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Copyright, 1995-2008 1 ECOM6001 – Internet and the WWW Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Technologies Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, CSIS,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, 1995-2008 1 ECOM6001 – Internet and the WWW Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Technologies Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, CSIS,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, ECOM6001 – Internet and the WWW Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Technologies Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, CSIS, Uni of Hong Kong Hong Kong, October 2008

2 Copyright, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Technologies Agenda Conventional Network Topologies, Architectures Star Topology / Master-Slave Architecture Client-Server Architecture Key Developments since the Mid-1990s Workstations Networking How and Why P2P is Unconventional Relative Equality of Nodes Node-IDs Why P2P is Attractive Technical Concerns about P2P

3 Copyright, Star Topology / Master-Slave Architecture 1950s Onwards

4 Copyright, The ARPANets Peer-to-Peer Topology 1969 Onwards Multi-Organisational

5 Copyright, The PC Era – Mid-Late 1970s Onwards From Peer-to-Peer to Client-Server Personal, later Multi-Personal

6 Copyright, Client-Server Architecture mid-1980s Onwards, esp. mid-1990s Onwards Multi-Organisational

7 Copyright, Client-Server Architecture mid-1980s Onwards, esp. mid-1990s Onwards Internet-Mediated

8 Copyright, Key Developments Since the Mid- 1990s Workstation Capacity (now rivals Hosts) Workstation Diversity (vast, expanding) desktops, laptops, handhelds, smartcards,... phones, PDAs, cameras,... carburettors, fridges,... RFID tags,... Broadband Connectivity (now widespread) This enables dispersion and replication of devices capable of providing services Wireless Connectivity (rapidly increasing) This enables Mobility which means Devices change networks which means their IP-addresses change

9 Copyright, Wireless Comms Using Electromagnetic Radiation Wide Area Networks – Satellite (Geosynch, Low) GS is Large footprint, very high latency (c. 2 secs) Wide Area Networks – Cellular (to 20km per cell) 1 – Analogue Cellular, e.g. AMPS, TACS 2 – Digital Cellular, e.g. GSM, CDMA 3 – 3G, e.g. GSM/GPRS and W-CDMA Wide Area Networks – WiMax, IEEE ; iBurst Local Area Networks – WiFi ( m radius) e.g. IEEE x esp. 11b,g / Apple Airport Personal Area Networks (1-10 metre distance) e.g. Bluetooth (or beamed infra-red) Contactless Cards / RFID Tags / NFC (1-10 cm)

10 Copyright, Computing Power at the Edge

11 Copyright, P2P – The Motivation Take advantage of resources that are available at the edges of the Internet In order to do so, make each participating program both a Client and a Server and hence each workstation acts as a host as well, e.g. a music playstation can be a mixer too your PDA can host part of a music catalogue your PC can host part of a music repository

12 Copyright, P2P Architecture Cooperative Use of Resources at the Edge

13 Copyright, A Virtual Topology The P2P Overlay Network Powerful Work-andPlay- Workstations

14 Copyright, P2P Differentiated from Client-Server

15 Copyright, P2P – Towards a Technical Definition P2P is a network architecture in which each node is capable of performing each of the functions necessary to support the network and in practice many nodes do perform many of the functions

16 Copyright, The P2P Server-Components Multiple Functions Network Management Directory Management Object Management Process Management

17 Copyright, Server-Functions of a P2P Package Manage Comms with other devices Manage Directories: of Objects (e.g. files) of Services (e.g. currency conversion, or credit-card payment processes) Manage Repositories of Objects Manage Services

18 Copyright, Important Characteristics of P2P Collaboration is inherent Clients can find Servers Enough Devices with Enough Resources act as Servers for discovery, and as Servers for services Single Points-of-Failure / Bottlenecks / Chokepoints are avoided by means of networking dynamics 'Free-Riding' / 'Over-Grazing' of the 'Commons' is restrained through software and psych. features

19 Copyright, Some Characteristics of P2P Nodes A P2P node may be a device, a process, content, a person, or an identity of a person A P2P nodes availability may be unreliable or unstable (dial-up or mobile) A P2P nodes IP-Address may change (dial-up, or moving between subnets) So P2P apps commonly: build and re-build a virtual overlay network use their own addressing schemes, not the DNS

20 Copyright, Alternatives to the DNS An application-specific name-based directory (ICQ since 1996, and Groove, Napster, NetMeeting) An application-specific directory of IP- addresses without names, dynamically managed in real-time (Gnutella, Freenet) Authentication of names, and use of whatever IP-Address is advised each time they register PopularPower) A flexible, real-time DNS...

21 Copyright, The Scale of the Undertaking The DNS grew to c. 30 million names in 18 years from its establishment in 1984 to 2002 Napster achieved that many in 2 years The top 3 distributed-catalogue services combined quickly exceeded Napster at its peak AOL Instant Messaging is also very large The total of all P2P names may exceed 10 times the number in the DNS

22 Copyright, Categories of P2P Pure Functions, objects and the catalogue are distributed across all nodes. No one node is critical to the network's operation. Control is very difficult – USENET, Fidonet, Freenet, Gnutella-1 Compromised / Two-Tier Functions and objects are highly, not fully distributed The index is highly, not fully distributed – FastTrack, Gnutella-2 Hybrid Functions and objects are fully or highly distributed The index is not, e.g. it may be hierarchical (the DNS), centralised (Napster), or independent from the repository (BitTorrent)

23 Copyright, Why P2P Is Attractive Much-Reduced Dependence on individual devices and sub-networks (no central servers) Robustness not Fragility (no single point-of- failure) Resilience / Quick Recovery (inbuilt redundancy) Resistance to Denial of Service (D)DOS Attacks (no central servers) Much-Improved Scalability (proportionality) Improved Servicing of Highly-Peaked Demand (more devices on the demand-side implies there are also more server-resources)

24 Copyright, Technical Concerns about P2P Address Volatility: old addresses may not work (hence trust based on repetitive dealings is difficult) Absence of Central Control (hence risk of anarchy) Inadequate Server Participation (over- grazing) Security Challenges: Malware, embedded or infiltrated Surreptitious Enlistment (at least potential) Vulnerability to Masquerade Vulnerability to Pollution Attacks (decoys)

25 Copyright, P2P Applications – Access to Digital Objects Software: Fixes/Patches Releases Virus Signatures Announcements, e.g. of technical info, business info, entertainment info, sports results, promotional messages, advertisements News Reports, by news organisations, and by members of the public Emergency Services Data Backup and Recovery Data Games Data, e.g. scenes and battle configurations Archived Messages, for conferencing/chat/IM, and cooperative publishing Learning Materials, in various formats Entertainment Materials, in various formats

26 Copyright, P2P Networks and Protocols (2005) peer#Networks.2C_protocols_and_applications BitTorrent network: ABC, Azureus, BitAnarch, BitComet, BitSpirit, BitTornado, BitTorrent, BitTorrent++, BitTorrent.Net, G3 Torrent, mlMac, MLDonkey, QTorrent, SimpleBT, Shareaza, TomatoTorrent (Mac OS X) [2], TorrentStorm eDonkey network: aMule (Linux, Mac OS X, others), eDonkey2000, eMule, LMule, MindGem, MLDonkey, mlMac, Shareaza, xMule, iMesh Light, ed2k (eDonkey 2000 protocol) FastTrack protocol: giFT, Grokster, iMesh (and its variants stripped of adware including iMesh Light), Kazaa by Sharman Networks (and its variants stripped of adware including: Kazaa Lite, K++, Diet Kaza and CleanKazaa), KCeasy, Mammoth, MLDonkey, mlMac, Poisoned Freenet network: Entropy (on its own network), Freenet, Frost Gnutella network: Acquisitionx (Mac OS X), BearShare, BetBug, Cabos, CocoGnut (RISC OS) [3], Gnucleus Grokster, iMesh, gtk-gnutella (Unix), LimeWire (Java), MLDonkey, mlMac, Morpheus, Phex Poisoned, Swapper, Shareaza, XoloX Gnutella2 network: Adagio, Caribou, Gnucleus, iMesh, MLDonkey, mlMac, Morpheus, Shareaza, TrustyFiles Joltid PeerEnabler: Altnet, Bullguard, Joltid, Kazaa, Kazaa Lite Napster network: Napigator, OpenNap, WinMX Applejuice network: Applejuice Client, Avalanche, CAKE network: BirthdayCAKE the reference implementation of CAKE, Direct Connect network: BCDC++, CZDC++, DC++, NeoModus Direct Connect, JavaDC, DCGUI-QT, HyperCast [4], Kad Network (using Kademila protocol): eMule, MindGem, MLDonkey, LUSerNet (using LUSerNet protocol): LUSerNet, MANOLITO/MP2P network: Blubster, Piolet, RockItNet, TVP2P type networks: CoolStreaming, Cybersky-TV, WPNP network: WinMX Other networks: Akamai, Alpine, ANts P2P, Ares Galaxy, Audiogalaxy network, Carracho, Chord, The Circle, Coral[5], Dexter, Diet-Agents, EarthStation 5 network, Evernet, FileTopia, GNUnet, Grapevine, Groove, Hotwire, iFolder[6], konspire2b, Madster/Aimster, MUTE, Napshare, OpenFT (Poisoned), P-Grid[7], and XDCC, used by IRC clients including: mIRC and Trillian, JXTA, Peersites [8], MojoNation, Mnet, Overnet network, Peercasting type networks: PeerCast, IceShare - P2P implementation of IceCast, Freecast, Scour, Scribe, Skype, Solipsis a massively multi- participant virtual world, SongSpy network, Soulseek, SPIN, SpinXpress, SquidCam [9], Swarmcast, WASTE, Warez P2P, Winny, AsagumoWeb, OpenExt, Tesla, soribada, fileswapping, XSC

27 Copyright, P2P Multi-Protocol Applications (2005) peer#Networks.2C_protocols_and_applications aMule (eDonkey network) (Linux, Mac OS X, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Windows and Solaris Op Env) eMule (Edonkey Network, Kad Network) (Microsoft Windows, Linux) Epicea (Epicea, BitTorrent, Edonkey Network, Overnet, FastTrack, Gnutella) (Microsoft Windows) GiFT (own OpenFT protocol, and with plugins - FastTrack, eDonkey and Gnutella) and xfactor (uses GiFT) (Mac OS X) Gnucleus (Gnutella, Gnutella2) (Microsoft Windows) Hydranode (eDonkey2000) (Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X) iMesh (Fasttrack, Edonkey Network, Gnutella, Gnutella2) (Microsoft Windows) Kazaa (FastTrack, Joltid PeerEnabler) (Microsoft Windows) Kazaa Lite (FastTrack, Joltid PeerEnabler) (Microsoft Windows) KCeasy (Gnutella, Ares, giFT) MindGem (Edonkey Network, Kademlia) MLDonkey (BitTorrent, eDonkey, FastTrack, Gnutella, Gnutella2, Kademlia) (MS Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Palm OS, Java) mlMac (BitTorrent, eDonkey, FastTrack, Gnutella, Gnutella2) Morpheus (Gnutella, Gnutella2) (Microsoft Windows) Poisoned (FastTrack, Gnutella) Shareaza (BitTorrent, eDonkey, Gnutella, Gnutella2) (Microsoft Windows) WinMX (Napster, WPNP) (Microsoft Windows) XNap (OpenNAP, GiFT, Limewire, Overnet, ICQ, IRC) (Java) Zultrax (Gnutella, ZEPP)

28 Copyright, Business and Government Concerns about P2P Address Volatility, plus Inadequate Identifiers, hence: Difficulty in identifying and locating users Reduction in user accountability Absence of Central Control, hence: Reduction in technology-provider accountability No single point for a denial of service attack Challenge to Authority: of Copyright-Owners over Users of Censors over Users

29 Copyright, Challenges for Copyright-Owners Identification of Copyright Objects Identification of Devices that store those objects and that traffic in them Demonstrating: Unauthorised Reproduction, Publication, Adaptation and/or Authorisation Identification of the Person Responsible for a breach Association of the Person with the Device used to perform the act that constitutes the breach Location of the responsible Person Bringing Suit (e.g. jurisdiction) Collection and Presentation of Evidence sufficient to win even civil, let alone criminal cases Proposing Interventions that could be awarded by court injunction

30 Copyright, Application of P2P to eTrading in Music Identify price resistance-points in the various customer- segments i.e. what the market will bear Set prices accordingly (and hence sustain payment morality) Make backlists and new releases available via for-fee P2P channels Discourage and prosecute breaches where the purpose is commercial Take no action over breaches by consumers (esp. time-shifting, format-change, even sharing?) The Evidence Since 2003, Apple iTunes charges USD 0.99/track!? Copyright- Owners get USD 0.70 Since , they want more They want Jobs to enable variable track-pricing

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