Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

P.C. Lippman1 CEFPI 85 th International Conference: REFP Workshop September 29, How Does Learning Occur? Mastering Formal and Informal Skills CEFPI 85.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "P.C. Lippman1 CEFPI 85 th International Conference: REFP Workshop September 29, How Does Learning Occur? Mastering Formal and Informal Skills CEFPI 85."— Presentation transcript:

1 P.C. Lippman1 CEFPI 85 th International Conference: REFP Workshop September 29, How Does Learning Occur? Mastering Formal and Informal Skills CEFPI 85 th International Conference: REFP Workshop September 29, 2008 Presented by: Peter C. Lippman, Assoc. AIA, REFP JCJ Architecture, New York, New York Robert Nicholson JCJ Architecture, San Diego. CA

2 P.C. Lippman2 PART 1: Normative Theories

3 P.C. Lippman3 Normative Theories of Design the architects position is not accepted nor valued in the marketplace; the position was developed before implementation ; the intentions of the design are treated as separate from practice; the architect did not have the design skills to put into practice their intentions (Lang, 1988).

4 P.C. Lippman4 Normative Theories of Design the architects position is not accepted nor valued in the marketplace (L-Shaped CR); the position was developed before implementation. Since the position was never implemented, the consequences of having no practical experience were unforeseen (environments that do not assist teachers and teachers are blamed for spaces not working); the intentions of the design are treated as separate from practice (Space Program & Educational Program); the architect did not have the design skills to put into practice their intentions (Integration of Educational Theory).

5 P.C. Lippman5 PART 2: Learner-Environment Relationships

6 P.C. Lippman6 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: Learner activeLearner active Environment ActiveEnvironment Active Quadrant 2: Learner passiveLearner passive Environment activeEnvironment active Quadrant 3: Learner activeLearner active Environment passiveEnvironment passive Quadrant 1: Learner passiveLearner passive Environment passiveEnvironment passive Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

7 P.C. Lippman7 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: How the learner influences their environment & how in turn the environment influences the learner - Transactions How the learner influences their environment & how in turn the environment influences the learner - Transactions Quadrant 2: How environment influences and causes the Leaner to change behavior How environment influences and causes the Leaner to change behavior Quadrant 3: How Learner chooses to behave in the environment How Learner chooses to behave in the environment Quadrant 1: How the environment does not affect learner & where the learners behavior does not change How the environment does not affect learner & where the learners behavior does not change Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

8 P.C. Lippman8 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: Practice TheoryPractice Theory Quadrant 2: BehaviorismBehaviorism Quadrant 3: CognitiveCognitive ConstructivistConstructivist Quadrant 1: Genetic DeterminismGenetic Determinism Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

9 P.C. Lippman9 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: Practice TheoryPractice Theory Quadrant 2: BehaviorismBehaviorism Quadrant 3: CognitiveCognitive ConstructivistConstructivist Quadrant 1: Genetic DeterminismGenetic Determinism Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

10 P.C. Lippman10 Behaviorist Model Social Environment Teacher is the Content Provider This Environment is Teacher-Centered Physical Environment Desks arranged in rows to face front of Classroom

11 P.C. Lippman11 Behaviorism Does this look familiar? 1920 1960 2000

12 P.C. Lippman12 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: Practice TheoryPractice Theory Quadrant 2: BehaviorismBehaviorism Quadrant 3: CognitiveCognitive MIMI ConstructivistConstructivist Quadrant 1: Genetic DeterminismGenetic Determinism Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

13 P.C. Lippman13 Cognition: Active LearnerPassive Environment Cognition: Active Learner – Passive Environment

14 P.C. Lippman14 Multiple Intelligences: Active Learner Passive Environment Multiple Intelligences: Active Learner – Passive Environment Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical intelligence ("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") Existential (real world smart)

15 P.C. Lippman15 Constructivism: Active LearnerPassive Environment Constructivism: Active Learner – Passive Environment

16 P.C. Lippman16 Social Patterns of Participation PERIPHERAL ENGAGEMENTGUIDED ENGAGEMENTFULL ENGAGEMENT

17 P.C. Lippman17 Conventional Thinking Age: 6-18 Age: 6-18 Any age Any age Time: 9-3 Time: 9-3 Anytime Anytime Place: School Place: School Any place Any place Resources: Books & Teachers Resources: Books & Teachers Any resource - real time (newspapers, interviews) Any resource - real time (newspapers, interviews) Positions: Sitting at a desk or standing Positions: Sitting at a desk or standing Any position Any position Activity: 3 Rs - Rote Activity: 3 Rs - Rote Any activity that stimulates brain development Any activity that stimulates brain development Alternative Thinking Learner, Learning, & the Things to be Learned

18 P.C. Lippman18 Active Learner & Active Learning Environment

19 P.C. Lippman19 Learner Alternative Learning : Authentic and Relevant

20 P.C. Lippman20 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: Practice Theory – involves Levels of Participation and grounds learning in physical setting Practice Theory – involves Levels of Participation and grounds learning in physical setting Interplay of acquisitions & transformations – TransactionsInterplay of acquisitions & transformations – Transactions Quadrant 2: Individual responds / reacts to environment – Learner is influenced by the environment peripherally & is guided by social environment. Leaner must change behavior Individual responds / reacts to environment – Learner is influenced by the environment peripherally & is guided by social environment. Leaner must change behavior Acquisition by exposureAcquisition by exposure Quadrant 3: Cognitive & Constructivist – involves Levels of Participation Cognitive & Constructivist – involves Levels of Participation Acquisition by DiscoveryAcquisition by Discovery Quadrant 1: Learner development is direct result of genetic makeup Learner development is direct result of genetic makeup Acquisition by ChanceAcquisition by Chance Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

21 P.C. Lippman21 Understanding Place: Meanings of Constructed Objects (1995) Understanding Place: Meanings of Constructed Objects (1995) Research Methodology: Interviews at three stages of project Video Tape

22 P.C. Lippman22 Understanding Place: Meanings of Constructed Objects (1995) Understanding Place: Meanings of Constructed Objects (1995) Findings: Use of the Physical Environment (flexible & Integrated) Zones of Activity o Zone 1: Group Participation o Zone 2: Working with Others o Zone 3:Independent with others o Zone 4: Independent

23 P.C. Lippman23 Learner, Learning & the Things to be Learned

24 P.C. Lippman24 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: Practice Theory – involves Levels of Participation and grounds learning in physical setting Practice Theory – involves Levels of Participation and grounds learning in physical setting Interplay of acquisitions & transformations – TransactionsInterplay of acquisitions & transformations – Transactions Quadrant 2: Individual responds / reacts to environment – Learner is influenced by the environment peripherally & is guided by social environment. Leaner must change behavior Individual responds / reacts to environment – Learner is influenced by the environment peripherally & is guided by social environment. Leaner must change behavior Acquisition by exposureAcquisition by exposure Quadrant 3: Cognitive & Constructivist – involves Levels of Participation Cognitive & Constructivist – involves Levels of Participation Acquisition by DiscoveryAcquisition by Discovery Quadrant 1: Learner development is direct result of genetic makeup Learner development is direct result of genetic makeup Acquisition by ChanceAcquisition by Chance Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

25 P.C. Lippman25 Practice Theory: Social Patterns of Participation PERIPHERAL ENGAGEMENTGUIDED ENGAGEMENTFULL ENGAGEMENT

26 P.C. Lippman26 Practice Theory: Active Learner, Active Social Environment, & Active Physical Environment

27 P.C. Lippman27 Real World Work Settings Active Learner & Active Learning Environment

28 P.C. Lippman28 Learner-Environment Relationship Quadrant 4: Learner ActiveLearner Active Social Environment Active / Physical Environment ActiveSocial Environment Active / Physical Environment Active Quadrant 2: Learner PassiveLearner Passive Social Environment ActiveSocial Environment Active Quadrant 3: Active LearnerActive Learner Social Environment passiveSocial Environment passive Quadrant 1: Passive LearnerPassive Learner Social Environment PassiveSocial Environment Passive Environment active Environment passive Learner active Learner passive

29 P.C. Lippman29 PART 3: Active Physical Environments

30 P.C. Lippman30 Active Physical Environments : Defining Guidelines for Activity Settings Guidelines for Individual, One-to-One, Small Group, & Large Group Transactions Privacy Personalization Physical Comfort Control Access to Resources Manage Interactions Place Identity Definition of Activity Settings access to peers of greater, equal, and lesser ability; transactions between students and teachers, verbal and otherwise, that occur in the daily routine; opportunities to investigate an array of activities permitted within the settings; opportunities to design, redesign, and react to self-generated changes as they work through their goal-directed activities; and low levels of adult guidance, supervision, and considerable freedom for what students accomplish and how they accomplish it (Tharp & Gallimore, 1997).

31 P.C. Lippman31 L-Shaped Classroom: Activity Settings Aspects for Creating an Active Physical Environment "Contexts in which collaborative interaction, intersubjectivity, and assisted performance occurin which teaching occursare referred to as activity settings" (Tharp & Gallimore, 1997, p. 72) Flexible: The ways in which the non-fixed elements, furnishings, in the classroom can be arranged and re- arranged by the teacher and students for the diverse activities that occur in the learning environment. Integrated: The shape allows for the separation of activities and connects activities. It limits distractions and encourages activities to collaboration. Ability to move and through and oversee throughout the space Variable-in-Size: The shape affords different zones to support the diverse ways in which people acquire knowledge. Where zones are layered and overlap

32 P.C. Lippman32 L-Shaped Classroom : Activity Settings Integrated: Variable-in-Size: Flexible:

33 P.C. Lippman33 Neighborhood Lincoln Elementary Schools, Lincoln Nebraska, USA Designed by TAP, USA Zones outside the classroom : Activity Settings Integrated: Variable-in-Size: Flexible:

34 P.C. Lippman34 Zones outside the classroom : Activity Settings Maxi, Cavett, Campbell, & Roper Elementary Schools in Nebraska (1990s) Designed by The Architectural Partnership, USA Guidelines Privacy, Personalization, Physical Comfort, Control, Access to Resources, Manage Interactions, & Place Identity

35 P.C. Lippman35 Westwoods Upper Elementary Middle School Farmington, Connecticut, USA (2002) Designed by JCJ Architecture, USA Zones outside the classroom : Activity Settings

36 P.C. Lippman36 Harvey Milk High School New York, New York, USA (2002) Designed by Perkins Eastman Architects, USA Zones outside the classroom : Activity Settings Guidelines Privacy, Personalization, Physical Comfort, Control, Access to Resources, Manage Interactions, & Place Identity

37 P.C. Lippman37 Main Street: Wilbert Snow Elementary School Middletown, Connecticut, USA (1996) Designed by JCJ Architecture, USA Integrated: Variable-in-Size: Flexible: Zones outside the Learning Community : Activity Setttings

38 P.C. Lippman38 The Downtown School, Minneapolis, Minnesota The Cunningham Group Zones outside the Learning Community : Activity Settings

39 P.C. Lippman39 Peter C. Lippman, JCJ Architecture plippman@jcj.com Robert Nicholson, JCJ Architecture bnicholson@jcj.com Thank You Contact Information


Download ppt "P.C. Lippman1 CEFPI 85 th International Conference: REFP Workshop September 29, How Does Learning Occur? Mastering Formal and Informal Skills CEFPI 85."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google