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United States Forest Service

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Presentation on theme: "United States Forest Service"— Presentation transcript:

1 United States Forest Service
MEASURING AND MONITORING FOREST DEGRADATION IN ASIA: A REGIONAL ASSESSMENT Rick Turner United States Forest Service Peter Stephen USAID LEAF Geoffrey Blate Bangkok, Thailand June 2015

2 Objectives Understand how USAID-supported emissions reduction projects are measuring, monitoring, and mitigating GHG emissions from forest degradation activities. Identify common factors for success and challenges to implementation. Recommend actions to support implementation of forest degradation measurement and monitoring systems in the region.

3 B+WISER: Biodiversity and Watersheds Improved for Stronger Economy and Ecosystem Resilience
CREL: Climate-Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods Forest-PLUS: Partnership for Land-Use Science IFACS: Indonesia Forest and Climate Support LEAF: Lowering Emissions in Asia’s Forests SFB: Supporting Forests and Biodiversity VFD: Vietnam Forests and Deltas

4 Project Focus Landscapes
Country Project Focus landscapes Area (million ha) Bangladesh CREL Twenty-two forested landscapes (protected areas) across the country. 0.68 Cambodia SFB Eastern Plains and Prey Long Forest 1.00 India Forest-PLUS Shimoga (Shimoga District, Karnataka State); Hoshangabad (Madhya Pradesh State); Rampur (Himachal Pradesh State); Sikkim (Sikkim state) 4.00 Indonesia IFACS Eight landscapes on three islands in the Indonesian archipelago: Aceh Selatan and Aceh Tenggara (Sumatra), Ketapang and Katingan (Kalimantan), and Sarmi, Mamberamo, Mimika and Asmat (Papua) 11 .00 Laos LEAF Houaphanh Province 1.74 Nepal Hariyo Ban Terai Arc (southern lower plains), Chitwan Annapurna (middle of southern foothills) 1.32 Phillipines B+WISER 7 sites across the Philippines: Mindoro Island, Negros Island, Luzon Island (3 sites), Mindanao Island (2 sites) 0.78 Papua New Guinea Madang Province 2.91 Vietnam VFD Thanh Hoa and Nghe An Provinces 1.25

5 Evaluation Methods Standardized evaluation framework: Definitions
Degradation drivers Emissions estimates and significance Accounting approach Measurement and monitoring methods Data sources Common methods and variations in monitoring forest degradation Project successes and challenges Goslee et al. 2015

6 Forest Degradation Activities and Actors/Agents
Project Selective Logging Fuelwood Shifting Cultivation Grazing Fire Other CREL Household Commercial Understory non-timber use (Household) SFB Household, Commercial Government Forest-PLUS IFACS Agricultural expansion (Commercial, Government) LEAF (Laos) Hariyo Ban Urban encroachment (Household, Commercial, Government) B+WISER LEAF (PNG) VFD

7 Project Definitions for Forest Degradation
CREL A forested area with any evidence of human impact, including stumps. SFB None. Forest-PLUS IFACS Primary forest that has changed to secondary forest as evidenced by human disturbance e.g. logging, fire, regrowth. LEAF (Laos) Persistent change in forest canopy cover over a five year period. Hariyo Ban Change in tree canopy cover from a higher canopy cover class to a lower canopy class. B+WISER Conversion from closed to open canopy forest. LEAF (PNG) VFD

8 Forest Degradation Monitoring Status
All projects are currently in the initial or pilot implementation of their forest degradation monitoring systems. Most project landscapes: degradation component of total forest emissions has not been quantified. All project landscapes: emissions by activity has not been quantified.

9 Number of Projects

10 Reasons for Not Monitoring Degradation:
Insufficient financial and/or technical capacity to monitor large landscapes at frequent intervals. Relatively short project timeline. Degradation not a significant source of emissions. Emissions factors at appropriate scale not available. Difficulty tracking emissions from overlapping degradation activities.

11 Data Sources: Satellite Imagery
Project Imagery Pixel Resolution (m) Use CREL RapidEye 5.0 Land cover mapping only. Not used for detecting degradation. Forest-PLUS Landsat 5,7,8 IRS-ResourceSat 1,2 (LISS III) Worldview 2 30.0 23.5 0.5 Canopy cover change by fractional cover downscaling of land use/land cover maps. Hariyo Ban Landsat Worldview 1 Canopy cover change detection by temporal change in NDVI. B+WISER ALOS AVNIR 10.0 Canopy cover change detection by visual interpretation. LEAF Landsat 5,7 Canopy cover change detection using composited images and spectral un-mixing.

12 Data Sources: Ground-Based Inventories
Purpose: Measuring carbon stock change. Validating forest canopy cover change maps. Tracking degradation activities. Data types: Inventory plots Systematic grid Stratified-random sampling by forest type. Community forest timber stock inventory. Forest patrol records.

13 Monitoring Challenges
Definitions: Lack of clear, measurable definition for forest degradation Methods: Uncertainty regarding accounting approach Lack of sufficient cloud/haze-free imagery Some degradation not detectable by remote sensing Ground inventory data collection can be expensive. Complex land ownerships inhibit ground inventory Insufficient data to calculate emissions factors

14 Monitoring Challenges (Continued)
Capacity: Insufficient funding or trained staff inhibits the expansion of monitoring demonstration sites to larger landscapes. Socio-political: Monitoring deforestation may be higher national priority. Lack of national direction reduces incentive for sub-national jurisdictions to monitor. Differing organizational structures complicates monitoring across multiple jurisdictions. Differences in cultural norms and sensitivities between jurisdictions and supporting partners.

15 CREL (Bangladesh) Forest Protected Areas – biomass loss due to understory tree removal. Widespread and even distributionn across the landscape. Detection by remote sensing difficult. Stumps measured on systematic grid of inventory plots. Allometric equations to estimate biomass loss. Potential application to areas with intensive, widespread degradation activity.

16 B+WISER (Philippines)
Photo by B+WISER Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool (SMART) Accurate and efficient activity monitoring over large areas. Location and intensity of degradation activities. Data for ground inventory sampling design, imagery interpretation, emissions factor development.

17 Recommendations Projects should clearly define forest degradation in a way that is consistent with REDD+ and their program objectives. Countries should work toward developing a framework for comparing emissions and drivers across borders in the region. Decide and clearly describe accounting approach (land or activity based) and emissions factor development (stock-difference or gain-loss) that is consistent with countries’ resources and capacity. Replicate and scale-up successful measurement and monitoring methods in the region. Create a regional forest degradation working group to facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration. Utilize newly available tools to assist decision-making: Global Forest Observation Initiative Measuring and Monitoring Guidance REDD+ Decision Support Toolbox (FCPF) Forest Degradation Guidance and Decision Support Tool (USAID LEAF)

18 Acknowledgements Jim Barber – US Forest Service
Ruhul M. Chowdhury - CREL Chris Dickinson - VFD Katie Goslee – Winrock International Gina Green – TetraTech Elisabeth Grinspoon – US Forest Service Keshav Khanal – Hariyo Ban Neville Kemp – IFACS Christopher Kernan – Forest-PLUS Reed Merrill – IFACS Michael Netzer – Winrock International Marija Kono – SilvaCarbon Elizabeth Lebow – US Forest Service Guillermo Mendoza – B+WISER Veerachai Tanpipat – LEAF Gokarna Jung Thapa – Hariyo Ban Shams Uddin – CREL

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