracy end in Athens?
Peloponnesian War Athens v. Sparta Invasion by Macedonia "A house divided against itself cannot stand.“ – Abraham Lincoln (1858)

8 Why do some historians believe that Athens was not a “true democracy?”
Not considered citizens Women Slaves Foreign residents

9 Greek Philosophers Use Reason
Philosophy – “love of wisdom” What is the connection between philosophy and democracy? Socrates

10 The Role of Government Tyranny- what is it? And why is it dangerous?
Philosophers of ancient Greece were especially concerned with the proper role of government Tyranny- what is it? And why is it dangerous? "one who rules without law, looks to his own advantage rather than that of his subjects, and uses extreme and cruel tactics -- against his own people as well as others"

11 What do Plato and Ice Cube have in common?
“The unexamined life is not worth living” “You better check yo self before you wreck yo self” 399 B.C.

12 Plato The Republic – describes a perfectly governed society.
Who should rule? philosopher-kings! Why? Positives Negatives

13 Plato’s Republic An ideal society consists of three main classes of people—producers (craftsmen, farmers, artisans, etc.), auxiliaries (warriors), and guardians (rulers); a society is just when relations between these three classes are right. Each group must perform its appropriate function, and only that function, and each must be in the right position of power in relation to the others. Rulers must rule, auxiliaries must uphold rulers’ convictions, and producers must limit themselves to exercising whatever skills nature granted them (farming, blacksmithing, painting, etc.)

14 Aristotle Politics – the middle class should govern society. Why? You

15 Politics “the middle class is large, there are least likely to be factions and dissensions” “for when there is not a middle class, and the poor greatly exceed in number, troubles arise” “for the rich and the poor will never consent to rule in turn, because they mistrust one another” “and he who is in the middle is the arbiter”

16 Legacy of Greece Used reason to solve problems
Developed direct democracy to allow citizens to actively participate in government. 3 branches of government (why?) Jury system 5. Fear of tyranny!! Why!

17 Aristotle: In Search of the Best Constitution
What did all the delegates at the Constitutional Convention have in common? Describe an ancient Greek constitution. Why did Aristotle believe that kings should not possess absolute power? What is a tyrant? Define aristocracy and oligarchy. Why did Aristotle believe that democracy was dangerous? According to Aristotle, what was the best constitution? Overall, do you agree or disagree with Aristotle. Be specific in your answer.

18 Rome’s contribution to Western Civilization
Latin language. Still widely used in its own right in law, medicine, publishing,and academic writing. Also the basis of the modern languages French,Spanish,Italian,Portuguese and Romanian.

19 Rome’s contribution to Western Civilization
Road building. Roman roads are still used as the basis for many modern road systems in terms of routes. Roman road building techniques were so advanced that the same methods are used today, albeit with different materials.

20 Rome’s contribution to Western Civilization
Construction.The Romans invented concrete, still the basis of all modern large scale construction projects.The Romans also built new towns and cities on a grid design, as do all countries, globally, today.

21 Rome Develops a Republic

22 A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to elect the leaders who make governmental decisions

23 The Republic of Rome Plebeians – common farmers, merchants. Were citizens and allowed to vote. However, could not hold many government positions. Patricians – landowners who held most of the power. Claimed that their ancestry gave them the authority to make laws

24 Twelve Tables Roman laws were carved on 12 tablets and publicly displayed. Why is the formation of a written law code necessary in a democratic government? Established the idea that all free citizens had the right to protection of the laws and that the laws would be fair to all.

25 Republican Government
Legislative branch made up of the Senate Senate was made up of only patricians. Why do you think plebeians were not allowed to be senators?

26 Principles of Roman Law
All citizens had the right to equal treatment Innocent until proven guilty Burden of proof rested with the accuser All laws should be based on reason. All of these principles are seen in The U.S. Constitution and The Bill of Rights

27 Written Legal Code Code of Justinian
“a government of laws, not of men” Even rulers are held accountable for their actions

28 Legacy of Rome Republic
An individual is a citizen in a state and not the subject of a ruler Written legal code applied equally to all citizens

29 Prologue, Section 1 Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome- copy questions, answer in complete sentences
From Kingdom to Republic Define republic Which type of democracy is a republic? What is a patrician? What is a plebian? Twelve Tables What was the significance of the Twelve Tables? Republican Government Who made up the legislative branch? Roman Law List the 4 important principles of Roman Law A Written Legal Code How did Emperor Justinian contribute to Roman Law? Explain the meaning of “a government of laws, not men.” Legacy Make a list of Rome’s contributions to democracy. Answer in a paragraph – What are the positives and negatives of a democracy?

30 Prologue – Section 1 quiz
A system for controlling society “rule of the people” Which type of government was the Greek city-state of Athens? Athenian leader who created a Council of 400 and allowed all free adult male citizens to participate in government “love of wisdom” The name of Plato’s book which stated that philosopher-kings should rule In the book Politics, Aristotle said this part of society should rule The first society to develop the 3 branches of government A king can turn into a ________ if he abuses his authority Form of government in which citizens elect representatives The birthplace of indirect democracy Term for the common people of ancient Rome who were originally denied from holding many government positions Written law code publicly displayed in ancient Rome that established the idea that all free citizens had the right to protection of the laws Roman emperor who created a code of laws which established the idea of ‘a government of laws, not of men” According to Aristotle, an aristocracy turns into a ___________ when it rules for the benefit of the rich

31 Prologue- Section 1 quiz
Democracy Republic Monarchy Oligarchy Direct democracy government Pericles Solon Cleisthenes Upper class Middle class Lower class Plato Aristotle Philosophy Reason Greece Rome Senate Patricians Plebeians Tyrant Twelve Tables NONE OF THE ABOVE

32 How did the Renaissance contribute to the development of individual rights?
Definition Where did it begin? When did it begin? Inspired by ? Where did the people of the Renaissance direct their energy? The new emphasis on individual opportunity led to an increase interest in what? What is the relationship between the Renaissance and the development of democracy?

33 How did the Protestant Reformation advance the cause of individual rights?
Define Reformation Why did religious reformers begin to challenge the Church? How did the invention of the printing press contribute to the Reformation? How did the Reformation increase the power of the individual? Which ideas contributed to the development of modern individualism? How did the Reformation contribute to the development of democracy?

34 Unit 1 Review questions Directions: Copy questions and answer in complete sentences. Each answer should be a paragraph with an introductory sentence, a body, and a conclusion. What are the 3 branches of the U.S. government and what are their responsibilities? Who did Aristotle say should rule? Why? How did the ancient Greeks contribute to the development of democracy? How did the ancient Romans contribute to the development of democracy? How did each of the 3 monotheistic religions contribute to the development of democracy? Why was the Magna Carta important to democracy? Define Renaissance and Reformation. Why were each of these events important to democracy?

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