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Chapter 24 Chemical Reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 Chemical Reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 Chemical Reactions

2 Section 1-Chemical Changes
Chemical reactions are taking place all around you and even within you Chemical reaction-a change in which one or more substances are converted into new substances Reactants-substances that react Products-new substances produced

3 Conservation of Mass Lavoisier-famous scientist who discovered that masses of reactants and products were the same in an experiment SO, he concluded: Law of Conservation of Mass-the starting mass of reactants equals the final mass of the products OR Matter is neither created nor destroyed during chemical reactions

4 Unit Managers Atoms in a chemical reaction are rearranged, but never lost or destroyed. Coefficients- represent the number of units of each substance taking part in a reaction (can be thought of as unit managers) Knowing the number of units of reactants enables chemists to add correct amounts of reactants to a reaction

5 Section 2-Chemical Equations
Balancing an equation doesn’t change what happens in a reaction-it simply changes the way the reaction is represented. The balancing process involves changing coefficients in a reaction Balanced chemical equation-has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation

6 Choosing Coefficients
Finding out which coefficients to use to balance an equation is often a trial-&-error process, but with practice the process becomes easier. Steps to Balancing Equations: Write a chemical equation for the reaction using formulas and symbols Check the Equation for atom balance Choose coefficients that balance the equation Recheck the numbers of ea/atom on ea/side and adjust coefficients if necessary

7 Section 3-Classifying Chemical Reactions
Combustion Reactions-(burning) occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen to produce energy in the form of heat and light Synthesis Reaction- two or more substances combine to form another substance. A + B ---AB

8 Decomposition Reaction- occurs when one substance breaks down, or decomposes, into two or more substances AB --- A + B Single Displacement- when one element replaces another element in a compound A + BC --- AC + B OR D + BC --- BD + C

9 The Activity Series A metal will replace any less active metal
Notice: copper, silver and gold-least active metals SO: that is why these elements often occur as deposits of the relatively pure element.

10 More on types of reactions
Double Displacement- the positive ion of one compound replaces the positive ion of the other to form two new compounds Precipitate- an insoluble compound that comes out of solution during a double displacement reaction AB + CD --- AD + CB

11 Section 4-Chemical Reactions and Energy
All chemical reactions release or absorb energy This energy can take many forms, such as heat, light, sound and electricity Chemical bonds are the source of this energy

12 When chemical reactions take place, some chemical bonds in the reactants must be broken
Breaking these bonds takes energy Bond formation releases energy

13 Exergonic Reactions- Chemical reactions that release energy
Less energy is required to break the original bonds than is released when new bonds form Exothermic Reaction- when the energy given off in a reaction is primarily in the form of heat *Exothermic reactions provide most of the power used in homes and industries

14 The energy absorbed can be in the form of light, heat, or electricity
Endergonic Reactions- a chemical reaction that requires more energy to break bonds than is released when new ones are formed The energy absorbed can be in the form of light, heat, or electricity Endothermic reaction- when the energy needed is in the form of heat (Endothermic can also refer to phase/physical changes as well)

15 Catalysts Catalyst- a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being permanently changed itself The mass of the product that is formed remains the same The catalyst remains unchanged and can be reused

16 Inhibitors Inhibitors— substances that are used to combine with one of the reactants in a reaction. The inhibitor ties up the reactant and prevents it from undergoing the original reaction. Ex: food preservatives BHT and BHA are inhibitors that prevent spoilage of certain foods, s

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