Presentation on theme: "APNOMS 2006 1 Prosperous De Facto Communication Technologies outside Academic Societies Sep. 27, 2006 Tohru Asami Graduate School of Information Science."— Presentation transcript:
APNOMS Prosperous De Facto Communication Technologies outside Academic Societies Sep. 27, 2006 Tohru Asami Graduate School of Information Science and Technology The University of Tokyo
APNOMS Contents 1. Operational Department-initiative Developments 2. A case study in Japan (1) Ether over Ether (2) 3GPP2 Mobile IP 3. Roles of Academic Societies for Commercialization Contents 1. Operational Department-initiative Developments 2. A case study in Japan (1) Ether over Ether (2) 3GPP2 Mobile IP 3. Roles of Academic Societies for Commercialization
APNOMS Operational Department- initiative Developments Competitive services Shorter Development Cycle 1.Operational Department- initiative Developments Competitive services Shorter Development Cycle
APNOMS Telecom Market after the Collapse of the IT Bubble Economy US Telcos: Return to monopolization Development power of new services weakened No leadership for new L1&L2 services since 2000 Telcos in Japan: US Teleco model in 80s Competitive service developments among service providers New services deployed by Japan & Korea especially in 3G Markets in 21 Century So in fixed communication markets Japan&Korea=Test bed for new services & technologies in the world
APNOMS In Reality, Larger Gap between R&D and Operational Department Looks like a boon to R&D Labs. as well as academic societies Business divisions cannot win the market just by following given services by others Better environments: Business as well as infrastructures(3G, FTTH,etc.) However, business divisions developed such services by themselves Less contributions to academic societies Larger risks of developments
APNOMS A case study in Japan (1) Ether over Ether (2) 3GPP2 Mobile IP 2. A case study in Japan (1) Ether over Ether (2) 3GPP2 Mobile IP
APNOMS Business Needs vs. Researches Banters on Mobile IP and Multicast Technologies Everybody knows it but nobody uses. Research for research. Failures in the Internet Technologies What is the killer application? When is it put into real markets? But they are important in NGN as well as FMC Are they such dumb technologies?
APNOMS A Case Study in Japan Example 1: Ether over Ether A Nation-wide Ethernet Service First Killer Application for Multicasting 2. A Case Study in Japan Example 1: Ether over Ether A Nation-wide Ethernet Service First Killer Application for Multicasting
APNOMS Wide-area Ethernet Service = Cash Cow for Solution Business Ref: Fuji Chimera Research Institute Inc., Market Survey on Broadband Business in 2005 Earnings in 100 M Yens Earnings # of Circuits Circuits Year
APNOMS The Dawn of Communication-and- broadcasting Convergence in 2000 Oct Wide-area LAN service started by CWC Dec Q-in-Q Service introduced by TTNet (Poweredcom) Dec Ether over Ether(EoE RFP was issued Mar EoE put into operation Nation-wide Communication Service based on Broadcast-based Routing Protocol!
APNOMS Principles of Wide-area Ethernet Service Applying Ethernet, widely used in LAN and with inexpensive switches, to WAN, provide non- conventional services such as i.Access network service having high affinity with Ethernet-based LANs ii.Inexpensive communication service Enhanced Ethernet technology in the following points Long distance transmission High reliability with redundancy VPN From the service point view Protocol-transparent service above Multicast is inevitable for VLAN (The first killer application for Multicast)
APNOMS Nation-wide Ethernet Service Wide-area Ethernet Service Networks User LAN C User LAN B User LAN A C-SA C-DA B-SA B-DA Terminal a Terminal b Switch b Switch a Core Switch X Switch c Tokyo Osaka Nagoya
APNOMS IEEE 802.1ad Len/ Type C-DAC-SA S-TAG C-TAG optional FCS Len/ Type C-DAC-SA C-TAG optional FCS octets6 4 (1) User Frame (2) IEEE 802.1ad Client Data TPIDTPID TCITCI 2 octets PCPDEVID 3112bits TPID: Tag Protocol ID PCP: Priority Code Point DE: Drop Eligible VID: VLAN ID C-DA: Customer Destination Address C-SA: Customer Source Address C-TAG:Customer VLAN Tag S-TAG: Service VLAN Tag Len/Type: Length or Type Client Data 4
APNOMS IEEE 802.1ad vs. Ether over Ether Base technologies of IEEE802.1ad s.t. Q-in-Q did not fit into the large scale deployments in Japan Not enough number of VLANs A number of troubles FDB overflows in core switches Frequent loop conditions ….. Redesign of switches was urgent after the service started Ether over Ether = Development of new switches based on a Japanese vendor
APNOMS Ether over Ether vs. IEEE 802.1ah B-DAB-SA S-TAG EoE TPID FCS (3) Ether over Ether TTLTTL EIDEID 211 I-Tag B-DAB-SA B-TAGFCS (4) IEEE 802.1ah 6 octets I-SID I-Tag TPID PCPPCP RSV 2 octets DEIDEI 24bits314 B-TAG: Backbone TAG I-TAG: Extended Service Tag PCP: Priority Code Point DEI: Drop Eligible Indicator RSV:Reserved (0) I-SID:Instance-Service ID Len/ Type C-DAC-SA C-TAG optional Client Data Len/ Type C-DAC-SA C-TAG optional Client Data B-DA: Backbone Destination Address B-SA: Backbone Source Address TTL: Time to Live EID: Extension tag ID TPIDTPID TCITCI 2 octets PCPDEVID 3112bits
APNOMS Ether over Ether vs. IEEE 802.1ah IEEE 802.1ahEther over Ether Category Mac-in-Mac Loop Protection None(Detection of Loop)TTL Max # of VLANs I-SID(24bits) =16,777,215S-VID(12bits) + EID(8bits) =1,048,576 Max # of Broadcast Domains B-VID(12bits)=40961,048,576 OAM Use IEEE 802.1ag. No OAM for MAC Flash of Edges Ether over Ether Control Protocol.OAM for MAC Flash of Edges Reactive Proactive
APNOMS Deployments of Ether over Ether Japan: Cash cow in enterprise market Service: NTT Communications, KDDI, JT, Other major Communication Carriers Core switch products: Fujitsu, Hitachi Cable Used in part: ALAXALA Networks Other countries: Nation-wide Ethernet is not popular (for metro-ethernet at best) Ether over Ether has not been used other than in Japan. The world big 3 switch vendors (Cisco Systems, Extreme Networks, Foundry Networks) do not support EoE but IEEE802.1ad. No standardization efforts
APNOMS A Case Study in Japan Example 2: 3GPP2 Mobile IP First Carrier-Grade Specification for Mobile IP 2. A Case Study in Japan Example 2: 3GPP2 Mobile IP First Carrier-Grade Specification for Mobile IP
APNOMS GPP2 Mobile IP HLR PDSNa BSCaPCFa BS BSC BS PCF RADIUSa BSCPCF BS BSC BS PCF PDSNb RADIUSc HAc CN MS Access Provider Network Home Access Provider Network Home IP Network (Private) IP Network HAb RADIUSb MS: Mobile Station RAN: Radio Access Network BS: Base Station BTS: Base Transceiver Station BSC: Base Station Controller PCF: Packet Control Function PDSN: Packet Data Serving Node RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service FA: Foreign Agent HA: Home Agent MSC:Mobile Switching Center HLR:Home Location Register cdma2000 RAN BTS MSC A1 SS7 Network Modified from 3GPP2, cdma2000 Wireless IP Network Standard: Introduction, X.S D, org/Public_html/specs/X.S D_v1.0_ pdf, Feb.2006.
APNOMS (a)Protocol Reference Model for MIP4 Control and IKE cdma2000 Air Interface PPP IP cdma2000 Air Interface PL A-8 PL A-8 PL A-10 MS BTS,BSCPCF PL A-10 PL L2 PDSN/FA PPP IP/IPsec UDP MIP4 UDP MIP4IKE PL L2 HA IP/IPsec UDP MIP4IKE Modified from 3GPP2, cdma2000 Wireless IP Network Standard: Introduction, X.S D, org/Public_html/specs/X.S D_v1.0_ pdf, Feb.2006.
APNOMS (b) Protocol Reference Model for MIP4 User Data PDSN/FAHA PL A-10 PPP PL L2 MS BTS,BSCPCF cdma2000 Air Interface PPP cdma2000 Air Interface PL A-8 PL A-8 PL A-10 IP IP/IPsec IP PL L2 IP IP/IPsec CN PL L2 IP PL L2 Modified from 3GPP2, cdma2000 Wireless IP Network Standard: Introduction, X.S D, org/Public_html/specs/X.S D_v1.0_ pdf, Feb.2006.
APNOMS A-8/A-9 and A-10/A-11 (c) BSC-PCF Interface (d) PCF-PDSN Interface PL L2 IP GRE PPP PL L2 IP GRE PPP PL L2 IP UDP Signalings PL L2 IP UDP Signalings (c1) A-8(c2) A-9 (d1) A-10(d2) A-11
APNOMS What is Communication Business? Privacy Authentication Authorization Accounting AAA
APNOMS Advantages of Fixed IP Address for Service Providers Popular Better Security Nonsense unless it is bound to some other tamperproof ID Customized services for each user QoS Seamless hand-over between fixed and mobile networks Terminals can be called in case that they are always-on Not So Popular Scalable and inexpensive load-balancing of servers = Assign each server to a set of addresses Design and control the congestion of server Scalable accounting system Protocol-transparent above L3 Load balancers independent on new service introductions Less operational cost Avoid payload analysis in load balancing, such as Cookie SSL Session ID, etc., from the point of secrecy of communication
APNOMS Advantages and Disadvantages Talked on MIP Advantages: Mobility management by MIP = Session management by SIP Easy monitoring of mobile terminals = traffic controls Advantages of fixed IP address of Terminal More advantages in private address networks Use terminals in visiting networks without configuration changes Duplicated IP addresses = enlarges the IP address space Disadvantages: Difficult to optimize routes <= In fact its not a flaw. Mobility control is not sufficient to keep QoS <= Other IP technologies also cannot No large scale deployments other than 3GPP2 No public information on usages of MIP by 3GPP2 providers
APNOMS Trend of Internet-accessible Cell Phones I-mode: 4,428 Million Ezweb: 1,847 Million Vf-live: 1,282 Million At the end of April, 2005 Total: 7,559 Million (Total cell phones: 8,743 Million) Ref.: Telecommunications Carriers Association Ezweb, I-mode, Vodafone live (Million) 2004 Total subscription phones i- mode EZwe b Vf liv e Class A Network Address / =16,777,216
APNOMS Management of MIP addresses in 3GPP2 Principles: Reverse tunneling + PDSN(for PPP & FA) Assign I+j+k+l IP addresses (Simple IPv4(i), Simple IPv6( j), MIP4(k), MIP6(l)) to each terminal(PPP) Support i=j=0 for FA-mode of MIP Possible to assign NAI or fixed IP address to terminal (MS) based on hardware-defined IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) =>=>=> Keep location privacy of terminal Terminals with the same private IP address belonging to different private networks co-exist under the same PDSN
APNOMS Possible Business Advantages of 3GP2 MIP - All Comes from PPP&FA with Reverse Tunneling - As solution service Mobile terminals belonging to a enterprise network can be used in the same conditions as they are the enterprise network No exits for the Internet in case of terminals given only MIP address As cell phone service Extend the private network address to almost unlimited Address space = N x /8 Inter-provider service Easy roaming between providers without taking care of IP addresses used Application can be served even to terminals in visiting networks Easy realization of MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator) without taking care of IP addresses used
APNOMS Summary of 3GPP2 MIP FA mode vs. Co-located Care-of Address Mode Faults in MIP standardization process FA mode has clear business needs No business needs for co-located care-of address mode No business needs for route optimization Reverse tunneling and PPP in FA mode was a key for business requirements Wasteful efforts for many technological issues which do not have clear business requirements? Could we input proper business needs into the MIP standardization process?
APNOMS Roles of Academic Societies for Commercialization
APNOMS Academic Publications Ether over Ether3GPP2 Mobile IP Journal Papers00 Technical Groups00 Technical Commentaries0.1(just as a technical term) 0 Technical Books1(IEICE)0 Academic societies are no more needed for technology development affecting the fate of the company?
APNOMS Lessons 1. High possibility of service creations originated by Japanese providers under competitive environments i. Operational divisions can develop services by themselves ii. Less influence by R&D division a. No output for R&D iii. Possibility of de facto service/technology development by providers other than NTT iv. Increase of risks at development 2. Such de facto can appear earlier than corresponding international standards 3. No top vendors support Japan-local de facto standard Standardizations are necessary but No incentive for operational divisions to standardize Who make efforts for standardizations?
APNOMS Towards Reconstruction of Proper R&D Model -- Avoid Research without needs & Development without seeds -- Plan Do Check Action Plan Do Check Action Needs Seeds Operational Division R&D Divisions Plan Do Check Action Academic Societies Needs Seeds Role of R&D = Generalize problems in operational divisions, and publicize them to academic societies
APNOMS Thank You! R&D as well as operational divisions are at the crossroads in communication industry. Some relations to the stagnation of academic societies? How to improve? Thank You! R&D as well as operational divisions are at the crossroads in communication industry. Some relations to the stagnation of academic societies? How to improve?