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11th International ISKO Conference Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome 23-26 February 2010 Knowledge organization of fiction and narrative documents:

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Presentation on theme: "11th International ISKO Conference Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome 23-26 February 2010 Knowledge organization of fiction and narrative documents:"— Presentation transcript:

1 11th International ISKO Conference Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010 Knowledge organization of fiction and narrative documents: a challenge in the age of the multimedia revolution Francisco-Javier García-Marco (Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain) Francisco-Javier García-Marco (Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain) João Batista Ernesto de Moraes (São Paulo State University, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil)) Luis-Fernando García-Marco (Gobierno de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain) José Augusto Chaves Guimarães (São Paulo State University, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil)

2 CONTENT Aims, methodology, scope Context: the growing importance of narrative Fiction and non fictional narratives The specificity of fictions documents: emotion as information Another level of complexity: intertextuality and reception aesthetics The theory of literature and subject indexing A model for KO of narrative documents The problem of a canonical order Conclusions, recommendations and future research 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

3 AIMS AND METHODOLOGY To integrate the models of content analysis and knowledge organization developed in two fields: (a) (a)Library and Information Science: analytic-synthetic tradition (b) (b)Literature Theory: Narratology and Thematology 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

4 Elements for a knowledge organization model

5 DEFINITION OF NARRATION We understand narration as a communicative strategy, deeply ingrained in the functioning of human mind and social communication, by which a sender offersand a receiver getsa message conveyed in a story, that is, an account of a course of events happening to a being or group of beings 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

6 1. CONTEXT: THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF NARRATIVE IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE Knowledge organization researchers and in general Information Science researchers have been more concerned about scientific documents Narrative based communications are gaining considerable room in disciplines like education, psychology and even in fields like business and management in general (story-telling), pop culture and cultural industries (reusing cultural artifacts and themes) Our culture is reinvigorating stories as a tool of communication Multimedia is nearer narration 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

7 THE POWER OF STORIES are easy to remember, produce a better closing or Gestalt of understanding, and have a direct access to other non-logical intelligences, like emotional or aesthetical intelligence, Which are being acceptedwith all their virtues and faultsas a key part of human learning, or, at least by those more critical of them, as unavoidable ones 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

8 2. FICTION AND NON FICTIONAL NARRATIVES A very important part of narrative information is fiction If a researcher considers information to be only actual facts, fiction will not be considered information, but … Fiction conveys cultural andat the endvery pragmatic information Fiction is an artistic manifestation, present in all civilizations There are many narrative documents that are not fiction, viceversa There is a blurring frontier between fiction and non-fiction that is evident, and affects both sides of the line (e. g., journalism) 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

9 3: THE SPECIFICITY OF FICTION DOCUMENTS In fictional narrative documents, sense is considered implicit or even voluntarily conveyed or blurred, so analysis is very important It is also very interesting to note that fictionality is a property that accepts grades, in the sense of Aristotles verisimilitude Sometimes, fictional documents have been considered divided in two groups: the first conveying information and … the second one, whose sole purpose would be to amuse or generate emotions (Lancaster, 2003, p. 200) 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

10 3: EMOTIONS ARE INFORMATION But this division should not be used to demote the importance of the second group of texts, for emotions are informational processes, very important for example in creating public opinions and ideological positions, and amusement is one of the biggest industries of our time, which, in addition, serves also the development of group and public opinion. 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

11 3: The specificity of fiction documents In any case (García, 2006), With the multimedia revolution, a growing percentage of content is leaving the relatively unambiguous path of scientific and journalistic genres and approaching the semantic jungles of creative literature. This kind of material requires the complex kind of content analysis that is characteristic of artistic disciplines, that can be summarized in the simplified model that was proposed by the Art historian Panofsky (1955) also applicable analogically to the analysis of fiction: description of common subjects; identification of the specific names and exemplars of these common subjects; and interpretation of the abstract subjects that are being represented through the former. 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

12 4: Another level of complexity: intertextuality and reception aesthetics Narrative documents sense is always a result of the interaction among creators, publishers and readers (reception aesthetics) So indexing must be open to incorporate permanently new uses and users, with their specific thematic representations at that special moment If any narrative text survives the occasional market, it becomes literature, and gets part of the literary tradition, and so it becomes an argument of authority 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

13 5: The theory of literature and subject indexing A very interesting aspect for knowledge organization is the existence of thematic universals, which are truly cross-cultural topics that exist in different spaces and times of history Formalists (Tomachevski, 1982) detect a more analytic level of thematic analysis Topics are anyway expressed through specific and changing conceptual and aesthetical structures, called motives 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

14 5: The theory of literature and subject indexing In Narratology, the subject becomes very connected with the way in which it is developed throughout narrative techniques to produce a story There are many classifications of this kind of structures According Ronald Tobias (1989, 1993), there are twenty master plots that are subjacent to any work of fiction: quest, adventure, pursuit, rescue, escape, revenge, riddle, rivalry, underdog, temptation, metamorphosis, transformation, maturation, love, forbidden love, sacrifice, discovery, wretched excess, ascension, and descension 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

15 Models of narrative and fiction KO Genre Author Literature generations Movements 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

16 6: A MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION OF NARRATIVE DOCUMENTS Literature worldThe relation among authors and works, literature movements, genres, styles, narrative structures, etc. UniversalsHuman relations, personality development… Connoted worldWhen using a story as a mirror of a subjacent one Motives worldThe creative expression of the denoted world Denoted worldEntities, objects, persons, etc. (common/ identified) Potential usesDifferent uses in education, research, creation, etc., both intended by the authors or not. MediaDifferent communication channels PersonalityEnergyMatterSpaceTime Table I. Levels of facet analysis 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

17 Some keys The analysis of uses of fiction is a must The analysis of uses of fiction is a must educational, recreational, cultural, academic, scientific and business oriented Subgenres can be effectively connected with the specific needs of the general public Subgenres can be effectively connected with the specific needs of the general public There are facets in genres: satirical, historical, etc. may permeate other genres classification There are facets in genres: satirical, historical, etc. may permeate other genres classification Universals codify the main approaches that users take toward narration Universals codify the main approaches that users take toward narration Connoted world is key for academics and others interested in interpretations (authors) Connoted world is key for academics and others interested in interpretations (authors) Motives are key for cultural industries (producing plots) Motives are key for cultural industries (producing plots) 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

18 7: THE PROBLEM OF A CANONICAL ORDER Any knowledge organization set of principles is of little interest if it is unable to produce some kind of canonical order of the world of subjects in a systematic arrangement, but… Any knowledge organization set of principles is of little interest if it is unable to produce some kind of canonical order of the world of subjects in a systematic arrangement, but… Different schemas should be developed for each kind of users, as flexible faceted systems usually ensure Different schemas should be developed for each kind of users, as flexible faceted systems usually ensure For general use, a schema that prioritizes the hierarchy genre-subgenre-basic plots, with auxiliary facets for places, personages, ages and dates, literary movements, and narrative methodologies should work For general use, a schema that prioritizes the hierarchy genre-subgenre-basic plots, with auxiliary facets for places, personages, ages and dates, literary movements, and narrative methodologies should work Information about the complexity of the narration, the level of fictionality and potential audiences should be available Information about the complexity of the narration, the level of fictionality and potential audiences should be available 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

19 8: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH Addressing narrative knowledge organization on the era of Internet means imagining models for integrating the very different uses that a narration can have Addressing narrative knowledge organization on the era of Internet means imagining models for integrating the very different uses that a narration can have Though this information is increasingly important and widespread, many times classification systems lack the needed granularity to ensure proper retrieval (v. g. Moraes and Guimarães, 2007) Though this information is increasingly important and widespread, many times classification systems lack the needed granularity to ensure proper retrieval (v. g. Moraes and Guimarães, 2007) Such a model would be especially useful for the design of systems capable of facilitating the interchange of information among systems that have been designed for a specific purpose (functioning as spines) Such a model would be especially useful for the design of systems capable of facilitating the interchange of information among systems that have been designed for a specific purpose (functioning as spines) There is not such a thing as a single classificatory approach to fiction There is not such a thing as a single classificatory approach to fiction A working canonical order is needed as a point of encounter among the different information needs that are expressed in subjects A working canonical order is needed as a point of encounter among the different information needs that are expressed in subjects An interesting approach in the age of the semantic web would be to connect such alternative thematic views around a canonical one as interrelated vocabularies, in the way that the new standards, as BS 8723, make possible An interesting approach in the age of the semantic web would be to connect such alternative thematic views around a canonical one as interrelated vocabularies, in the way that the new standards, as BS 8723, make possible 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

20 Much work must be done in clarifying each of the big levels of analysis that have been proposed in this paper Studying users and uses is a key aspect One of our next steps will be a pilot study with teenagers and their teachers in secondary educations centres in Brazil and Spain Finally, there is a need of continuing research in how content analysis the previous phase to actual classification and indexing is done The set of procedures involved in identifying, extracting and selecting contents of documents (1) requires further research. In spite of a long tradition in cataloguing documents in libraries, it is not totally clear how the process of determining subject effectively occurs (Sauperl, 2002, p. 1), what leads to the need of investigating its methodological dimension. 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010

21 References Beghtol, C., 1986, Bibliographic classification theory and text linguistics: aboutness analysis, intertextu-ality and the congitive act of classifying documents, Journal of Documentation, 42, n. 2, p Caffo, R., 1988, Analisi e indicizzazione dei documenti, Milano, Ed. Bibliografica, Guarido, Maura Duarte Moreira; Moraes, João Batista Ernesto de, 2009, Análise dos elementos temáticos característicos do gênero literário crônica com vistas a sua hierarquização para fins classificatórios, Ibersid, 2009, p García Marco, Francisco Javier. Understanding the categories and dynamics of multimedia information: a model for analysing multimedia information. in Proceedings of the Ninth International ISKO Conference, Vienna, July 4th-7th, 2006, Frankfurt/Main, Indeks Verlag, 2006, p García Marco, Luis Fernando; García Marco, Francisco Javier. El resumen de documentos literarios narrativos: algunas propuestas metodológicas, Organización del Conocimiento en Sistemas de Información y Documentación, 2, p Gardin, J.-C. et alii., 1981, La logique du plausible: essais d´épistemologie pratique, Paris, Ed. Maison des Sciences de l´Homme, Guimarães, José Augusto Chaves, 2009, Abordagens teóricas de tratamento temático da informação: catalogação de assunto, indexação e análise documental, Ibersid, 2009, p Guarido, Maura Duarte Moreira; Moraes, João Batista Ernesto de. Análise dos elementos temáticos característicos do gênero literário crônica com vistas a sua hierarquização para fins classificatórios, Ibersid., 2009, p Hobbs, J.R., Literature and cognition, Stanford, California, Center for the study of Language and Information, Tobias, Ronald, 1989, Theme and strategy: How to Build a Strong, Narrative Structure to Help Your Fiction Stand Tall, Run Fast, Hit Hard, and Soar to Success. 1st ed., Cincinnati, Ohio, Writers Digest Books, c1989, 162 p. Tobias, Ronald, 1993, 20 master plots, and how to build them, 1st ed, Cincinnati, Ohio, Writers Digest Books, c1993, 236 p. Lancaster, F. W., 2003, Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice, Library Association, 2003 Moraes, J. B. E. de; Guimarães, J. A. C., 2006, Análisis documental de contenido de textos literarios narrativos: en busca del diálogo entre las concepciones de about-ness/meaning y de recorrido temático/recorrido figura-tivo, Scire, 12, p Pinker, Steven, How the mind Works. New York, Norton, c1997, xii, 660 p. Pinto Molina, M., 1993, Análisis documental: fundamentos y procedimientos, Madrid, EUDEMA, Raju, J; Raju, R., 2006, Descriptive and subject cataloguing, Oxford, Chandos, Sauperl, A., 2002, Subject determination during the catalog process, Lanham, Scarecrow, 2002.

22 GRAZIE! THANK YOU! 11th International ISKO Conference: Paradigms and conceptual systems in KO Rome February 2010


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