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NCADVs 16 th National Conference on Domestic Violence Preserving Our Roots While Looking to the Future Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse: The Hidden Dimension.

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Presentation on theme: "NCADVs 16 th National Conference on Domestic Violence Preserving Our Roots While Looking to the Future Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse: The Hidden Dimension."— Presentation transcript:

1 NCADVs 16 th National Conference on Domestic Violence Preserving Our Roots While Looking to the Future Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse: The Hidden Dimension of Domestic Violence Lynn Hecht Schafran, Esq. Director National Judicial Education Program July 24, 2012 Denver, Colorado

2 2 Graham Barnes Team Leader Training and Resources The Battered Womens Justice Project Minneapolis, Minnesota Until I had worked with men who batter for three to five years, I had no idea that the level of sexual assault within domestic violence relationships was so high. I had to hear these stories from the facilitators of the womens partner group before I realized that most of the women partners are also being sexually assaulted.

3 3 "[M]arital rape…should be treated differently and more severely than similar crimes committed by strangers. As a result of its unique relation to personal life, sexual assault is far more likely to be repeated when it is committed by partners and almost always occurs amid other forms of violence, intimidation, and control. The level of unfreedom, subordination, dependence, and betrayal associated with marital rape has no counterpart in public life." -Professor Evan Stark, COERCIVE CONTROL (2007), at 388.

4 4 A batter who subjects his partner to forced sex in addition to physical violence is seven times more likely to kill her than a batterer who subjects his partner to physical violence only. -Finding from Professor Jacquelyn Campbell, Assessing Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicides, Vol. 250 NIJ JOURNAL 15 (2003)

5 5 There was no greater divergence in what victims and perpetrators reported than in the area of sexual violence. If we are to believe the killers, none of them had ever been sexually violent or even coercive to the women they killed…The victims of abuse painted a very different picture. Nearly three-fourths of the women [who survived a near- murder] said their abusive partners had raped them. -David Adams, WHY DO THEY KILL? (2007) at

6 6 Why is the Sexual Abuse Aspect of Domestic Violence so Hidden? Because until recently, marital rape was completely legal in every state; Because until recently, marital rape was completely legal in every state; Because no one wants to talk about sexual abuse and assault in any context; Because no one wants to talk about sexual abuse and assault in any context; Because as soon as a woman charges a man with any type of sexual misconduct, she loses credibility, and women know this Because as soon as a woman charges a man with any type of sexual misconduct, she loses credibility, and women know this

7 7 What is Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse? Sexual abuse in the domestic violence context encompasses a wide range of coerced sexual activity Sexual abuse in the domestic violence context encompasses a wide range of coerced sexual activity Victims may be coerced into sexual activity or denied control over their reproductive health through verbal coercion, threats against the themselves or others, financial manipulation or physical violence Victims may be coerced into sexual activity or denied control over their reproductive health through verbal coercion, threats against the themselves or others, financial manipulation or physical violence

8 8 Manifestations of Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse It is important to be aware of all the manifestations of intimate partner sexual abuse and to understand them as: an aspect of domestic violencean aspect of domestic violence an assertion of power and controlan assertion of power and control factors for risk assessmentfactors for risk assessment behaviors to be addressed in prevention education, batterer intervention programs and sex offender treatmentbehaviors to be addressed in prevention education, batterer intervention programs and sex offender treatment

9 9 Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse Includes: Insensitive, critical or degrading behavior relating to sex and sexuality Insensitive, critical or degrading behavior relating to sex and sexuality Using sexually degrading namesUsing sexually degrading names Criticizing victims physical features/attractiveness/body imageCriticizing victims physical features/attractiveness/body image Making victim feel cheap or dirty for wanting sexMaking victim feel cheap or dirty for wanting sex Using sex to prove faithfulnessUsing sex to prove faithfulness

10 10 Insensitive, Critical or Degrading Behavior Relating to Sex and Sexuality (contd): Withholding affection or accusing her of being sexually abusive for denying sexWithholding affection or accusing her of being sexually abusive for denying sex Blaming victim for not being satisfiedBlaming victim for not being satisfied Comparing to othersComparing to others Flaunting affairsFlaunting affairs Flaunting sexual abuse of childrenFlaunting sexual abuse of children

11 11 Insensitive, Critical or Degrading Behavior Relating to Sex and Sexuality (contd): Accusing victim of having affairs, flirting, dressing provocatively, or coming on to others Accusing victim of having affairs, flirting, dressing provocatively, or coming on to others Pressuring or forcing her to dress a certain way to please/attract other men Pressuring or forcing her to dress a certain way to please/attract other men Punishing her for attracting attention of other men; checking her underwear for signs of sex Punishing her for attracting attention of other men; checking her underwear for signs of sex Stalking to ensure fidelity Stalking to ensure fidelity

12 12 A lot of times it [rape] happened because he was so jealous. He always thought that I was looking at other men. Like the time my brother and his friendwho I grew up withwere over, and he though I was looking at his friend, and he was really mad. He started hitting me and then forced me to have sex. - Natalie, quoted in Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE (1996) at 22

13 13 Coercing pregnancy: Coercing pregnancy: Most of the time he would force himself on me... [A]fter my fourth child, my sisters friend suggested I go on the pill... but my husband was reluctant to buy them. He himself never wanted to use condoms or anything... and by making me pregnant time and time again, he was trying to tie me down to him. - Zarina, quoted in Margaret Abraham, SEXUAL ABUSE IN SOUTH ASIAN IMMIGRANT MARRIAGES (1999) at 606 Coercing abortion Coercing abortion Insensitive, Critical or Degrading Behavior Relating to Sex and Sexuality (contd):

14 14 Trying/Making Victim Perform Sex Acts Against her Will, When Not Fully Conscious or When Afraid: Making victim view, imitate, or participate in pornography:Making victim view, imitate, or participate in pornography: In a sample of rural Ohio women sexually assaulted by their partners, 30% said pornography was involved in their sexually abusive experiences. The researchers report that Danielle, a woman from this study, knew that she was particularly at risk for being sexually assaulted after her husband watched pornographic movies, so she made extra efforts to avoid him at these times. -Walter S. DeKeseredy, et al, Separation/Divorce Sexual Assault: The Contribution of Male Support (2006) at 242

15 15 Trying/Making Victim Perform Sex Acts Against her Will, When Not Fully Conscious or When Afraid (contd): Forcing her to have sex with others or in front of others:Forcing her to have sex with others or in front of others: He wanted me to have sex with a few people... and I didnt want to... And, uh, I finally did. And then I got beat for it because I did. I tried not to, but then when we did, I got beat. -Walter S. DeKeseredy, et al, Separation/Divorce Sexual Assault: The Contribution of Male Support (2006) at 242

16 16 Trying/Making Victim Perform Sex Acts Against her Will, When Not Fully Conscious or When Afraid (contd): Forcing vaginal, oral or anal sexForcing vaginal, oral or anal sex Forcing sex in front of childrenForcing sex in front of children Forcing sex with childrenForcing sex with children Forcing sex with animalsForcing sex with animals

17 17 Trying/Making Victim Perform Sex Acts Against her Will, When Not Fully Conscious or When Afraid (contd): Coerced prostitution Coerced prostitution Coercing sex without protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections Coercing sex without protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections Apologizing after a battering incident by coercing sex Apologizing after a battering incident by coercing sex Forced physically painful sex Forced physically painful sex

18 18 Hurting the Victim in Relation to Sex Battering before, during or immediately after sex:Battering before, during or immediately after sex: Sometimes I was able to fight him off, and I would fight like wild, and he wouldnt be able to get it in. But usually he would [succeed in penetrating her], and he put me in the hospital a lot. He broke my nose and my jaw and cut my wrists. -Barbara, quoted in Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE (1996) at 16

19 19 Hurting the Victim in Relation to Sex (contd) Hurting her physically during sex, such as inserting objectsHurting her physically during sex, such as inserting objects Assaulting her breasts or genitalsAssaulting her breasts or genitals BondageBondage

20 20 Hurting the Victim in Relation to Sex (contd) Sadistic acts: Sadistic acts: When the wife of a physician returned home after a cesarean section he forced her to have oral intercourse and sodomized her. She reported: I told him [my husband] I couldnt have intercourse, and he told me Skin heals in 72 hours. -Quoted in Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE (1996) at 21

21 21 Blackmailing or Extorting Sex Refusing to pay child support without sex Refusing to pay child support without sex Refusing essential medical transportation without sex: Refusing essential medical transportation without sex: A rural woman in labor was dependent on her husband for the half-hour drive to the hospital. Despite her pleas that she was in acute pain, he refused to drive her until she had intercourse with him. Please, W., take me to the hospital, I begged as another contraction stormed across my body. Not until we have a screw, he insisted. -Diane Russell, RAPE IN MARRIAGE (1990) at 338.

22 22 Pregnancy as a Risk Factor Pregnancy places women at a high risk for both physical and sexual assaultPregnancy places women at a high risk for both physical and sexual assault Sexual assault often begins during pregnancy:Sexual assault often begins during pregnancy: It started right before the baby was born. When I was pregnant, the doctor said not to have relations, but he kept wanting it. I had hard pregnancies. -Delilah, quoted in Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE (1996) at 23 For women raped while pregnant there is the additional trauma of fearing for their unborn babies livesFor women raped while pregnant there is the additional trauma of fearing for their unborn babies lives

23 23 Offenders If a partner is controlling, abusive, and violent in the kitchen, the living room, and in public, why would he stop the abuse at the bedroom door? -Hon. Jeffrey Kremers, Chief Judge, First Judicial Administrative District, Milwaukee, WI

24 24 Offenders (contd) Perpetrators are often described as feeling a sense of entitlement to have sex with their "property Perpetrators are often described as feeling a sense of entitlement to have sex with their "property I remember one time he [her husband] told the judge, That's my wife, you can't tell me what to do with her. -Quoted in Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE: UNDERSTANDING THE RESPONSE OF VICTIMS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS (1996).

25 25 Offenders (contd) Intimate partner sexual abuse as punishment : Intimate partner sexual abuse as punishment : "Several of the women in my sample believe that the sexual abuse was their partners' attempt to punish either their loved ones or the women themselves." -Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE: UNDERSTANDING THE RESPONSE OF VICTIMS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS (1996).

26 26 Statistics on Prevalence Study of Men in a Batterers Intervention Program in a Northeastern City* 229 diverse men Men completed a questionnaire that included specific behaviorally-based questions 53% answered yes to questions about conduct that met the legal definition of rape or sexual assault in the programs state *Raquel Kennedy Bergen & Paul Bukovec, Men and Intimate Partner Rape: Characteristics of Men who Sexually Abuse Their Partner, Vol. 10 JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE 1375 (2006)

27 27 Study of Men in a Batterers Intervention Program in a Northeastern City (contd): 7% had threatened physical harm if their partner did not have sex 7% had threatened physical harm if their partner did not have sex 14% had used physical force to compel their partner to have sex against her will 14% had used physical force to compel their partner to have sex against her will Among husband rapists the figure was 28% Among husband rapists the figure was 28%

28 28 17% had sex with their partner when she was unable to consent (e.g., asleep) 17% had sex with their partner when she was unable to consent (e.g., asleep) 6% forced their partner to view pornography 6% forced their partner to view pornography 4% forced their partner to enact pornography 4% forced their partner to enact pornography 40% pressured their partner emotionally to have sex against her will 40% pressured their partner emotionally to have sex against her will Study of Men in a Batterers Intervention Program in a Northeastern City (contd):

29 29 Study of Men in a Batterers Intervention Program in a Northeastern City (contd): Some men used weapons Some men used weapons Some men forced their partner to have sex with other people, animals or objects Some men forced their partner to have sex with other people, animals or objects Many men engaged in several forms of sexual abuse and assault Many men engaged in several forms of sexual abuse and assault

30 30 15% of the entire sample and 25% of the husband rapists said they frequently forced their partner to have sex after a fight, using sex as a way to repossess women after a confrontation or to illogically try to make things better. 15% of the entire sample and 25% of the husband rapists said they frequently forced their partner to have sex after a fight, using sex as a way to repossess women after a confrontation or to illogically try to make things better. Study of Men in a Batterers Intervention Program in a Northeastern City (contd):

31 31 Study of Men in a Batterers Intervention Program in a Northeastern City (contd): Even though 53% of these men admitted to at least once engaging in behavior constituting intimate partner sexual assault, only 8% answered yes to the question that put a label on their conduct: Have you ever sexually abused your partner. Even though 53% of these men admitted to at least once engaging in behavior constituting intimate partner sexual assault, only 8% answered yes to the question that put a label on their conduct: Have you ever sexually abused your partner.

32 32 Assessment and Treatment of Offenders Assessments of batterers often fail to assess for intimate partner sexual abuse Assessments of batterers often fail to assess for intimate partner sexual abuse Many batterer intervention programs do not address intimate partner sexual abuse Many batterer intervention programs do not address intimate partner sexual abuse Many sex offender treatment programs do not address sexual abuse in the domestic violence context Many sex offender treatment programs do not address sexual abuse in the domestic violence context

33 33 Studies of Physically Abused Women Houston Study* A diverse group of 148 physically abused women seeking orders of protectionA diverse group of 148 physically abused women seeking orders of protection Researchers used a conservative definition of sexual abuse and asked only behaviorally-based questions Researchers used a conservative definition of sexual abuse and asked only behaviorally-based questions The five questions were: The five questions were: *Judith McFarlane & Ann Malecha, Intimate Partner Sexual Assault Against Women: Frequency, Health Consequences, and Treatment Outcome, Vol. 105 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNECOLOGISTS 99 (2005)

34 34 During your relationship, did (name of abuser) Make you have sexual intercourse against your will?Make you have sexual intercourse against your will? Physically force you to have sex?Physically force you to have sex? Make you have oral sex against your will?Make you have oral sex against your will? Make you have anal sex against your will?Make you have anal sex against your will? Use an object on you in a sexual way?Use an object on you in a sexual way? Houston Study (contd):

35 35 Houston Study (contd): Results: 68% of the 148 women reported sexual abuse in addition to physical violence68% of the 148 women reported sexual abuse in addition to physical violence 15% attributed sexually-transmitted infections to the sexual abuse15% attributed sexually-transmitted infections to the sexual abuse 20% had a rape-related pregnancy20% had a rape-related pregnancy

36 36 Houston Study (contd): High levels of posttraumatic stress disorderHigh levels of posttraumatic stress disorder Sexual assault is experienced by most physically abused women and associated with significantly higher levels of PTSD compared with women physically abused only.Sexual assault is experienced by most physically abused women and associated with significantly higher levels of PTSD compared with women physically abused only.

37 37 Midwest Study* Study of 159 abused women in a midwestern cityStudy of 159 abused women in a midwestern city 45.9% reported sexual assault as well as physical violence45.9% reported sexual assault as well as physical violence * Jacquelyn C. Campbell & Karen L. Soeken, Forced Sex and Intimate Partner Violence, Vol. 5 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 1017 (1999)

38 38 Duluth, Minnesota Study* In a study of female partners of men in the Duluth, MN batterers programs, 70% had been sexually as well as physically abused In a study of female partners of men in the Duluth, MN batterers programs, 70% had been sexually as well as physically abused *Domestic Abuse Intervention Project of Duluth, Minnesota

39 39 Who Are the Victims? "Any woman is a possible object of violence. What differs is not the woman, but the man. If the man is sexually abusive, he will victimize any woman with whom he lives or has lived." - Walter S. DeKeseredy & McKenzie Rogness, Separation/Divorce Sexual Assault: The Current State of Social Scientific Knowledge, 9 AGGRESSION AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR 675 (2004)

40 40 Who are the Victims? (contd) Vast majority of victims are women Vast majority of victims are women African-American women are subjected to marital rape slightly more than white, Latina or Asian women African-American women are subjected to marital rape slightly more than white, Latina or Asian women Marital rape occurs at the same frequency regardless of economic class or urban or rural setting Marital rape occurs at the same frequency regardless of economic class or urban or rural setting

41 41 Who are the Victims? (contd) Same-Sex Couples: Same-Sex Couples: In a study of people who identify as GLBTQQI, 52% reported at least one incident of sexual coercion by their same-sex partner*In a study of people who identify as GLBTQQI, 52% reported at least one incident of sexual coercion by their same-sex partner* Victims of Teen Dating Violence: Victims of Teen Dating Violence: Report the same rates of co-occuring physical and sexual violence as adult victimsReport the same rates of co-occuring physical and sexual violence as adult victims Children: Children: May witness or be forced to take part in violent actsMay witness or be forced to take part in violent acts *Kim Fountain & Avy Skolnik, National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN THE UNITED STATES IN 2006: A REPORT OF THE NATIONAL COALITION OF ANTI-VIOLENCE PROGRAMS 46 (2006).

42 42 Victim Impact What is the biggest myth about marital rape?

43 43 Victim Impact: Psychological "When you're raped by a stranger, you have to live with a frightening nightmare. When you're raped by your husband, you have to live with your rapist." - David Finkelhor & Kristi Yllo, LICENSE TO RAPE: SEXUAL ABUSE OF WIVES (1985)

44 44 Victim Impact: Psychological (contd) Courts in many states continue to set higher standards of proof in sexual assault cases involving husbands or partners than when strangers are charged…[But marital rape] should be treated…more severely than similar crimes committed by strangers... The level of unfreedom, subordination, dependence, and betrayal associated with marital rape has no counterpart in public life. -Evan Stark, COERCIVE CONTROL: HOW MEN ENTRAP WOMEN IN PERSONAL LIFE (2007)

45 45 Victim Impact: Psychological (contd) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Flashbacks, hypervigilance, difficulty eating and sleeping, nightmares, loss of trust, intense fear and suicidal thoughts are all common reactions among victims of marital rape Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Flashbacks, hypervigilance, difficulty eating and sleeping, nightmares, loss of trust, intense fear and suicidal thoughts are all common reactions among victims of marital rape Revictimized Victims: Intimate partner sexual abuse victims who were raped as children or adolescents suffer especially severe emotional consequences Revictimized Victims: Intimate partner sexual abuse victims who were raped as children or adolescents suffer especially severe emotional consequences

46 46 Victim Impact: Physical Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs) Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs) Pregnancy Pregnancy Bruising, broken bones, burns, internal injuries Bruising, broken bones, burns, internal injuries Long-lasting physical consequences because of repeated assaults, including internal injuries and chronic pain Long-lasting physical consequences because of repeated assaults, including internal injuries and chronic pain

47 47 Repeated Sexual Assaults are Typical The National Institute of Justice found that just over half of women raped by an intimate partner said they were victimized repeatedly by that partnerThe National Institute of Justice found that just over half of women raped by an intimate partner said they were victimized repeatedly by that partner The average was 4.5 rapes by the same partnerThe average was 4.5 rapes by the same partner Individuals have reported 20 and more rapes by the same partnerIndividuals have reported 20 and more rapes by the same partner

48 48 Risk Assessment Related to Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse Assessing likelihood of continued and escalating physical and sexual violence Assessing likelihood of continued and escalating physical and sexual violence Assessing possible lethality Assessing possible lethality Assessing risks to children when making custody and visitation decisions Assessing risks to children when making custody and visitation decisions

49 49 Risk Assessment - Lethality Risk assessment in domestic violence cases is traditionally thought of as assessing the risk that a batterer will kill his victim Risk assessment in domestic violence cases is traditionally thought of as assessing the risk that a batterer will kill his victim There are actually six types of risk to be assessed: There are actually six types of risk to be assessed:

50 50 Six Types of Potential Lethality Femicide: Will the abuser kill his victim? Femicide: Will the abuser kill his victim? Child Murder: Will the abuser kill the couple's children? Child Murder: Will the abuser kill the couple's children? Third Party Lethality: Will the abuser kill a third party? Third Party Lethality: Will the abuser kill a third party? Suicide: Will the victim kill herself? Suicide: Will the victim kill herself? Suicide: Will the abuser kill himself? Suicide: Will the abuser kill himself? Will the victim kill the abuser? Will the victim kill the abuser?

51 51 Risk Assessment – Lethality (contd) 1. Femicide On average each day in the U.S. more than three women are murdered by their current or former husbands or boyfriendsOn average each day in the U.S. more than three women are murdered by their current or former husbands or boyfriends Research documents that sexual assault in an intimate partner relationship is a leading indicator of potential lethalityResearch documents that sexual assault in an intimate partner relationship is a leading indicator of potential lethality 11-city study of actual and attempted domestic violence femicides found that in 57% of these cases there was intimate partner sexual assault*11-city study of actual and attempted domestic violence femicides found that in 57% of these cases there was intimate partner sexual assault* *Jacquelyn Campbell, et al, Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results from a Multisite Case Control Study, 93 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH 1089 (2003)

52 52 Femicide (contd) According to Professor Jacquelyn Campbell of Johns Hopkins University, a leading researcher on intimate partner violence risk assessment, a physically-abused woman also being subjected to forced sex is over seven times more likely than other abused women to be killed* According to Professor Jacquelyn Campbell of Johns Hopkins University, a leading researcher on intimate partner violence risk assessment, a physically-abused woman also being subjected to forced sex is over seven times more likely than other abused women to be killed* *Jacquelyn Campbell, Assessing Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicides, Vol. 250 NIJ Journal 15 (2003) Assessing Risk Factors for Intimate Partner HomicidesAssessing Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicides

53 53 Femicide (contd) In the Houston study cited previously in which 68% of the women were being both physically and sexually abused, the sexually-abused women reported more of the risk factors for femicide, such as strangulation and threats to children, than did those being subjected to physical abuse only* In the Houston study cited previously in which 68% of the women were being both physically and sexually abused, the sexually-abused women reported more of the risk factors for femicide, such as strangulation and threats to children, than did those being subjected to physical abuse only* *Judith McFarlane & Ann Malecha, Intimate Partner Sexual Assault Against Women: Frequency, Health Consequences, and Treatment Outcome, 105 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNECOLOGISTS 99 (2005)

54 54 2. Child Murder Newspapers frequently report incidents of men murdering their children in the context of killing the mother or as punishment for their mothers attempt to leave the abusive relationshipNewspapers frequently report incidents of men murdering their children in the context of killing the mother or as punishment for their mothers attempt to leave the abusive relationship

55 55 2. Child Murder (contd) Any situation that heightens the risk of lethality for the mother heightens the risk of lethality for her children. In such instances there are few source materials apart from newspaper accounts because few of these cases will come to court. Any situation that heightens the risk of lethality for the mother heightens the risk of lethality for her children. In such instances there are few source materials apart from newspaper accounts because few of these cases will come to court. Examples from 2009:Examples from 2009: New York man killed his wife and two daughters before killing himself in April* New York man killed his wife and two daughters before killing himself in April* Florida man murdered his wife and five children under the age of ten in September*** Florida man murdered his wife and five children under the age of ten in September*** California man killed his two children and himself in September**** California man killed his two children and himself in September**** *Hotel Dead Were NY Family in Murder-Suicide, WASHINGTON POST, April 22, 2009, dyn/content/article/2009/04/21/AR html. dyn/content/article/2009/04/21/AR htmlhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2009/04/21/AR html **Eric Barajas, Friends Speak on Alleged Killer, ABC 13 HOUSTON, June 16, 2009, ****Catherine Salliant, In Thousand Oaks, A Father Does the Unthinkable, L.A. TIMES, September 18, 2009,

56 56 3. Third Party Lethality Newspapers frequently report instances of abusers, in the course of trying to kill their wives/partners, killing third parties: relatives of the woman trying to leave, individuals coming to her aid, bystanders or court personnelNewspapers frequently report instances of abusers, in the course of trying to kill their wives/partners, killing third parties: relatives of the woman trying to leave, individuals coming to her aid, bystanders or court personnel Example: North Carolina Man Kills his Daughter and Two Others When his Wife Decides to End Thirty Years of Abuse (The News & Observer, Raleigh, NC 8/23/06). Example: North Carolina Man Kills his Daughter and Two Others When his Wife Decides to End Thirty Years of Abuse (The News & Observer, Raleigh, NC 8/23/06).

57 57 4. Suicide: Will the Victim Kill Herself? Sexual violence in intimate partner relationships is more psychologically damaging to victims than physical violence aloneSexual violence in intimate partner relationships is more psychologically damaging to victims than physical violence alone In one study, 22% of sexually assaulted battered women reported suicide threats or attempts within 90 days of applying for a protection order*In one study, 22% of sexually assaulted battered women reported suicide threats or attempts within 90 days of applying for a protection order* In another study more than half the women said they considered or attempted suicide at some point**In another study more than half the women said they considered or attempted suicide at some point** *Judith McFarlane & Ann Malecha, National Institute of Justice, Sexual Assault Among Intimates: Frequency, Consequences and Treatments (October 2005) **Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE: UNDERSTANDING THE RESPONSE OF SURVIVORS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS (1996)

58 58 5. Suicide: Will the Abuser Kill Himself? According to the National Institute of Justice, it is commonplace for abusers to perpetrate murder/suicide in which they first kill the woman trying to escape them and then themselves According to the National Institute of Justice, it is commonplace for abusers to perpetrate murder/suicide in which they first kill the woman trying to escape them and then themselves 30 % of femicides are murder-suicides* 30 % of femicides are murder-suicides* *National Institute of Justice, Intimate Partner Homicide, Vol. Issue #250 National Institute of Justice Journal (2003)

59 59 The first major study of battered women who kill their abusers found that three- quarters reported having been raped at least once by their abusers*The first major study of battered women who kill their abusers found that three- quarters reported having been raped at least once by their abusers* In a study of 40 victims of intimate partner sexual assault more than 50% had thoughts of killing their abusers.**In a study of 40 victims of intimate partner sexual assault more than 50% had thoughts of killing their abusers.** *Angela Browne, WHEN BATTERED WOMEN KILL (1987) **Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE: UNDERSTANDING THE RESPONSE OF SURVIVORS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS (1996) 6. Will the Victim Kill the Batterer?

60 60 Any time I would try to leave him, the beatings or the rape would come, he would threaten my family and friends and my silence was bought once again. Any time I would try to leave him, the beatings or the rape would come, he would threaten my family and friends and my silence was bought once again. -Excerpt from Aphrodite Wounded, a support website for survivors of marital and partner rape, Froggies Story, -Excerpt from Aphrodite Wounded, a support website for survivors of marital and partner rape, Froggies Story, Violence Often Escalates When Women Try to Leave

61 61 Violence Often Escalates When Women Try to Leave (contd) Marital rape victim testified her husband told her the only way to get out of our marriage…is through death and I would have to die. -Jones v. State, 74 S.W. 3d 663, 667 (Ark. 2002)

62 62 Widespread but mistaken belief that if women in abusive relationships would just leave, the violence would end Widespread but mistaken belief that if women in abusive relationships would just leave, the violence would end Battered women often stay with their abusers because they are terrified by the escalation in violence whenever they try to escape Battered women often stay with their abusers because they are terrified by the escalation in violence whenever they try to escape Violence Often Escalates When Women Try to Leave (contd)

63 63 Violence Often Escalates When Women Try to Leave (contd) Leaving is the most dangerous time for a battered woman because the batterer is outraged that he is losing control over her Leaving is the most dangerous time for a battered woman because the batterer is outraged that he is losing control over her Most of the worst physical and sexual violence and most murders occur at or after separation Most of the worst physical and sexual violence and most murders occur at or after separation

64 64 Separation Sexual Assault An impending separation or divorce often prompts renewed or first-time intimate partner sexual abuse An impending separation or divorce often prompts renewed or first-time intimate partner sexual abuse One researcher found that 20% of the women in her sample were raped during or after their separation* One researcher found that 20% of the women in her sample were raped during or after their separation* A 2000 National Institute of Justice survey found that 24.7% of women raped by a former spouse or cohabiting partner said they were raped before and after the relationship ended** A 2000 National Institute of Justice survey found that 24.7% of women raped by a former spouse or cohabiting partner said they were raped before and after the relationship ended** * * Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE: UNDERSTANDING THE RESPONSE OF SURVIVORS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS (1996) **Patricia Tjaden & Nancy Thoennes, U.S. Department of Justice, EXTENT, NATURE, AND CONSEQUENCES OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE: FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN SURVEY, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE (2000)

65 65 Risk Assessment (contd) Intimate Partner Sexual Assault Presages Lethality Sexual assault co-occurring with physical abuse heightens the risk of escalating violence, femicide, child murder and victim suicide when the victim tries to leave the relationshipSexual assault co-occurring with physical abuse heightens the risk of escalating violence, femicide, child murder and victim suicide when the victim tries to leave the relationship It is essential to know whether there is sexual violence in an abusive relationship in order to undertake informed risk assessment, provide appropriate services for victims and intervene appropriately with offendersIt is essential to know whether there is sexual violence in an abusive relationship in order to undertake informed risk assessment, provide appropriate services for victims and intervene appropriately with offenders

66 66 Risk Assessment: Custody and Visitation Implications "[A] history of sexual assaults against the mother…[is] linked to increased risk of sexual abuse of the children and increased physical danger." -Lundy Bancroft, "Assessment of Risk to Children from Visitation with a Batterer," UNDERSTANDING THE BATTERER IN CUSTODY AND VISITATION DISPUTES (1998).

67 67 Risk Assessment: Custody and Visitation Implications (contd) "[T]he sexual abuse of a parent has been seriously neglected – despite its potentially severe traumatic impact on children and association with greater risk to the safety and well-being of children and adult victims." -Kathryn Ford, Childrens Exposure to Intimate Partner Sexual Assault, 3 SEXUAL ASSAULT REPORT 15 (2007).

68 68 Risk Assessment: Custody and Visitation Implications (contd) Vast research documents that children living in homes where there is domestic violence suffer serous physical and psychological harm Vast research documents that children living in homes where there is domestic violence suffer serous physical and psychological harm Batterers are more likely than other fathers to seek custody, manipulate the court system to control their partners, and yet be awarded custody Batterers are more likely than other fathers to seek custody, manipulate the court system to control their partners, and yet be awarded custody Intimate partner sexual abuse in the parental relationship heightens all risks to children Intimate partner sexual abuse in the parental relationship heightens all risks to children

69 69 Risk Assessment: Custody and Visitation Implications (contd) Children themselves may be witnesses to or involved in a forced sex act. Study: Study: 115 women in a domestic violence shelter115 women in a domestic violence shelter All raped by their male partnersAll raped by their male partners 18% reported children had witnessed at least one sexual assault18% reported children had witnessed at least one sexual assault 5.2% reported partner involved children in a forced sex act*5.2% reported partner involved children in a forced sex act* *Jacquelyn Campbell & Peggy Alford, The Dark Consequences of Marital Rape, 89 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING, 947 (1989).

70 70 Barriers to Reporting Fear of the abuser Fear of the abuser Overwhelming trauma Overwhelming trauma Shame Shame Denial Denial Credibility concerns Credibility concerns Ignorance of the law Ignorance of the law

71 71 Barriers to Reporting (contd) Legal Issues The elimination of the marital rape exemption is far from complete. While no state now has a complete marital rape exemption, some states still permit some degree of marital immunity, such as very short reporting periods and minimal sentences. The elimination of the marital rape exemption is far from complete. While no state now has a complete marital rape exemption, some states still permit some degree of marital immunity, such as very short reporting periods and minimal sentences.

72 72 Barriers to Reporting (contd) Religious Constraints: Some religious sects persist in the view that a man has absolute right of access to his wifes body Religious Constraints: Some religious sects persist in the view that a man has absolute right of access to his wifes body Religious leaders may pressure abused women to stay in abusive relationships.Religious leaders may pressure abused women to stay in abusive relationships.

73 73 Religious Constraints (contd) "Being Catholic, I talked to a priest who said I should go back if he [her husband] says he's sorry…You feel compelled to keep the marriage together, and yet his behavior really dissolves [sic] you of that responsibility because he raped you. -Quoted in Raquel Kennedy Bergen, WIFE RAPE (1996).

74 74 Religious Constraints (contd) Violence in marriage is generally condemned, but when it does happen, the religious community offers no clear consequences for the abuse. Furthermore, the Islamic religious community tends to condemn any woman who seeks legal protection from an abusive spouse. Her actions are considered disloyal to the husband and the family." - Ruksana Ayyub, Many Faces of Domestic Violence ed: Shamita Das Dasgupta, Body Evidence: Intimate Violence Against South Asian Women in America (2007)

75 75 Barriers to Reporting: Racial and Cultural Issues "Issues of race and culture can impact the victim's decision because she may be more worried about how the police will treat a man of color than she is about her safety. Victims of color report being forced to choose between gender and race in deciding whether to use the criminal justice system for relief. Most feel that their survival dictates siding with race... -Professor Sarah Buel, Fifty Obstacles to Leaving, a.k.a. Why Victims Stay, THE COLORADO LAWYER 19 (October 1999)

76 76 Issues for Immigrants Many immigrant populations in the U.S. retain the cultural and religious practices of their homelands. Because of strong gender role ideologies, marital rape may be more acceptable in other world cultures. Many immigrant populations in the U.S. retain the cultural and religious practices of their homelands. Because of strong gender role ideologies, marital rape may be more acceptable in other world cultures. Language barriers and problems with interpreters Language barriers and problems with interpreters

77 77 Issues for Immigrants (contd) Deportation Concerns Rape is a deportable "crime of domestic violence," a "crime involving moral turpitude" and an "aggravated felony" under the Immigration and Naturalization Act of Rape is a deportable "crime of domestic violence," a "crime involving moral turpitude" and an "aggravated felony" under the Immigration and Naturalization Act of Immigrant victims of intimate partner sexual abuse often fear that they must choose between staying in abusive relationships or losing their legal immigration status if they leave their partners.Immigrant victims of intimate partner sexual abuse often fear that they must choose between staying in abusive relationships or losing their legal immigration status if they leave their partners.

78 78 Barriers to Reporting (contd): Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Concerns Services are based on a heterosexual conception of relationship violence and traditional gender roles Services are based on a heterosexual conception of relationship violence and traditional gender roles Concerns about homophobia Concerns about homophobia Not wanting to promote negative stereotypes Not wanting to promote negative stereotypes Fear of not being believed Fear of not being believed

79 79 Barriers to Reporting (contd): Inadequacy of Victim Services Sexual assault and domestic violence victim service agencies often view themselves as serving distinct populations Sexual assault and domestic violence victim service agencies often view themselves as serving distinct populations Few shelters and rape crisis centers provide specific training on marital rape and intimate partner sexual abuse to advocates and volunteers Few shelters and rape crisis centers provide specific training on marital rape and intimate partner sexual abuse to advocates and volunteers

80 80 Inadequacy of Victim Services (contd) 2005 study of battered womens shelters*: 2005 study of battered womens shelters*: Only 31% of battered womens shelters and 49% of rape crisis centers provide training on marital rapeOnly 31% of battered womens shelters and 49% of rape crisis centers provide training on marital rape Only 55% of battered womens shelters and rape crisis centers ask about victims experiences with intimate partner sexual abuseOnly 55% of battered womens shelters and rape crisis centers ask about victims experiences with intimate partner sexual abuse *Raquel Kennedy Bergen & Elizabeth Barnhill, Marital Rape: New Research and Directions, VAWnet (2006).

81 81 Inadequacy of Justice System Lack of training for law enforcement, prosecutors, judges and court personnel on intimate partner sexual abuse, e.g., prevalence, impact, and implications for risk assessment Lack of training for law enforcement, prosecutors, judges and court personnel on intimate partner sexual abuse, e.g., prevalence, impact, and implications for risk assessment Hostile environment discourages disclosure Hostile environment discourages disclosure

82 82 Recommendations Urge state lawmakers to repeal the remaining marital rape exemptions Urge state lawmakers to repeal the remaining marital rape exemptions Write to media professionals who mistakenly use the language of consensual sex to describe sexual assault Write to media professionals who mistakenly use the language of consensual sex to describe sexual assault A Nevada judge created a guide for the media re how to cover domestic violence casesA Nevada judge created a guide for the media re how to cover domestic violence cases

83 83 Recommendations (contd) Victim Services Agencies: Increase cross-training opportunities between organizations that serve battered women and those that serve rape victims Increase cross-training opportunities between organizations that serve battered women and those that serve rape victims Ensure that intake forms and risk assessment instruments used with domestic violence victims include behaviorally-based questions about intimate partner sexual abuse Ensure that intake forms and risk assessment instruments used with domestic violence victims include behaviorally-based questions about intimate partner sexual abuse

84 84 Recommendations (contd) Justice System Employees and Judges: Education programs for court personnel and judges who handle domestic violence cases should ensure that all are aware of: Education programs for court personnel and judges who handle domestic violence cases should ensure that all are aware of: The high incidence of intimate partner sexual abuse in the context of domestic violence;The high incidence of intimate partner sexual abuse in the context of domestic violence; the many forms intimate partner sexual abuse can take;the many forms intimate partner sexual abuse can take; the implications for victim trauma;the implications for victim trauma; the implications for risk assessment;the implications for risk assessment; the services victims need;the services victims need; the interventions necessary with offenders.the interventions necessary with offenders.

85 85 Recommendations (contd) Justice System Employees and Judges (contd): Create a court environment in which victims perceive they will be respected if they disclose intimate partner sexual abuseCreate a court environment in which victims perceive they will be respected if they disclose intimate partner sexual abuse Ensure that court intake forms and risk assessment instruments used with domestic violence victims include behaviorally-based questions about intimate partner sexual abuseEnsure that court intake forms and risk assessment instruments used with domestic violence victims include behaviorally-based questions about intimate partner sexual abuse Maintain a secure waiting area for victims in the courthouse outside of the courtroomMaintain a secure waiting area for victims in the courthouse outside of the courtroom Use behaviorally-based questions to ask domestic violence victims about intimate partner sexual abuseUse behaviorally-based questions to ask domestic violence victims about intimate partner sexual abuse

86 86 Recommendations (contd) Use creative methods to secure all information necessary to make informed pretrial release and dispositional orders and to enhance victim safety: Use creative methods to secure all information necessary to make informed pretrial release and dispositional orders and to enhance victim safety: As a judge, when I assess lethality, my assessment is only as effective as the information that I receive…And my orders are only as good as the information that I receive. -Judge Janice Martin, Jefferson District Court, Kentucky

87 87 Recommendations (contd) Justice System Employees and Judges (contd): Allow a thorough voir dire to identify and excuse jurors who cannot deliberate fairly in a case involving marital rape or intimate partner sexual abuse.Allow a thorough voir dire to identify and excuse jurors who cannot deliberate fairly in a case involving marital rape or intimate partner sexual abuse. Admit expert testimony when neededAdmit expert testimony when needed Work with Department of Corrections and Probation and Parole to ensure that treatment programs in prison and in the community address the intersection of sexual abuse, physical violence and coercion and controlWork with Department of Corrections and Probation and Parole to ensure that treatment programs in prison and in the community address the intersection of sexual abuse, physical violence and coercion and control

88 88 This presentation is based on the National Judicial Education Programs Web course and resource Intimate Partner Sexual Abuse: Adjudicating This Hidden Dimension of Domestic Violence Registration is free and open to all


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