2 What is physics? The study of matter and energy and… The interactions between the two…Through forces and motionTopics in physicsMotion, forces, work, power,machines, energy, waves, heat,light, sound, optics, electricity,magnetism and more…
3 Frame of ReferenceMotion of an object in relation to a fixed body or place.To describe motion accurately and completelyTHE MOST COMMON FRAME OF REFERENCE: The Earth
4 Relative Motion Is the movement in relation to a frame of reference Example:A train going past a platform (see movement)People riding the train feelno movement
5 Distance Length of a path between two points How far, long, wide, etc Metric units for distance – meter, kilometer, centimeter, etc.Units should match the distance – longer units for longer distances, shorter units for shorter distances
6 Measuring Displacement the direction from the starting point and the length of a straight line from the starting point to the ending pointInvolves distance and direction
7 Combining Displacement Vector—is a quantity that has magnitude and directionAdd displacements using vector additionIf vectors are in the same directions, add themEx:10 meters meters = metersIf vectors are in the opposite direction, subtract them20 meters meters = 5 metersResultant vector—the vector sum of two or more vectors
8 Steps in solving word problems 1. READ the problem carefully. 2 Steps in solving word problems 1. READ the problem carefully. 2. Choose the correct FORMULA and write it down. 3. Identify INFORMATION given in the problem. Determine the VARIABLE, what you are looking for 4. Substitute the known INFORMATION into the formula. 5. SOLVE the equation for the variable. 6. Give the answer including NUMBER and appropriate UNITS.
9 v Speed Rate of Motion: Change of position in a given amount of time. Formula:Speed = Distance/timeUnits: km/h, m/sv = speed v = average speedd = distance t = timedv = tvvvvDelta T diagram
10 Speed Average Speed Is computed for the entire duration of a trip Instantaneous SpeedIs the rate at which an object is moving at a given moment of timeSpeed right now
11 Speed Practice Problems How long does it take a bird to fly 300km if it travels at a speed of 50 km/h?
12 2. Alex rode his bicycle 60 kilometers in 4 hours 2. Alex rode his bicycle 60 kilometers in 4 hours. How fast was he going?
13 3. Joe can pitch a baseball 32 m/s and the ball crosses the plate in 1 3. Joe can pitch a baseball 32 m/s and the ball crosses the plate in 1.5 seconds. How far away is the plate?
14 4. Kayla runs 90 meters with a speed of 15 m/s. How long did it take?
15 Velocity Velocity= Speed in a given direction. Velocity is a vector You combine velocities the same way you combine displacementSame direction, add themOpposite direction, subtract them
16 VelocityFormulaV=Δd/ΔtV=velocityd=distancet=timeUnits: m/s
17 Graphs of Speed and Velocity Constant SpeedNot MovingConstant speed and then not moving
18 Acceleration Rate of change in velocity. Acceleration is a vector Formula: a = vf – vi or Δvt tUnit: m/s2Variables need to solve acceleration problems2 VelocitiesTime
19 Deceleration Negative Acceleration Solve it just like the acceleration problem but the answer is alwaysNEGATIVETom sees a stop sign. He notices his speedometer is on 50 km/h, applies the brakes, and comes to a full stop in 10 seconds. What is his average acceleration in km/h/s?a = vf – vi or Δvt ta = ? vf = 0 km/h vi = 50 km/h t = 10 sa = 0 km/h – 50 km/h10 s= -50 km/h = -5 km/h/s10 s
20 Acceleration/ Deceleration Problems A car starts from rest and goes to 20 m/s in 4 seconds. What is the car’s acceleration?
21 2. A runner starts to run and reaches a velocity of 100 m/s in 25 seconds? What is the car’s acceleration?
22 3. A train slows down from 200 m/s to a stop in 50 seconds 3. A train slows down from 200 m/s to a stop in 50 seconds. What is the car’s deceleration?
23 4. A train has an acceleration of 40 m/s2 during a period of 15 seconds. What is the train’s velocity?
24 Graphs of Acceleration DecelerationConstant Acceleration
25 Centripetal Forces Center Seeking Centripetal Force is a force that pulls an object towards the center.Center Seeking
26 Constant Speed and Circular Motion An object moving in a circular motion may have constant Speed even though it is accelerating.Why?