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ICES Meeting 2011-06-28 Hang Zhou Wang Ping. Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations.

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Presentation on theme: "ICES Meeting 2011-06-28 Hang Zhou Wang Ping. Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations."— Presentation transcript:

1 ICES Meeting Hang Zhou Wang Ping

2 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

3 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

4 Find out the role the standardization plays in industry Why History The reasons of the emergence of standardization, including Technological reasons Economic reasons Social reasons Historical Study can dig out An important part in its knowledge system

5 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

6 Company standardization and the Industrial Revolution Emergence of in-company standardization In the mid of 18 Century, the emergence of companies allowed the Industry Revolution to boom, Modern standardization directly related to companies from the beginning. Mass production boosted labor division and produced streamlining in a company. Need for capacity expansion, higher profit and quality and innovation provided companies the impetus to standardization. In-company standardization serves as the purpose of R&D and marketing strategy.

7 Company standardization and the Industrial Revolution In-company standardization began with uniform dimension and interchangeability of parts and afterward continued with essential forms of standardization such as unification, simplification and modularization in product design, processes and manufacturing. Since the advent of the IT society, interoperability, a new form of standardization, has been proposed in ICT field. Historically technical innovation and standardization were interweaved together Military and national defense needs gave an impetus to the defense industry and industrial standardization

8 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

9 Earlier activities in associations Problems during the 2nd half of the nineteenth century the second Industrial Revolution accelerated the industrialization Products were so sophisticated that a single company could not complete all designing and manufacturing efforts, which inevitably resulted in specialization and production division among companies. Technical problems appeared among companies, in industrial chain.

10 Earlier activities in associations The story of Harry J. Skelton (1867~1934) The proposal was not made by an engineer but a merchant, which means that there was a strong driven force by trade relations among the companies Early standardization across companies, e.g.: ICE in 1818 IMechE in 1847 ASME in 1881 AIEE, the former IEEE, in 1883; and VDE in 1893

11 Earlier activities in associations Standardization in market economy contribute to an orderly market and the efficient resource allocations, became the basis for both the technological and industrial innovations. Standardization can be explained as real part of ecnomic invisible hand. Market competition could contribute to disorder in technical terms, which inevitably causes both economic and social underperformance. They can not be solved only by the companies through free market competitions under the invisible hand.

12 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

13 National & International activities ISO(1946), IEC(1906) & ITU(1865) The establishments of ISO/IEC/ITU mostly were simultaneous with national ones which made it difficult to draw a clear time boundary between them. The emergence of the national and international standardization Around the end of the nineteenth century, international trade expanded at the development of transportation raw materials and spare parts varied from country to country Some disputes, due to incompatibility among products in international trade, obviously brought up the needs of national and international standardizations,

14 Organizations Founded year Country 1 Engineering Standard Committee (ESC), the predecessor of British Standard Institute (BSI) 1901UK 2Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN)1917Germany 3American National Standard Institute (ANSI)1918 United States 4 Commission Permanente de Standardisation, a predecessor of Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) 1918France 5 The Association belge de Standardisation (ABS), a predecessor of Belgian Standards Institute (Belgisch Instituut voor Normalisatie/Institut belge de normalisation) 1919Belgium 6Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC)1929Japan 7Industrial Standard Committee of China1931China Organizations Founded year Country

15 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

16 Regional activities The standardization system formed In the twentieth century was comprised of the private, national, regional and international standardizations. It reflected both the competition and cooperation among countries and regions in the context of economic globalization. Regional activities Second half of the twentieth century, CEN founded in 1961, CENELEC in 1973 and ETSI in Other organizations such as PASC, ACCSQ of ASEAN were also founded

17 Organizations Founded Year Region 1Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN)1961Europe 2 Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC) 1973Europe 3 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 1988Europe 4 ASEAN Consultative Committee for Standards and Quality (ACCSQ) ASEAN Countries 5Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC)Pacific Area 6 Arab Industrial Development and Mining Organization (AIDMO) Arab Countries 7Pan American Standards Commission (COPANT) Pan American 8 African Regional Organization for Standardization (ARSO) African Regional Organizations Founded year Region

18 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

19 WTO/TBT and the Economic Globalization An important milestone Founded in 1994, the WTOs aim is to promote the international trade The descriptions of technical regulations, technical standards and conformance assessment, general rules and good practices for standardization were all refined in the TBT agreement. Technical regulations and standards became important rules for international trade. This strengthened the positions of the ISO/IEC/ITU both for standards development and for their roles in international affairs

20 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

21 Binding relationship between the standards and technologies in ICT field New characteristic of ICT standards Since the advent of the 21 st century, some ICT standards have become totally different from the traditional ones. the interoperability standard signified greatly to the industry in term of a strategy. standards in the ICT field have a special nature which is closely related to the technical innovation and the relevant patents. I name it as the binding relationship between standards and innovative technologies. The externalization of network and positive feedback justified by network economics enable the ICT standards to greatly influence the industry. These standards can be therefore called strategic standards.

22 New characteristic of ICT standards Market, consumer Innovation Competition Interoperability Enterprises Standard s Protocols Patent Technology 4 Core elements Binding relations Strategic Position Network externality and positive feedback

23 Standardization History Project of CNIS Timelines Institutions and activities Institutional system construction Key standards, literatures Associations International cooperation and exchanges Ancient events Western activities Four parts Ancient, from Qin Dynasty to Qing Dynasty Late Qing Dynasty to P.R. China established P.R. China established to present Brief history in western world.

24 The standardization pattern in China, Standardization History Project of CNIS Chinas standardization system is similar to eastern countries and third world Before the perdition of Qing Dynasty Specific culture of Emperor and feudality Long history of manual industry Early science and technology development Late Qing Dynasty to P.R. China establishment Affected by IR from western world, P.R. China Planning economy, affected by Soviet Russia Market economy, entered into WTO, affected by globalization Historical track in China

25 Content Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations National & International activities Regional activities WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

26 Demands for less skilled labors and labor division by the companies stimulated standardization in the early Industrial Revolution during the second half of the eighteenth century private standardization organizations emerged due to the industrial development, specialization and product division among companies as well as disputes arose from technically incompatible products in international trade As an invisible infrastructure for the industrial economy, standards serve as a coordinator for technical issues across the industrial chain. In the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, both national and international standardization organizations emerged due to the industrial and trade expansions across the countries.

27 Conclusions The binding relationship between ICT standards and technical innovation, along with the network externalization and positive feedback in ICT field, enables the ICT technical standards to have a great effect on the industry. The WTO/TBT agreement has enhanced the position of international standards; governments have paid more attentions to standards than before. The standardization pattern in China characterizes similarity to eastern countries and third world.

28 Wang Ping Deputy Chief Engineer, Senior Researcher, Deputy Executive Governor of Science and Technology Committee, China National Institute of Standardization(CNIS) FYI Tel Fax Cell phone

29 No.4 Zhichun Road, Haidian District, Beijing Wang Ping ICES Meeting , Hang Zhou


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