Presentation on theme: "Using an iTouch to Increase Sight Word Accuracy Mary Beth Pummel, William R. Jenson, Daniel Olympia, Lora Tuesday Heathfield, Kristi Hunziker Department."— Presentation transcript:
Using an iTouch to Increase Sight Word Accuracy Mary Beth Pummel, William R. Jenson, Daniel Olympia, Lora Tuesday Heathfield, Kristi Hunziker Department of Educational Psychology Abstract The current study utilized a time-delay taped-words intervention to increase sight word fluency of second grade students at risk for reading difficulties. An iTouch delivered the taped-words intervention at three different time-delays and provided participants with immediate and corrective feedback. Participants were encouraged to beat the iTouch by reading the list of words faster than the iTouch. Baseline and intervention data are reported based on percentage of words read correctly within two seconds, which demonstrates mastery. Review of the Literature Reading is an essential skill that students must acquire to be successful in school and beyond. Beginning readers rely on letter-by-letter decoding. Repeated association with a words pronunciation and visual representation leads the reader to process letter clusters and entire words as units that eventually become automatically recognized as sight words. Proficient reading requires decoding, fluency and comprehension (Rathvon, 2008). Fluency, the ability to accurately and quickly recognize frequently used words, is an important skill for early readers to accomplish and is critical for reading comprehension (The University of Texas, 2004; Shapiro, 2004.) To achieve success in fluency students must have repeated opportunities to practice while receiving corrective feedback (Shapiro, 2004; Nist & Joseph, 2008; Burns, VanDerHeyden, & Boice 2008). Research has consistently shown that time-delay taped-words procedures increase reading fluency and sight word recognition (e.g. Sterling, Robinson, & Skinner, 1997; Bliss, Skinner, & Adams, 2006; Belfiore, Skinner, & Ferkis, 1995). In addition, these procedures minimize student errors because correct feedback is immediately provided (Stevens & Schuster, 1999). However, time-delay taped-words research has primarily focused on the use of the intervention for students with learning disabilities, behavior disorders, and intellectual disability. It has neglected to research its utility with students who are at risk for learning deficits. Therefore, the current intervention is targeted towards students who are in need of academic support at the Tier 2 and Tier 3 levels of a response to intervention model. Furthermore, the use of an iTouch utilizes the most current technology to deliver the intervention efficiently and effectively. Method Participants Participants were recruited during the 2010-2011 school year from an elementary school in Utah. The entire second grade was screened using AIMSweb® oral reading fluency probes. General education students who scored in the bottom 25 th percentile were recruited to participate. Students who received permission to participate and who scored 50% or below on an initial list of 32 sight words were eligible to participate. Four students (3 boys) met criteria and participated in the study. Materials Sight words were obtained from the New Instant Word List (Fry, 1980). Three worksheets (A, B, C) were constructed for each of the 20 lists. The order of the words was randomized on each worksheet. An iTouch with prerecorded tracts was used to deliver the time-delay taped-words intervention. Each version (A, B, C) was recorded at one of three differing time-delays (1s, 4s, 2s). Dependent Measures Percentage of words correct served as the dependent variable. To be scored as correct the participant must have read the word aloud within the 2s time-delay before the word was presented by the iTouch. By reading the word aloud within 2s the participant demonstrated automaticity of the written word. Procedures Design The study was conducted in a multiple baseline design yoked across participants. During baseline, students were given a worksheet with 15 sight words and the number of correct responses was recorded. During each intervention session participants were given one list of words presented at three different time- delays. Participants were instructed to read the words aloud with the goal of reading the word before they heard it on the iTouch. Version A, presented with a 1s time-delay, was intended to prevent errors by providing the participant with the correct pronunciation of the word almost immediately. Version B, presented with a 4s time-delay, was intended to allow the subject more time to respond and promote independence. Lastly, the participant completed version C, presented at a 2s time-delay and intended to increase automaticity. Participants were required to demonstrate mastery by obtaining 80% accuracy on version C before continuing onto a new word list at the next intervention session. Data Collection and Analysis Participants collected their own data by marking responses on the corresponding worksheet. Although the intervention was self-administered, the experimenter was present at each session to ensure reliability of the data. Words read correctly were converted into percent correct and compared to the percent correct obtained at baseline. Prior to the start of the intervention and at the conclusion of the intervention participants were screened using oral reading fluency probes to assess the generalizability of results. Summary of Findings Summary of Results Time-delay taped-words interventions have been shown to effectively increase reading fluency and sight word recognition. The current study examined the effectiveness of using an iTouch to deliver the intervention to students who were at risk for reading difficulties. Second grade students (N=4) completed the intervention which consisted of baseline, intervention, and generalization data. During each intervention session, participants completed one list of words at each of three different time-delays. The iTouch provided immediate and corrective feedback by presenting the words at the corresponding time-delay. Percentage of words read correctly was recorded for each time-delay. Participants were required to demonstrate mastery on version C before continuing onto the next word list. Results indicated that all participants increased their sight word fluency from baseline to intervention. At baseline, Participant 1 scored an average of 51% of the words read correctly. Participant 1 obtained an average of 94% words read correctly during the intervention phase. Participant 2 scored an average of 40% correct during baseline. She scored an average of 81% words read correctly across the intervention phase. Participant 3 scored an average of 38% at baseline and an average of 56% words read correctly during the intervention. Participant 4 read 33% of words correctly at baseline and increased to 75% words read correctly at intervention. Participants 1, 2, and 4 increased their sight word fluency by 43%, 41%, and 42% respectively. Participant 3 increased his sight word fluency by 18%. Oral reading fluency probes were also administered at baseline and at the end of the intervention to show generalization across oral reading fluency measures. Results showed that all participants increased their oral reading fluency. This intervention used the most current technology to effectively and efficiently provide participants with immediate and corrective feedback. Results indicated the time-delay taped-problems intervention using an iTouch was effective at increasing participants sight word fluency. Moreover, increases generalized to other oral reading fluency probes. This suggests that the intervention may also be effective at increasing a subjects ability to read connected text and thus increase comprehension.