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NGN and its Standardization

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1 NGN and its Standardization
September 27, 2006 NEC Corporation ITU-T NGN security requirements (Y.2701) editor Takashi Egawa NGN: Next Generation Network

2 NGN (Next Generation Networks)
NGN is coming! Needs Seeds individuals Business Technologies ・Broadband/mobile gets popular ・network is now a part of life ・Opt/IP/mobile technologies ・Intl. standardization ・Expansion of biz-use net ・Emerges net-based business needs meets seeds NGN (Next Generation Networks) (Evolution of architecture and revolutionary services) Evolution of telecommunications FMC Telecommunication- broadcast convergence Evolution of enterprise networks Decrease of $/Bit Next generation Internet WEB2.0、RSS Lifestyle changes New business changes Network business leap Starting of new evolution

3 Expectation and changes of NGN
For personal users For enterprise For network providers Increase of usability Flourish of services Easy to use, with ease Simple/cheap Infrastructure of biz Biz.expansion base Adoption to new biz models Reliable/cheap Rebuilding of business New source of profit CAPEX/OPEX decrease Business area expansion NGN: enabling technology Revolution for layman/enterprise as well as network providers

4 Standardization process ITU-T NGN NGN standardization in Japan
Agenda Why NGN? Standardization process ITU-T NGN NGN standardization in Japan

5 Why NGN?

6 Technological necessity of NGN
Does the Internet continue to evolve? The Internet created various applications thanks to the freedom of end-users. Does it apply to IPTV, Web 2.0, or FMC? Best-effort QoS: New applications are hard to develop Commercial quality real-time communications are difficult to provide TV conference, streaming, … Security/Reliability: Not carrier-grade Children/elders can’t apply patches everyday Mobility: the next bonanza will be in mobile gadgets Current (ordinary) IP assumes fixed network Discussions at Linux Symposium (2006)

7 Limitation from IP’s principle
router Principle of IP router TE router TE Routing table Packet (header + payload) Routing table are updated in local manner; no network-wide, no equipment-wide sync  scalable and cheap, but no QoS guarantee becomes possible No state in routers; minimize memory access  expandable and faster, but traffic engineering becomes unavailable Very limited functions in networks  interoperable ‘Internet Protocol’, but no security, no QoS-awareness The problems tightly linked with IP principle and merits

8 IP Design Philosophy: Main Goals
Effective multiplexed utilization of existing networks Packet switching, not circuit switching Continued communication despite network failures Routers don’t store state about ongoing transfers End-hosts provide key communication services Support for multiple types of communication service Multiple transport protocols (e.g., TCP and UDP) Accommodation of variety of different networks Simple, best-effort packet delivery service Packets may be lost, corrupted, or delivered out of order Distributed management of network resources Multiple institutions managing the network Intradomain and interdomain routing protocols Grosshauser (2002)

9 Characteristics of the Internet
The Internet is Decentralized (loose confederation of peers) Self-configuring (no global registry of topology) Stateless (limited information in the routers) Connectionless (no fixed connection between hosts) These attributes contribute To the success of the Internet To the rapid growth of the Internet …and the difficulty of controlling the Internet :< Grosshauser (2002)

10 Operator Philosophy: Tension with IP
Accountability of network resources But, routers don't maintain state about transfer But, measurement isn’t part of the infrastructure Reliability/predictability of services But, IP doesn’t provide performance guarantees But, equipment is not very reliable (no ‘five-9s’) Downtime: IP networks: 471min/year, POTS: <5min/year Fine-grained control over the network But, routers don’t do fine-grain resource allocation But, network self-configures after failures End-to-end control over communication But, end hosts adapt to congestion But, traffic may traverse multiple domains Grosshauser (2002)

11 But operators cannot rely on PSTN services any more
# of calls in Japan (from MIC’s white paper 2005) (1e8) (fiscal year) PDC mobile fixed Total In most developed countries, 2000 or around was the peak of telephone traffic

12 We must make Operator-friendly IP networks
IP traffic > telephone traffic May 2006: 524Gbps (Public Internet in Japan) > 20%/year Fiscal 2004: 34.1Gbps (in Japan: converted 533k Erlang using 64kbps/call) > -5%/year IP must be the base of future networks NTT: trial starts by the end of fiscal 2006 KDDI: Fixed network becomes all-IP by fiscal 2007 BT: by 2008 Korea: long-distance is by 2007, local by 2010 Timeline

13 NGN: best mix of packet and circuit
"Service Stratum" for per-session control of packet transmission Data is transmitted with IP packet for interoperability All necessary functions are in the network (fat network approach) Operators can maintain every aspect of functions  increase reliability All the terminals can do is just to call network’s functions  increase security Control interface is open  promotes development of applications Video Services (TV, movie, etc) Data Services (WWW, , etc) (Any/All Applications Telephone Services e.g. voice , data , video) NGN service control functions Anything & Everything "Service Stratum" (Session control by using SIP, etc.) Scope Internet Protocol Of (IP) "Internet" NGN transport functions Everything (Any & All Network technologies) "Transport Stratum" (managed IP network) Hourglass model of IP ITU-T Y.2011 "General principles and general reference model for Next Generation Networks"

14 2. Standardization process

15 De jure standards v. De facto standards
Open and fair process Results are shared among all participants (usu. without charge) Reflects broader opinions Operated by highly motivated volunteers Faster standardization Currently very popular ITU, ISO, TTA, TTC, .. IETF, TMF, WiMAX, .. framework Individual components and technologies In NGN NGN framework includes regulations and policies (e.g., how to standardize emergency services, how to design market regulations considering network architecture)  De jure standards becomes important

16 NGN related standard bodies
International De Jure SDO Standardize NGN in NGN-GSI, esp. SG13. Issued first recommendations in July 2006. ITU-T TISPAN project standardize NGN, esp. VoIP. Release 1 issued in Dec ISACC (Canada) TTA (Korea) ARIB (Japan) Regional De Jure SDOs & Partnership Projects ETSI (EC) ATIS (USA) CCSA (China) TTC (Japan) TIA (USA) Close collaboration 3GPP APT (Asia Pacific) 3GPP2 Standardize IMS, NGN’s central module. Partnership Project among regional SDOs. aaa ACIF (Aust) De Facto SDOs …. IETF OMA WiMAX TMF DSL Forum MSF SDO: Standard Development Organization

17 Timeline of NGN standardization
We are here 2004 2005 2006 2007 Study Period Study Period Focus Group IPTV ITU-T NGN-JCA Focus Group NGN NGN-GSI (Global Standards Initiative) Collaboration among SG13,11,19 and other SGs (International NGN standards) Release 1 (architecture, VoIP) Release 2 (IPTV, FMC, etc.) Integrated in 2003 ETSI (TISPAN) IMS based NGN architecture TIPHON SPAN Release 1 (architecture, VoIP) (European NGN standards) Release 2 (IPTV, FMC, etc.) 3GPP Collaboration on IMS IMS Release6 IMS Release7 (3G mobile specs)

18 Organization of ITU ITU ITU-T: Telecommunications ITU-R: Radio
TSB (bureau) Q1 (project mngt) TSAG(steering) Q2 (requirements & scenarios) Q3 (func. architecture) SG2 (numbering, etc.) Q4 (QoS architecture) SG3 (charging) Q5 (net. management) SG4 (management) Q6 (mobility & FMC) SG5 (electromagnetic protection) Q7 (net. & service integration) SG6 (plant) Q8 (service & deployment) SG9 (cable net) Q9 (IPv6) SG11 (signaling) Q10 (satellite) SG12 (QoS) Q11 (terminology) SG13 (NGN) Q12 (frame relay) NGN security requirements SG15 (transport) Q13 (public data net.) NGN authentication SG16 (multimedia) Q14 (multi service net.) AAA SG17 (security & language) Q15 (security) Certificate management SG19 (mobility) Q16 (commercial off-the shelf components ) Title: Chair, vice chair Rapporteur, associate rapporteur editor ITU-R: Radio ITU-D: developing country support

19 ITU-T NGN standardization structure
NGN-GSI (Global Standards Initiative) SG13 (NGN) 1. Planning and promotion of overall NGN standardization process (e.g., roadmap) 2. Development of core technology’s requirements that are used by other SGs to develop their recommendations (Stage 1) 3. Development of network architectures (Stage 2) SG11 Protocol and signaling (stage 3) SG19 Mobility Requirements SG 2 Numbering SG16 multimedia SG12 QoS FG-IPTV OCAF-FG FG(Focus Group) Special task force for particular areas SG4 Management SG17 Security and Languages

20 ITU-T NGN-GSI structure
Working party chairman coordinates Question activities in 10 topics Topics Cooridnator SG13 SG11 SG19 Other SGs 1 WP1/13 Project management and scope Q1(WP1) Q11(WP1) 2 WP2/13 Architecture Q3(WP2) Q6(WP2) Q1 Q2 Q1(WP1) Q29/16 Q5 Q9(WP2) Q10(WP2) 3 WP3/13 Service Requirements, Capabilities and scenarios Q2(WP3) Q8(WP3) 4 WP4/13 QoS and network capabilities Q4(WP4) Q5(WP2) SG12 5 WP2/11 Control and protocol Q3(WP2) 6 WP2/4 Management SG4 Q5(WP4) Q2 NGNMFG 7 WP2/13 Security Q15(WP2) WP2/17 8 WP3/13 NNAR (including ID) Q2(WP3) Q3 Q1/2 9 WP3/13 Charging Q2(WP3) SG3 10 WP3/13 Interwork and evolution NNAR: Numbering, Naming, Addressing and Routing Q7(WP3)

21 ITU-T NGN Management standardization structure
NGN-GSI (Global Standards Initiative) SG4 (Telecommunication Management) 1. Telecommunication service/networks/equipment management for NGN and other networks 2. Application and evolution of TMN framework 3. Test, measurement and other mngt-related issues Question 8 of SG4 Management framework of NGN (e.g., M.3060) Requirements SG13 NGN NGN Management Focus Group (Chair: Dave Sidor (Nortel), Vice Chair: Leen Mak (Lucent)) 1. Specifies NGN (esp. NGN Release 1) management related to FCAPS interfaces 2. Currently focusing on development and maintenance of NGN Management Specification Roadmap for Release 1 (maps existing/developing standards, analyses gaps, etc.) The roadmap of NGN Management FG is available at

22 3. Important ITU-T NGN standards

23 ITU-T NGN Release1 Scope (Y.2000 supplement 1)
Defines what is included in NGN Release 1 Service Types Service description Multimedia services Real-time Conversational Voice services Messaging services Push to talk over NGN (PoN) Point-to-Point interactive multimedia services Collaborative interactive communication services Content delivery services Push-based services Broadcast Services Hosted and transit services for enterprises Information services Location-based services Presence and general notification services 3GPP Release 6 and 3GPP2 Release A OSA-based services PSTN/ISDN Emulation services Provides PSTN/ISDN equivalent services and interfaces on IP network infrastructure PSTN/ISDN simulation services Provides PSTN/ISDN like services by using session control of IP networks Data communication services Virtual Private Network (VPN) services Existing data services Data retrieval services Online services Sensor Network services Remote control/tele-action services Public Interest Aspects Emergency Communications (including support of Early Warning): Support for users with disabilities Lawful Interception Service unbundling Number portability Network or Service provider selection Prevention of unsolicited bulk telecommunications. Malicious communication identification User identifier presentation & privacy

24 ITU-T NGN Release1 Requirements (Y.2201) (1/2)
Defines requirements on these aspects (1/2) Transport connectivity Communication modes Media resource management Codecs Access network and network attachment User networks Interconnection, Interoperability and Interworking Interconnection Interoperability Interworking with non-NGN networks Routing Quality of Service General QoS requirements Network QoS classes Service/Application Priority QoS control QoS Signalling Performance measurement and management Processing and traffic overload management Accounting and charging Numbering, naming and addressing General requirements for Numbering, Naming and Addressing Numbering Numbering, Naming and Addressing schemes Name/Address resolution Numbering, naming and addressing interworking Identification, authentication and authorization General requirements Requirements for identification Requirements for authentication Requirements for authorization Security Mobility management OAM General OAM requirements Survivability Protection switching requirements Rerouting requirements Service resiliency requirements Management Open service environment Service coordination Interworking with service creation environments Service discovery Service registration Development support Profile management User profile Device profile Policy management Service enablers Group management Personal information management Message handling Multicast support Presence Location management Push Device management Session handling Web-based application support Content processing Data synchronization

25 ITU-T NGN Release1 Requirements (Y.2201) (2/2)
Defines requirements on these aspects (2/2) PSTN/ISDN emulation and simulation PSTN/ISDN emulation requirements PSTN/ISDN simulation requirements Public interest aspects Lawful interception Malicious communication identification Unsolicited bulk telecommunications Emergency telecommunications User identity presentation and privacy Network or Service Provider selection Users with disabilities Number portability Service unbundling Critical infrastructure protection Non disclosure of information across NNI interfaces Inter-provider exchange of user-related information Requirements examples; on management 12 requirements are defined. Below are the first 3 NGN management capabilities shall support the aims of the NGN by: 1. Providing the ability to manage, through their complete life cycle, NGN components, both physical and logical. This includes resources in the transport stratum and the service stratum, access transport functions, interconnect components and user networks and terminals; 2. Providing the ability to manage NGN service components independently from the underlying NGN transport components and enabling organizations offering NGN services (potentially from different service providers) to build distinctive service offerings to customers; 3. Providing the management capabilities which enable organizations offering NGN services to offer users the ability to personalize user services and to create new services from NGN capabilities (potentially from different service providers); (9 more requirements cont.)

26 NGN functional architecture (Y.2012)
Transport stratum for managed IP packet transfer, and Service stratum for session control and for additional services, are clearly separated. (Does not align with OSI model; e.g., transport stratum includes session) Transport stratum: composed of Transport Function for IP packet transmission, NACF for user attachment (authentication, IP address assignment, etc.), and RACF for QoS Service stratum: composed of SCF for IMS and PSTN/ISDN emulation, and support functions for developing applications Terminal: for 3G terminals: IPv6, for traditional fixed-network terminals: IPv4 3rd Party applications for Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) works on Application Network Interface (ANI) Applications A NI Application Support Functions & Service Support Functions Service User Service Control Service User Profiles Functions (SCF) Management Functions Service stratum Network Attachment Control Functions (NACF) Network Attachment Resource and Admission Control Functions (RACF) Control Functions T ransport User End- Transport User Profiles User Transport Control Functions Other Functions Networks Transport Functions UNI NNI Transport stratum Control Media Management NGN architecture overview From ITU-T Y.2012 (06/07)

27 Detailed functional architecture (Y.2012)

28 IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) overview
Provides various SIP-based services Provides session control, charging, security functions Increase end-user’s experience by unifying registration, authentication and charging Provides interfaces to control transport functions QoS, media gateway, alignment of charging on transport functions and service functions Provides interfaces not only to operators, but 3rd party application vendors Clearly defined SIP from operator’s point of view IETF SIP is not enough for network operators e.g., IETF SIP does not define the start and the end of charging ITU-T NGN refers 3GPP Release 7 IMS

29 IMS for NGN (Y.2021) CSCF (Call Session Control Function): SIP server, the core of this architecture. P-CSCF (Proxy CSCF) is a sip server that communicate with user terminals Various functions are defined as the gateway to other networks

30 Per-session Resource and Admission Control Functions (Y.2111)
End-user (terminal) requests SCF a session establishment RACF manages the current network resources, and grant/reject the request to achieve QoS guarantee Relative QoS (e.g., diffserv’s CoS) is acceptable Various message flow and protocols are defined, operators will choose ETSI NGN Release 1 defines RACF for access network only ITU-T defines core network RACF as well SCF AP server SIP server DIAMETER, etc. SCF : Service Control Functions (IMS and PSTN/ISDN emulation function on IMS) RACF : Resource Admission Control Functions Access-RACF Core-RACF Other NGN networks Session establish Request by SIP Resource control server Resource control server PDF PDF Access network (e.g, metro ethernet) Core networks (e.g., MPLS)

31 Security Requirements (Y.2701)
Trusted zone an NGN operator can trust Trust model OpS SIP server Signaling BE The Internet BE Other networks CPE-BE (home GW) Various NEs CPE Media BE NGN BE Border element on the edge protects inside NEs Security requirements are defined for outside NEs, inside NEs and Border Elements Does not define requirements on SIM

32 Session Border Controller (Y.2012 supplement 1)
Defines S/BC functions for media path and signaling path S/BC can be placed between any networks This document is a supplement --- not mandatory Media path func. Signaling path func. VPN bridging or mediation Opening and closing of a pinhole (Firewall) Policing and marking Detection of inactivity NAT and NAPT Assisting remote NAT/NAPT traversal Resource and admission control IP payload processing Performance measurement Denial of service (DoS) detection and protection Media encryption and decryption Support for Emergency Telecommunications Service/Telecommunication for Disaster Relief (ETS/TDR) Support for emergency calls Traffic control for signalling messages Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Signalling protocol translation Signalling protocol interworking Session-based routing DSP service control End-user information hiding Topology and infrastructure hiding DoS protection Signalling encryption and decryption Support for ETS/TDR

33 New services/capabilities discussed in ITU-T (1/2)
Service stratum related capabilities Charging(K) ID based applications (RFID support, etc.) (K) Open service environment capabilities (K) Web service based Convergence service (K) Convergence terminals (K) (proposed country, K: Korea C: China) Applications ANI Management NGN End-user func. Service Stratum Other networks Transport stratum UNI Application IPTV(-) Multi-play by DSLAM (Poland) UPT (C) IMS based real-time conversation voice service (C) Telematics (for ITS support) (K) Transport stratum related capabilities FMC(C) VPN(K) Multicast with MPLS-based QoS support (K) Contents Conversion Service Scenario (K) MPLS-based mobility and QoS (K)

34 New services/capabilities discussed in ITU-T (2/2)
Service stratum related capabilities RFID; Describes RFID applications. Requirements for NGN will be added in the future Open Service Environment Capabilities: Describes integrated ANI (application network interface) including 3GPP OSA. Requirements for NGN will be added in the future Transport stratum related capabilities FMC; documents on requirements, IMS-based architecture, Service scenario for NGN with PSTN-based access networks are under discussion Multicast with MPLS-based QoS support: Requirements, architecture overview, information flow are under discussion Application related services IPTV discussion is moved to Focus Group on IPTV (~2006/07) Most new services are proposed by Korea and China in ITU-T # of experts are ITU-T is not enough, and most recommendations on these issues are not very mature

35 4. NGN standardization in Japan

36 Structure of NGN Study/Standardization in Japan
MIC (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) TTC (Telecommunication Technology Committee) Develops NGN-related technical standards as a committee to establish telecommunication related standards and protocols Created NGN architecture WG and NGN upstream SWG in April 2005 Collaborates and contributes to ITU-T and various foreign fora such as 3GPP and 3GPP2 Next Generation IP Network Promotion Forum Combines strength of operators, vendors, academies, domestic fora and application vendors to promote all-IP networks Established in December 2005, 211 members (March 2006) Promotes interoperability tests, demonstration experiment, information exchange as well as standardization based on R&D Technological focus: QoS and function, dependability (security and safety), interoperability and interconnectivity

37 MIC-TTC coordination 1. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (Information and communication Technology Sub-counsil) 2. TTC Technical Assembly Strategy Committee Advisory Groups (AGs) Technical Study AG ITU-T Sectional Meeting Global Collaboration AG NGN AG Net. Management WG Network Management Committee (SG4) NGN Architecture WG NGN committee (SG11, SG13) CJK NGN-WG /w CCSA, TTA Leader: Naotaka Morita (NTT) Leader: Prof. Koichi Asatani NGN upstream Sub-WG (SG13) Integral operation NGN WG Signaling upstream Sub-WG (SG11) Leader: Naotaka Morita (NTT) Sub-leader: Hideaki Yamada (KDDI) Sub-leader: Takashi Egawa (NEC) Signaling WG Leader: Takuya Sawada (KDDI)

38 Structure of Next Generation IP Network Promotion Forum
Chair: Tadao Saito (Prof. Emeritus, U-Tokyo) Vice-Chair: Ryuji Yamada (NTT)、Yasuhiko Ito (KDDI) Bureau (NiCT) Technology Group Chairman: Shigeki Goto (Waseda-U) Interconnectivity test planning, promotion and coordination, including the coordination with relevant fora Studies regulatory issues of IP telephony, in particular QoS and functionality, safety and security, interconnectivity and interoperability as well as regulatory issues of other advanced services. Practices proving test, if necessary. R&D/Standardization Group Chair: Koichi Asatani (U-Kogakuin) Promotes R&D and the standardization of its results by establishing basic strategies and promotion methods, and by practicing proving tests. R&D focuses not only on NGN R1&R2, but beyond R2. Planning & Promotion Group Chair: Yuichi Matsushima (NiCT) Promotes deployment and information exchange of next generation IP networks. Publicize appropriate information through publications, symposiums and market promotions. Surveys domestic and international R&D trends.

39

40 Backup slides

41 ITU-T document list ITU-T recommendation approval process
TAP: 6~9 month for policy and regulation related recommendations AAP: 2 month for technical recommendations Experts agree that the document is mature Approved as ITU-T recommendation by Governments' voting

42 ETSI TISPAN document list (1/5)
- Status -          Pub: Published (before December 2005) -          App: Approved at TISPAN#9 (December 2005) -          AbC: Approval by correspondence after TISPAN#9 (deadline 20 January 2006) -          Plen: Approval expected at TISPAN#10 (February 2006) - Deliverable/Type of Document -          TR: ETSI Technical Report (enters the Publication process immediately after TISPAN approval) -          TS: ETSI Technical Specification (goes to Publication process immediately after TISPAN approval) -          ES: ETSI Standard (has to pass the Membership Approval Procedure before Publication) - Q.x/SG: identifies the Question in the SG Note: the "Short title" given is based on the Work Item title and is not the exact title of the ETSI TISPAN approved document.

43 ETSI TISPAN document list (2/5)

44 ETSI TISPAN document list (3/5)

45 ETSI TISPAN document list (4/5)

46 ETSI TISPAN document list (5/5)


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