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CEFPI Midwest Great Lakes Regional Conference April 23, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "CEFPI Midwest Great Lakes Regional Conference April 23, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 CEFPI Midwest Great Lakes Regional Conference April 23, 2009

2 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Presented by: Terrance R. Liette, PE, LEED AP Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc.

3 Fanning/Howey…who are we? 47 years specializing in K-12 planning and design Complete and cost-effective in-house design services: Architecture Engineering Site Technology Interiors Ohio School Facility Commission (OSFC) experience Green (LEED) experience

4 Terrance R. Liette, PE, LEED AP…who am I? Executive Director of Fanning Howey Engineering Group Principal 27 years experience, all with Fanning/Howey Registered Professional Engineer in 18 states LEED Accredited Professional

5 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Todays agenda… Expectations of the HVAC design engineer Selecting the right HVAC system for the project LEED and the impact on HVAC system design and construction System performance criteria Construction administration…role and goals Project commissioning and HVAC systems After construction is complete, warranty and maintenance

6 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Integrated project design Energy Star target

7 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Integrated project design: Initial energy model integrated with architects 3-D package eQuest or any program running with DOE-2 engine Establish targets for the building envelope construction together Determine impact from orientation runs Adjust massing models to determine the greatest impact

8 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Energy Star target: Always compare to the Target Finder for Energy Star. See for more information.www.energystar.gov

9 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Geothermal Water-source Heat Pump? Displacement Ventilation? Chilled Beams?

10 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC system option

11 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time

12 Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision

13 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment

14 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Drawings

15 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Typical Classroom Design Development Phase

16 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Typical Mechanical Room Design Development Phase

17 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Drawings Specifications } Detailed quality control check

18 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Drawings Specifications Energy modeling targets

19 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Drawings Specifications Energy modeling targets Commissioning agent review

20 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time

21 Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Cost estimating support

22 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Cost estimating support Value engineering approach

23 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Cost estimating support Value engineering approach Bidding support

24 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Expectations of the HVAC design engineer… Assist the architect with energy modeling Develop HVAC options specific to the proposed facility design Analyze annual energy impact directly related to each HVAC option Present valid data to school district stakeholders for decision Continued analysis of building energy model as design progresses, always looking to make adjustments for reduced energy and improved indoor environment Phase submission documents Cost estimating support Value engineering approach Bidding support Construction administration, being on the job at the project site

25 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Selecting the right HVAC system for the project… 21 st century systems for consideration

26 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time 21 st century systems for consideration: Variable Air Volume systems Ground Source Heat Pump systems (geothermal) Displacement Ventilation systems Thermal Ice Storage Chilled Beam applications Active Passive Combined with induction air/displacement ventilation Variable Refrigerant Volume systems

27 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Selecting the right HVAC system for the project… 21 st century systems for consideration Always share the advantages and disadvantages

28 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Fan Powered VAV AdvantagesDisadvantages The VAV terminals are located above the ceiling, using less floor space Central air-handling units can minimize redundancy The system is energy efficient in operation Noise level could be higher than acceptable for LEED credit Life expectancy of years Air balance of systems requires greater care and expertise The heat recovery system helps to lower operating costs and control humidity levels throughout the building Filter changes at each VAV terminal Fan motor at each VAV terminal

29 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Fan Powered VAV Water Source Heat Pump with Geothermal AdvantagesDisadvantages The system can be located above the ceiling, using less floor space The heat pump equipment has a life expectancy of years Operated with DDC controls Intermixing of air streams can encourage distribution of odors throughout the building Design meets ASHRAE standard ventilation Maintenance tends to be higher due to excessive use of the heat pump compressor The system is energy efficient in operation Noise may be higher due to compressor Mechanical spaces are required for make- up air units and possibly heat pump units Higher installation cost

30 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Selecting the right HVAC system for the project… 21 st century systems for consideration Always share the advantages and disadvantages Energy should have an impact, but should not be the only measurement

31 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Energy should have an impact, but should not be the only measurement: Consider expectations of the school district Consider the value of the local service companies Consider the utilities available in the area Consider the first cost implications to the budget…what can you really afford to buy on bid day? Consider acoustical impact (background system noise)

32 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Selecting the right HVAC system for the project… 21 st century systems for consideration Always share the advantages and disadvantages Energy should have an impact, but should not be the only measurement Maintenance considerations

33 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Maintenance considerations: Determine the level of expertise within the maintenance department of the school district…it will vary greatly from district to district Develop an understanding of the existing systems in the school district…do they want or expect continuity with some manufacturers of the HVAC equipment (i.e., pumps, temperature controls, boilers)? What are some of the new considerations on the market…are they truly tested or would you and the school district be the guinea pig? Life cycle of the system…how long before replacement of components is required?

34 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Selecting the right HVAC system for the project… 21 st century systems for consideration Always share the advantages and disadvantages Energy should have an impact, but should not be the only measurement Maintenance considerations Decision made by the stakeholders based on quality data

35 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EA Prereq 2 – Minimum Energy Performance Intent: To establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the proposed building and systems. Requirements: Design the building project to comply with both the mandatory provisions of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard and the prescriptive requirements or performance requirements of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard and The project must establish an Energy Performance Rating goal for the facility design using EPAs Target Finder rating tool.

36 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EA Prereq 3 – Fundamental Refrigerant Management Intent: To reduce ozone depletion. Requirements: Zero use of CFC-based refrigerants in the new base building HVAC&R systems.

37 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EA Credit 1 – Optimize Energy Performance Intent: To achieve an increasing level of energy performance above the baseline to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use. Requirements: Achieve at least 14% savings over baseline performance per ASHRAE for a minimum of 2 points using one of the following methods: Whole building energy simulation per Appendix G Advanced Buildings Core Performance New Buildings Institute ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools

38 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EA Credit 4 – Enhanced Refrigerant Management Intent: To reduce ozone depletion and support early compliance with the Montreal Protocol while minimizing direct contributions to global warming. Requirements: Option 1: Do not use refrigerants or Option 2: Select refrigerants and HVAC&R that minimize or eliminate the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming

39 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EA Credit 5 – Measurement & Verification Intent: To provide for ongoing accountability of building energy consumption over time. Requirements: Develop and implement a Measurement & Verification (M&V) plan consistent with Option D (Calibrated Simulation) or Option B (ECM Isolation) as specified in the IPMVP Vol. III. Period shall be for no less than 1 year of post construction occupancy and must include a process for corrective action if savings are not achieved.

40 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EA Credit 6 – Green Power Intent: To encourage the development and use of grid-source renewable energy technologies on a net zero pollution basis. Requirements: Provide at least 35% of the buildings electricity from renewable sources by engaging in at least a 2-year renewable energy contract. Renewable sources are defined by the Center For Resource Solutions (SRS) Green-e products certification requirements.

41 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EQ Prereq 1 – Minimum IAQ Performance Intent: To establish Minimum IAQ performance to enhance IAQ in buildings, thus contributing to the comfort and well being of the occupants. Requirements: Meet the minimum requirements of Sections of ASHRAE

42 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EQ Prereq 3 – Minimum Acoustical Performance Intent: To provide classrooms that are quiet and in which teachers can speak to the class without straining their voices and students can effectively communicate with each other and the teacher. Requirements: Design classrooms and other core learning spaces to meet the Reverberation Time (RT) requirements of ANSI S Also, design classrooms and other core learning spaces to meet the Sound Transmission Class (STC) Requirements, excepting windows, which meet a STC of at least 35 and Option 1 – use methods in ANSI S to achieve a minimum background noise level in classrooms or other primary learning spaces of 45 dBA. or Option 2 – design classrooms and other core learning spaces using the methodology listed in the 2003 HVAC Applications ASHRAE Handbook, Chapter 47, and achieve a RN(C) Mark II level of 37.

43 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EQ Credit 1 – Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Intent: to provide capacity for ventilation system monitoring to help sustain occupant comfort and well being. Requirements: install permanent monitoring systems that provide feedback on ventilation system performance to ensure the ventilation systems maintain design-minimum ventilation requirements. The system must generate an alarm when conditions vary by 10% or more from the set point. For mechanically ventilated spaces, monitor CO 2 in all densely occupied spaces. CO 2 monitoring locations shall be between 3 and 6 above the floor and For each system serving non-densely occupied spaces, provide a direct outdoor airflow measurement device capable of measuring the minimum outdoor airflow rate with an accuracy of ±15% of the designed minimum as defined in ASHRAE

44 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EQ Credit 5 – Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control Intent: to minimize exposure of building occupants to potentially hazardous particulates and chemical pollutants. Requirements: design to minimize and control pollutant entry into buildings and later to cross-contaminate occupied areas: Permanent entry way systems at least 6 in direction of travel. Where hazardous gasses or chemicals may be present, exhaust to create negative pressure with respect to adjacent spaces. Provide air filters of MERV 13 or better. Provide contaminant drains plumbed for appropriate disposal of hazardous liquid wastes in places where water and chemical concentrate mixing occurs for laboratory purposes.

45 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EQ Credit 6.2 – Thermal Comfort Controllability Intent: to provide a high level of thermal comfort system control by individual occupants or by specified groups in multi-occupant spaces to promote the productivity, comfort and well-being of building occupants. Requirements: provide individual comfort controls for 50% (minimum) of the building occupants in workspaces and provide comfort controls for all multi-occupant spaces. (Conditions for thermal comfort are defined in ASHRAE Standard – air temperature, radiant temperature, air speed and humidity.)

46 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EQ Credit 7.1 – Thermal Comfort Design Intent: to provide a comfortable environment that supports productivity and well- being of occupants. Requirements: design HVAC systems to meet requirements of ASHRAE Standard

47 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time LEED and the impact on the HVAC system design and construction LEED credits most impacted by the HVAC system selection EQ Credit 10 – Mold Prevention Intent: to reduce potential for mold in school by preventive design and construction methods. Requirements: achieve the following credits: EQc3.1: Construction for IAQ Management: During Construction EQc7.1: Thermal Comfort: Design EQc7.2: Thermal Comfort: Verification and Design HVAC to have a RH of 60% or less under all load conditions, both occupied and unoccupied and Develop and implement an IAQ management plan based on an EPA document (reference 402-F ).

48 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time System performance criteria… Each classroom environment needs independent system control Specifically control the breathing zone Humidity control improves room comfort and saves the building components Outside air requirements…the correct amount to meet code and enhance the room environment Only treat the spaces as they are being used…reduce overall energy during course of school day Performance criteria should be reviewed and agreed upon by the Commissioning Agent

49 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Construction administration… Set expectations with the Contractor from the first day Preconstruction Meeting Structured agenda with set goals Communication routing Paperwork routing Process expectations

50 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Construction administration… Set expectations with the Contractor from the first day Preconstruction Meeting Pre-installation Meeting (immediately before installation starts) Detailed review of technical specifications Clarify expected installation techniques Quality expectations set

51 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Construction administration… Set expectations with the Contractor from the first day Preconstruction Meeting Pre-installation Meeting (immediately before installation starts) Pre-start Up Meeting Define who attends Determine criteria to allow start up Outline time line requirements

52 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Construction administration… Set expectations with the Contractor from the first day Preconstruction Meeting Pre-installation Meeting (immediately before installation starts) Pre-start Up Meeting Pre-closeout Meeting Methodologies for completing the project Timelines for expediting completion of the project Punch out and final review expectations

53 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Construction administration… Set expectations with the Contractor from the first day Preconstruction Meeting Pre-installation Meeting immediately before installation starts Pre-start Up Meeting Pre-closeout Meeting Final Documentation Operation & Maintenance Manuals Final testing documentation Final paperwork Coordination with the Commissioning Agent

54 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Project commissioning and HVAC systems… Commissioning required for LEED projects and any Ohio School Facilities Commission (OSFC) projects Independent 3 rd party consultant in contract directly with the school system Early involvement is key and pays big dividends CxA should be reviewing the engineering design documents beginning with the SD phase submission to the client The best commissioning agents have a clear process for documenting issues and following up with addressing each issue

55 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Project commissioning and HVAC systems… The CxA continues working on the project throughout construction and in the first year following construction (in the event of LEED certification pursuits) Benefits are already being seen in the first year of operation…lower operating costs reflecting an HVAC system operating as it was intended

56 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time Post construction issues: Warranty Maintenance Contractually, what are the required expectations of the design professional? When does the school take ownership?

57 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time To Summarize: The HVAC system is very complicated, so… know your HVAC Engineer very well and set high expectations Integration of design is necessary Quality control – check the work Set goals early and never lose sight of them Plan the work and then work the plan

58 HVAC Design/Construction… Getting it Right the First Time


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