Print-Only Journals 942 journals still not available online 75% (approx.) – no full-text content available 25% (approx.) – full-text is available How has usage of these journals been affected by online availability of other journals?
Least-Effort Principle Zipf, 1949: ease of access ranks high in source selection Research in 1960s supported principle Continues today The relevant literature overwhelmingly favors accessibility as the single important (variable) determinant of use. Pinelli, et al. 1993. 2001. Hertzum, Morten. The importance of trust in software engineers assessment and choice of information soruces. Information and Organization, vol. 12(1):1-18.
Methodology Two groups of journals examined: Print-only (PO): titles not available online Print and Electronic (PE): titles available in both electronic and print formats Measurements taken: Journal Usage Survey: local use of print journals Impact Factors: global use affected by citations
Journal Usage Survey Measures print usage All loose issues and bound volumes are scanned into ILS system prior to being re- shelved. In use since 1995.
Expected:Found: total use decrease steadily decreased, then increased difference increase decreased, then increased
Impact Factor Measure citation rates of journals: # of citations in 2000 to articles published in 1998 and 1999 # of articles published in 1998-1999 Controversial Accepted objective standard of the importance of a journal in science
Impact Factors as measurements of usage Assumption: most, if not all, articles cited have been read by the author. Local usage vs. impact factor – not closely related Impact Factors vary year-to-year.
Expected:Found: Increase in area of difference Increase was not significant
Conclusions It is too early to tell. Variations or trends? Need more in-depth statistical analysis Need more time Need cleaner data
Future Studies Usage of electronic versus print formats Who? Why? When? How? Where? Measurements of electronic usage Impact Factors as a measure of global usage