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**4. Nonstationary Models and Regression**

In this chapter we examine the problem of finding an appropriate model for data that does not seem to be generated by a stationary time series. If the data (i) exhibit no apparent deviation from stationarity, and, (ii) have a rapidly decreasing ACVF, we attempt to fit an ARMA model to the mean-corrected data using the techniques of Chapter 2. If (i) & (ii) are not satisfied, differencing often achieves this, leading us to consider the class of ARIMA models. 4.1 ARIMA Models We have already seen (Chapter 1) that appropriate differencing can remove trend & seasonality.

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**f(B)(1-B)d Xt = q(B) Zt, {Zt} WN(0,2),**

The AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, is a broadening of the class of ARMA models to include differencing. A process {Xt} is said to be an ARIMA(p,d,q) if {(1-B)d Xt } is a causal ARMA(p,q). We write the model as: f(B)(1-B)d Xt = q(B) Zt, {Zt} WN(0,2), The process is stationary if and only if d=0. Differencing Xt d times, results in an ARMA(p,q) with f(B) and q(B) as AR & MA polynomials. Recall from Chapter 1 that differencing a polynomial of degree d-1, d times, will reduce it to zero. We can therefore add an arbitrary poly of degree d-1 to {Xt} without violating the above difference equation. This means that ARIMA’s are useful for representing data with trend. In fact, in many situations it is appropriate to think of time series as being made up of two components: a nonstationary trend, and a zero-mean stationary component. Differencing such a

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**(1-0.8B)(1-B) Xt = Zt, {Zt} WN(0,1).**

process will result in a stationary process. Ex: ARIMA.TSM contains 200 obs from the ARIMA(1,1,0) (1-0.8B)(1-B) Xt = Zt, {Zt} WN(0,1).

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**Ex: Apply (1-B)Xt to ARIMA.TSM, get ML model: **

The slowly decaying ACF of the series in previous example, is characteristic of ARIMA’s. When searching for a model to fit to such data therefore, we would proceed by applying the operator (1-B) repeatedly, in the hope that for some d, (1-B)d Xt will have a rapidly decaying ACF compatible with that of an ARMA process. (Do not overdifference however, as this can introduce dependence where none existed before. Ex: Xt=Zt, is WN, but (1-B)Xt=Zt-Zt-1, an MA(1)!) Ex: Apply (1-B)Xt to ARIMA.TSM, get ML model: ( B)(1-B) Xt = Zt, {Zt} WN(0,1.012). Now fit min AICC AR model via ML to undifferenced data: ( B)( B) Xt = Zt, {Zt} WN(0,1.010). Note the closeness in the coefficients between the two models. The second model is just barely stationary, and it is very difficult to distinguish between realizations of these two. In general it is better to fit an ARIMA to nonstationary

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looking data. The coefficients in the residual ARMA tend to be further from 1. Their estimation is therefore more stable. Forecasting ARIMA’s The defining difference equations for an ARIMA(p,d,q) are not sufficient to determine best linear predictors for Xt. If we denote the residual ARMA model by Yt, that is, (1-B)d Xt = Yt, for t=1,2,… then, under the assumption that (Xt-d,…, X0) is uncorrelated with Yt, t>0, the best linear predictor of Xn+h based on the obs X1,…, Xn can be calculated recursively similarly to the ARMA case, as: As before, the {qj,i} are obtained via the Innovations Algorithm, and the {fi*} are the coefficients in the transformed AR polynomial, f*(z)=(1-z)d f(z). Similar results hold for the MSE.

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**Summary of ARMA/ARIMA modeling procedures **

Perform preliminary transformations (if necessary) to stabilize variance over time. This can often be achieved by the Box-Cox transformation: fl(Xt) = (Xtl - 1)/l, if Xt0, and l>0, fl(Xt) = log (Xt), if Xt>0, and l=0. In practice, l=0 or l=0.5 are often adequate. Detrend and deseasonalize the data (if necessary) to make the stationarity assumption look reasonable. (Trend and seasonality are also characterized by ACF’s that are slowly decaying and nearly periodic, respectively). The primary methods for achieving this are classical decomposition, and differencing (Chapter 2). If the data looks nonstationary without a well-defined trend or seasonality, an alternative to the above option is to difference successively (at lag 1). (This may also need to be done after the above step anyway).

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**Examine sample ACF & PACF to get an idea of potential p & q values**

Examine sample ACF & PACF to get an idea of potential p & q values. For an AR(p)/MA(q), the sample PACF/ACF cuts off after lag p/q. Obtain preliminary estimates of the coefficients for select values of p & q. For q=0, use Burg; for p=0 use Innovations; and for p0 & q0 use Hannan-Rissanen. Starting from the preliminary estimates, obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the coefficients for the promising models found in step 5. From the fitted ML models above, choose the one with smallest AICC, taking into consideration also other candidate models whose AICC is close to the minimum (within about 2 units). The minimization of the AICC must be done one model at a time, but this search can be carried out systematically by examining all the pairs (p,q) such that p+q=1, 2, … , in turn. (A quicker but rougher method: run through ARMA(p,p)’s, as p=1,2,…, in turn.)

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**Can bypass steps 4-7 by using the option Autofit**

Can bypass steps 4-7 by using the option Autofit. This automatically searches for the minimum AICC ARMA(p,q) model (based on ML estimates), for all values of p and q in the user-specified range. Drawbacks: can take a long time, and initial estimates for all parameters are set at The resulting model should be checked via prelim. est. followed by ML est. to guard against the possibility of being trapped in a local maximum of the likelihood surface. Inspection of the standard errors of the coefficients at the ML estimation stage, may reveal that some of them are not significant. If so, subset models can be fitted by constraining these to be zero at a second iteration of ML estimation. Use a cutoff of between 1 (more conservative, use when few parameters in model) and 2 (less conservative) standard errors when assessing significance.

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**Xt - 0.74 Xt-1 = Zt + 0.32 Zt-1, {Zt} WN(0,0.48),**

Check the candidate models for goodness-of-fit by examining their residuals. This involves inspecting their ACF/PACF for departures from WN, and by carrying out the formal WN hypothesis tests (Section 2.4). Examples: 1) LAKE.TSM Min AICC Burg AR model has p=2, min AICC IA MA model has q=7, min AICC H-R ARMA(p,p) model has p=1. Starting from these 3 models, we obtain ML estimates, and find that the ARMA(1,1) model: Xt Xt-1 = Zt Zt-1, {Zt} WN(0,0.48), has the smallest AICC.

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2) WINE.TSM Take logs and difference at lag 12. Min AICC Burg AR model has p=12. ML estimation leads to AR(12) with AICC= Coefficients of lags 2,3,4,6,7,9,10,11 are not sig. Constrained ML leads to a subset AR(12) with AICC= Min AICC IA MA model has q=13. After ML estimation, coefficients of lags 4,6,11 are not sig. Constrained ML leads to a subset MA(13) with AICC= Using Autofit with max p=15=max q, gives ARMA(1,12). Get H-R estimates, follow up with constrained MLE by setting coeffts of lags 1,3,4,6,7,9,11 to zero. Resulting subset model has AICC= All 3 models pass WN tests. Choose last since it has smallest AICC.

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**f(B)F(Bs) Yt = q(B)Q(Bs) Zt, {Zt} WN(0,2),**

4.2 SARIMA Models Often the dependence on the past tends to occur most strongly at multiples of some underlying seasonal lag s. E.g. monthly (quarterly) economic data usually show a strong yearly component occurring at lags that are multiples of s=12 (s=4). Seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA) models are extensions of the ARIMA model to account for the seasonal nonstationary behavior of some series. The process {Xt} is a SARIMA(p,d,q)(P,D,Q)s with period s, if the differenced series Yt=(1-B)d(1-Bs)DXt is a causal ARMA process defined by: f(B)F(Bs) Yt = q(B)Q(Bs) Zt, {Zt} WN(0,2), where f(B) and F(B) are different AR polynomials of orders p and P, respectively; and q(B) and Q(B) are different MA polynomials of orders q and Q, respectively. The idea here is to try to model the seasonal behavior via the

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ARMA, F(Bs)Yt = Q(Bs)Zt, and the nonseasonal component via the ARMA, f(B)Yt = q(B)Zt. These two are then combined multiplicatively as in the definition. The preliminary differencing on Xt to produce Yt, will take care of any seasonal nonstationarity that may occur, e.g. when the process is nearly periodic in the season. SARIMA Modeling Guidelines: With knowledge of s, select appropriate values of d and D in order to make Yt=(1-B)d(1-Bs)DXt appear stationary. (D is rarely more than 1.) Choose P & Q so that , h=1,2,…, is compatible with the ACF of an ARMA(P,Q). (P & Q typically less than 3.) Choose p & q so that is compatible with the ACF of an ARMA(p,q). Choice from among the competing models should be based on AICC and goodness of fit tests.

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A more direct approach/alternative to modeling the differenced series {Yt}, is to simply fit a subset ARMA to it without making use of the SARIMA multiplicative structure. The forecasting of SARIMA processes is completely analogous to that of ARIMA’s. Ex: (DEATHS.TSM) Form Yt=(1-B)(1-B12)Xt to obtain a stationary-looking series (s=12, d=D=1). The values suggest an MA(1) (or AR(1)) for the between-year model i.e. P=0, Q=1. Inspection of suggests also an MA(1) (or AR(1)) for the between-month model i.e. p=0, q=1. Our (mean-corrected) proposed model for Yt is therefore Yt = (1 + q1B)(1 + Q1B12) Zt. Based on we make the initial guesses: q1 =- 0.3, Q1=-0.3. This means that our preliminary model is the MA(13):

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**Yt = (1 - 0.3B)(1 - 0.3B12) Zt = Zt - 0.3Zt-1 - 0.3Zt-12 + 0.09Zt-13. **

(Preliminary estimation algorithms don’t allow subset models.) Now choose “constrain optimization” in the MLE window, and select 1 in the “specify multiplicative relations” box. Enter 1, 12, 13 to indicate that q1 q12 = q13. Final model has AICC=855.5, and {Zt} WN(0,94251): Yt = Zt Zt Zt Zt-13. If we fit instead a subset MA(13) model without seeking a multiplicative structure, we note that the coefficients of lags 2, 3, 8, 10, and 11 are not sig. Running constrained MLE, we now find that the coefficients of lags 4, 5, and 7 are promising candidates to set to zero. Re-running constrained MLE, we finally find that the coefficient of lag 9 is not sig. Constrained MLE once more gives model with AICC=855.6, and {Zt} WN(0,71278): Yt = Zt Zt Zt Zt Zt-13.

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**Yt = b1Xt1 + + bkXtk + Wt, t=1,, n,**

Predict next 6 obs. 4.3 Regression with ARMA Errors In this section, we will consider a generalization of the standard linear regression model, that allows for correlated errors. The general model takes the form, Yt = b1Xt1 + + bkXtk + Wt, t=1,, n, or, Y = X b + W, where: Y = (Y1, ,Yn)T, is the vector of responses (or time series observations). X is the design matrix consisting of the n vectors of explanatory variables (covariates), Xt = (Xt1, ,Xtk)T. b = (b1, , bk)T, is the vector of regression parameters. W = (W1, ,Wn)T, is the error vector consisting of obs from the zero-mean ARMA(p,q) model:

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**f(B) Wt = q(B) Zt, {Zt} WN(0,2).**

(Note that in standard regression, {Wt} WN(0,2).) We have already seen one application of this model for estimating trend. For example, in a model with quadratic trend, we would set Xt1=1, Xt2= t, and Xt3= t2, to give Yt = b1 + b2 t + b3 t2 + Wt. In this example, each Xtj is a function of t only, but in the general case they will be any covariates observed contemporaneously with the response that are thought to explain some of its variability. Examples might be meteorological variables, chemical levels, socioeconomic factors, etc. Now, the Ordinary Least Squares Estimator (OLSE) of b is which coincides with the MLE if {Wt} IID N(0,2). (Take any g-inverse in above; estimator unique if (XTX ) nonsingular.)

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The OLSE is also the Best (smallest variance) Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) in the case of uncorrelated errors (this is the Gauss-Markov Theorem). In the case when {Wt} follows an ARMA(p,q), the OLSE is linear and unbiased, but no longer the best estimator. The BLUE of b in this case, is the Generalized Least Squares Estimator (GLSE): where Gn is the covariance matrix of W, i.e. Gn =E(WWT). (For a given Gn, is also the MLE of b if W is Gaussian.) If the ARMA parameters {f, q, s2} were known, it would therefore be straightforward to obtain by maximizing the Gaussian likelihood of the process Wt = Yt - bTxt, t=1, ,n.

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In practice however, we don’t know {f, q, s2}, so the entire set of parameters, {b, f, q, s2} (as well as the order p & q), will have to be simultaneously estimated from the data. We can do this by minimizing the (reduced) likelihood simultaneously for {b, f, q}, (s2 can be profiled out of the likelihood equations, hence the name reduced likelihood), to obtain This suggests the following procedure for estimating the parameters of a time series regression with ARMA errors: Step 0 (i) Set (ii) Obtain the residuals (iii) Identify the order p & q of the ARMA model to fit to {Wt(0)}, and obtain the MLE’s and

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Step 1 (i) Set (ii) Obtain the residuals (iii) Obtain the MLE’s and based on {Wt(1)}. Step j, j2 (iii) Obtain the MLE’s and based on {Wt(j)}. ... STOP when there’s no change in from the previous step. (Usually 2 or 3 iterations suffice.) Example: The lake data (LAKE.TSM) Let us investigate if there’s evidence of a decline in the level of lake Huron over the years

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**We will fit the linear regression model Yt = b1 + b2 t + Wt.**

Steps in ITSM2000: Regression > Specify > Polynomial Regression > Order=1. GLS button > MLE button. Regression estimates window gives the OLS estimates (std. errors), = (.2278), and = (.0040), with the ML WN(0,1.251) model for the residuals {Wt}. Sample ACF/PACF button suggests an AR(2) model for the residuals {Wt}. (The data now become estimates of {Wt}. ) Preliminary estimation button > AR(2) > Burg, gives the estimated Burg model for {Wt}. MLE button gives the ML model for {Wt} and the updated in the regression estimates window. MLE button several times gives convergence to the final model in regression estimates window: Yt = t Wt Wt-2 + Zt, {Zt} WN(0,0.457).

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A 95% CI for b2 is: 1.96(0.0081)=(-0.038, ); a significant decrease in lake Huron levels. (Note the change in the std. errors of from OLS, highlighting the importance of taking into account the correlation in the residuals.) Show fit! Example: Seat-belt data (SBL.TSM, SBLIN.TSM) SBL.TSM contains the numbers of monthly serious injuries, Yt, t=1,…,120, on UK roads for 10 years starting Jan ’75. In the hope of reducing these numbers, seat-belt legislation was introduced in Feb ’83 (t ≥ 99). To study if there was a significant mean drop in injuries from that time onwards, we fit the regression model: Yt = b1 + b2ft + Wt, t=1,…,120. where ft=0, 1 ≤ t ≤ 98, and ft=1, t ≥ 99 (file SBLIN.TSM). Steps in ITSM2000: Regression > Specify > Poly Regression, order 0 > Include Auxiliary Variables Imported from File > SBLIN.TSM.

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**GLS button > MLE button**

GLS button > MLE button. Regression estimates window gives the OLS estimates (std. errors), = (22.64), and = (51.71). Graph of data (now the estimate of {Wt}) and ACF/PACF plots, clearly suggests a strong seasonal component with period 12. We therefore difference the original data at lag 12, and consider instead the model: Xt = b2gt + Nt, t=13,…,120. where Xt= Yt-Yt-12 (file SBLD.TSM), gt=ft-ft-12 (file SBLDIN.TSM), and Nt=Wt – Wt-12, is a stationary sequence to be represented by a suitable ARMA process. Open SBLD.TSM > Regression > Specify > Include Auxiliary Variables Imported from File (no Poly Regression, no Intercept) > SBLDIN.TSM. GLS > MLE. Sample ACF/PACF button suggests an AR(13) or MA(13) model for the residuals {Nt}. Autofit option with max lag 13 for both AR & MA finds MA(12) to be best.

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**Nt = Zt + 0.213 Zt-1 + - 0.633 Zt-12 , {Zt} WN(0,12,572).**

Fitting MA(12) model via Preliminary estimation button > MA(12) > Innovations, gives the estimated Innovations Algorithm model for Nt. MLE button gives the ML model for Nt and the updated in the regression estimates window. MLE button several times gives convergence to the final model in the regression estimates window, Xt = gt + Nt , with Nt = Zt Zt-1 + Zt-12 , {Zt} WN(0,12,572). Standard error of is 48.5, so is very significantly negative, indicating the effectiveness of the legislation. Show fit!

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**5. Forecasting Techniques**

So far we have focused on the construction of time series models for both stationary and nonstationary data, and the calculation of minimum MSE predictors based on these models. In this chapter we discuss 3 forecasting techniques that have less emphasis on the explicit construction of a model for the data. These techniques have been found in practice to be effective on a wide range of real data sets. 5.1 The ARAR Algorithm This algorithm has two steps: 1) Memory Shortening. Reduces the data to a series which can reasonably be modeled as an ARMA process. 2) Fitting a Subset Autoregression. Fits a subset AR model with lags {1,k1,k2,k3},

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**1<k1<k2<k3m (m can be either 13 or 26), to the memory**

shortened data. The lags {k1,k2,k3} and corresponding model parameters are estimated either by minimizing 2, or maximizing the Gaussian likelihood. Stationary White Data Memory Series Noise Shortening SAR filter {Yt} {St} {Zt} Minimum MSE forecasts can then be computed based on the fitted models. Ex: (DEATHS.TSM). Forecasting > ARAR. Forecast next 6 months using m=13 (minimize WN variance). Info window gives details.

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**5.2 The Holt-Winters (HW) Algorithm**

This algorithm is primarily suited for series that have a locally linear trend but no seasonality. The basic idea is to allow for a time-varying trend by specifying the forecasts to have the form: where, is the estimated level at time t, and is the estimated slope at time t. Like exponential smoothing, we now take the estimated level at time t+1 to be a weighted average of the observed and forecast values, i.e. Similarly, the estimated slope at time t+1 is given by,

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**With the natural initial conditions,**

= Y2, and = Y2 - Y1, and by choosing a and b to minimize the sum of squares of the one-step prediction errors, (Yt - Pt-1Yt)2, the recursions for and can be solved for t=2,…,n. The forecasts then have the form: Ex: DEATHS.TSM Forecasting > Holt-Winters. Forecast next 6 months. Info window gives details.

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**5.3 The Seasonal Holt-Winters (SHW) Algorithm**

It’s clear from the previous example that the HW Algorithm does not handle series with seasonality very well. If we know the period (d) of our series, HW can be modified to take this into account. In this seasonal version of HW, the forecast function is modified to: where and are as before, and is the estimated seasonal component at time t. With the same recursions for as in HW, we modify the recursion for according to, and add the additional recursion for ,

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Analogous to HW, natural initial conditions hold to start off the recursions, and the smoothing parameters {a,b,g}, are once again chosen to minimize the sum of squares of the one-step prediction errors. The forecasts then have the form: Ex: (DEATHS.TSM). Forecasting > Seasonal Holt-Winters. Forecast next 6 months. Info window gives details.

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**5.4 Choosing a Forecasting Algorithm**

This is a difficult question! Real data does not follow any model, so smallest MSE forecasts may not in fact have smallest MSE. Some general advice can however be given. First identify what measure of forecast error is most appropriate for the particular situation at hand. One can use mean squared error, mean absolute error, one-step error, 12-step error, etc. Assuming enough (historical) data is available, we can then proceed as follows: Omit the last k observations from the series, to obtain a reduced data set called the training set. Use a variety of algorithms and forecasting techniques to predict the next k obs for the training set.

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Now compare the predictions to the actual realized values (the test set), using an appropriate criterion such as root mean squared error (RMSE) RMSE = Use the forecasting technique/algorithm that gave the smallest value of RMSE for the test set, and use it on the original data set (training+test set) to obtain the desired out-of-sample forecasts. Multivariate methods can also be considered, (Chapters 5 and 6). Ex: (DEATHS.TSM). The file DEATHSF.TSM contains the original series plus the next 6 realized values Y73,…,Y78. Using DEATHS.TSM, we obtain P72Y73,…,P72Y78 via each of the following methods (and compute corresponding RMSE’s):

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**Forecasting Method RMSE**

HW SARIMA model from Subset MA(13) from SHW ARAR (The 6 realized values of the series, Y73,…,Y78, are: 7798, 7406, 8363, 8460, 9217, 9316.) The ARAR algorithm does substantially better than the others for this data.

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5.5 Forecast Monitoring If the original model fitted to the series up to time n is to be used for ongoing prediction as new data comes in, it may prove useful to monitor the one-step forecast errors for evidence that this model is no longer appropriate. That is, for t=n+1,n+2,…, we monitor the series: As long as the original model is still appropriate, the series should exhibit the characteristics of a WN sequence. Thus one can monitor the sample ACF and PACF of this developing series for signs of trouble, i.e. autocorrelation. Example: Observations for t=1,…,100 were simulated from an MA(1) model with =0.9. Consider what happens in the following two scenarios corresponding to the arrival of new data for t=101,…,200, stemming from two different models.

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**Case 1: New data continues to follow the same MA(1) model**

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**Case 2: New data switches to an AR(1) model with =0.9**

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7. Nonlinear Models The stationary models so far covered in this course are linear In nature, that is they can be expressed as, usually with {Zt} Gaussian. (Xt is then a Gaussian linear process). Such processes have a number of properties that are often found to be violated by observed time series: Time-irreversibility. In a Gaussian linear process, (Xt,…,Xt+h) has the same distribution as (Xt+h,…,Xt), for any h>0 (obs not necessarily equally spaced). Deviations from the time-reversibility property in observed time series are suggested by sample paths that rise to their maxima and fall away at different rates. Ex: SUNSPOTS.TSM.

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Bursts of outlying values are frequently observed in practical time series, and are seen also in the sample paths of nonlinear models. They are rarely seen in the sample paths of Gaussian linear processes. Ex: E1032.TSM. Daily % returns of Dow Jones Industrial Index from 7/1/97 to 4/9/99. Changing volatility. Many observed time series, particularly financial ones, exhibit periods during which they are less predictable or more variable (volatile), depending on their past history. This dependence of predictability on past history cannot be modeled with a linear time series, since the minimum h-step MSE is independent of the past. The ARCH and GARCH nonlinear models we are about to consider, do take into account the possibility that certain past histories may permit more accurate forecasting than others, and can identify the circumstances under which this can be expected to occur.

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**7.1 Distinguishing Between WN and IID Series**

To distinguish between linear and nonlinear processes, we will need to be able to decide in particular when a WN sequence is also IID. (This is only an issue for non-Gaussian processes, since the two concepts coincide otherwise.) Evidence for dependence in a WN sequence, can be obtained by looking at the ACF of the absolute values and/or squares of the process. For instance, if {Xt} ~ WN(0,σ2) with finite 4th moment, we can look at, , the ACF of {Xt2} at lag h: If for some nonzero lags h, we can conclude {Xt} is not IID. (This is the basis of the McLeod and Li test of section 1.9.) If for all nonzero lags h, there is insufficient evidence to conclude {Xt} is not IID. (An IID WN sequence would have exactly this behavior.) Similarly for

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**Ex: (CHAOS. TSM). Sample ACF/PACF suggests WN**

Ex: (CHAOS.TSM). Sample ACF/PACF suggests WN. ACF of squares & abs values suggests dependence. Actually: Xn =4Xn-1(1- Xn-1), a deterministic (albeit chaotic) sequence! 7.2 The ARCH(p) Process If Pt denotes the price of a financial series at time t, the return at time t, Zt, is the relative gain, defined variously as, or the logs thereof. For modeling the changing volatility frequently observed in such series, Engle (1982) introduced the (now popular) AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroscedastic process of order p, ARCH(p), as a stationary solution, {Zt}, of the equations,

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**with ht, the variance of Zt conditional on the past, given by,**

and 0>0, and j≥0, j=1,…,p. Remarks Conditional variance, ht, sometimes denoted σt2. If we square the first equation and subtract this equation from it, we see that an ARCH(p) satisfies, where vt= ht(et2-1), is a WN sequence. Thus, if , the squared ARCH(p) process, {Zt2}, follows an AR(p). This fact can be used for ARCH model identification, by inspecting the sample PACF of {Zt2}.

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It can be shown that {Zt}, has mean zero, constant variance, and is uncorrelated. It is therefore WN, but is not IID, since The marginal distribution of Zt is symmetric, non-Gaussian, and leptokurtic (heavy-tailed). The ARCH(p) is conditionally Gaussian though, in the sense that Zt given Zt-1,..., Zt-p, is Gaussian with known distribution, This enables us to easily write down the likelihood of {Zp+1,..., Zn}, conditional on {Z1,..., Zp}, and hence compute (conditional) ML estimates of the model parameters.

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The conditional normality of {Zt} means that the best k-step predictor of Zn+k given Zn,…,Z1, is with where (This formula is to be used recursively starting with k=1.) 95% confidence bounds for the forecast are therefore Note that using the ARCH model gives the same point forecasts as if it had been modeled as IID noise. The refinement occurs only for the variance of said forecasts. For model checking, the residuals et = Zt / ht ~ IID N(0,1). A weakness of the ARCH(p) is the fact that positive and negative shocks Zt, have the same effect on the volatility ht (ht is a function of past values of Zt2).

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Ex: (ARCH.TSM) Shows a realization of an ARCH(1) with 0=1 and 1=0.5, i.e. Sample ACF/PACF suggests WN, but ACF of squares and absolute values reveals dependence. In a residual analysis, only the McLeod-Li test picks up the dependence. Simulate by: Specify Garch Model > Simulate Garch Process. (Take care that ARMA model in ITSM is set to (0,0). If in doubt, Info window always shows complete details.) Ex: MonthlyLogReturnsIntel.TSM (STA6857 folder) Xt is the monthly log returns for Intel Corp. from Jan 73 to Dec 97. A look at sample ACF/PACF of squares (Squared….TSM) suggests ARCH(4) for the volatility ht.

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**> Specify Garch Model > Alpha Order 4 > Garch ML Estimation**

> Specify Garch Model > Alpha Order 4 > Garch ML Estimation. (Press button several times until estimates stabilize.) Estimates of 2, 3, 4 are not sig. (AICC = ). Refitting ARCH(1) gives fitted model: Model residuals pass tests of randomness, but fail normality. Could try t distribution for et. > Plot Stochastic Volatility shows estimated ht. Forecast volatility at t=301 via: Note: (i) average log return for period about 2.9%; (ii) 312<1 means E(Zt4) finite; (iii) |1|<1 Zt ~ WN(0,.0105/( )=0.0187).

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7.3 The GARCH(p,q) Process The Generalized ARCH(p) process of order q, GARCH(p,q), was introduced by Bollerslev (1986). This model is identical to ARCH(p), except that the conditional variance formula is replaced by, with 0>0, j≥0, j≥0, for j=1,2,…. Remarks Similarly to the ARCH(p), we can show that, where m=max(p,q), and vt= ht(et2-1), is a WN sequence. Thus, if 1++p+1++q <1, the squared GARCH(p,q) process, {Zt2}, follows an ARMA(m,q) with mean

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Although GARCH models suffer from the same weaknesses as ARCH models, they do a good job of capturing the persistence of volatility or volatility clustering, typical in stock returns, whereby small (large) values tend to be followed by small (large) values. It is usually found that using heavier-tailed distributions (such as Student’s t) for the process {et}, provides a better fit to financial data. (This applies equally to ARCH.) Thus more generally, and with ht as above, we define a GARCH(p,q) process, {Zt}, as a stationary solution of with the distribution on {et} either normal or scaled t , >2. (The scale factor is necessary to make {et} have unit variance.) Order selection, like the ARMA case, is difficult, but should be based on AICC. Usually a GARCH(1,1) is used.

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Apart from GARCH, several different extensions of the basic ARCH model have been proposed, each designed to accommodate a specific feature observed in practice: Exponential GARCH (EGARCH). Allows for asymmetry in the effect of the shocks. Positive and negative returns can impact the volatility in different ways. Integrated GARCH (IGARCH). Unit-root GARCH models similar to ARIMA models. The key feature is the long memory or persistence of shocks on the volatility. A plethora of others: T-GARCH, GARCH-M, FI-GARCH; as well as ARMA models driven by GARCH noise, and regression models with GARCH errors. (Analysis of Financial Time Series, R.S. Tsay, 2002, Wiley.)

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**Example: GARCH Modeling (E1032.TSM)**

Series {Yt} is the percent daily returns of Dow Jones, 7/1/97 - 4/9/99. Clear periods of high (10/97, 8/98) and low volatility. Sample ACF of squares and abs values suggest dependence, in spite of lack of autocorrelation evident in sample ACF/PACF. This suggests fitting a model of the form Let us fit a GARCH(1,1) to {Zt}. Steps in ITSM: Specify (1,1) for model order by clicking red GAR button. Can choose initial values for coefficients, or use defaults. Make sure “use normal noise” is selected. Red MLE button > subtract mean. Red MLE button several more times until estimates stabilize. Should repeat modeling with different initial estimates of coefficients to increase chances of finding the true MLEs.

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Comparison of models of different orders for p & q, can be made with the aid of AICC. A small search shows that the GARCH(1,1) is indeed the minimum AICC GARCH model. Final estimates: with AICC= Red SV (stochastic volatility) button shows the corresponding estimates of the conditional standard deviations, σt=√ht, confirming the changing volatility of {Yt}. Under the fitted model, the residuals (red RES button) should be approx IID N(0,1). Examine ACF of squares and abs values of residuals (5th red button) to check independence (OK, confirmed by McLeod-Li test). Select Garch > Garch residuals > QQ-Plot(normal)to check normality (expect line through origin with slope 1). Deviations from line are too large; try a heavier-tailed distribution for {et}.

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Repeat the modeling steps from scratch, but this time checking “use t-distribution for noise” in every dialog box where it appears. Resulting min-AICC model is also GARCH(1,1), with same mean, and AICC= (better than previous model). Passes residual checks, the QQ-Plot (6th red button) is closer to ideal line than before. Note that even if fitting a model with t noise is what is initially desired, one should first fit a model with Gaussian noise as in this example. This will generally improve the fit. Forecasting of volatility not yet implemented in ITSM.

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**Ex: ARMA models with GARCH noise (SUNSPOTS.TSM)**

Searching for ML ARMA model with Autofit gives ARMA(3,4). ACF/PACF of residuals is compatible with WN, but ACF of squares and abs values indicates they are not IID. We can fit a Gaussian GARCH(1,1) to the residuals as follows: Red GAR button > specify (1,1) for model order. Red MLE button > subtract mean. Red MLE button several more times until estimates stabilize. AICC for GARCH fit (805.1): use for comparing alternative GARCH models for the ARMA residuals. AICC adjusted for ARMA fit (821.7): use for comparing alternative ARMA models for the original data (with or without GARCH noise).

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4.3 Confidence Intervals -Using our CLM assumptions, we can construct CONFIDENCE INTERVALS or CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ESTIMATES of the form: -Given a significance.

4.3 Confidence Intervals -Using our CLM assumptions, we can construct CONFIDENCE INTERVALS or CONFIDENCE INTERVAL ESTIMATES of the form: -Given a significance.

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